The Navya-Nyāya or Neo-Logical "darśana (view, system, or school) of "Indian logic and "Indian philosophy was founded in the 13th century "CE by the philosopher "Gangeśa Upādhyāya of "Mithila and continued by "Raghunatha Siromani. It was a development of the classical "Nyāya darśana. Other influences on Navya-Nyāya were the work of earlier philosophers "Vācaspati Miśra (900–980 CE) and "Udayana (late 10th century). It remained active in India through to the 18th century.
Gangeśa's book "Tattvacintāmaṇi ("Thought-Jewel of Reality") was written partly in response to Śrīharśa's Khandanakhandakhādya, a defence of "Advaita Vedānta, which had offered a set of thorough criticisms of Nyāya theories of thought and language. In his book, Gangeśa both addressed some of those criticisms and – more important – critically examined the Nyāya darśana himself. He held that, while Śrīharśa had failed to successfully challenge the Nyāya realist "ontology, his and Gangeśa's own criticisms brought out a need to improve and refine the logical and linguistic tools of Nyāya thought, to make them more rigorous and precise.
Tattvacintāmani dealt with all the important aspects of Indian philosophy, "logic, "set theory, and especially "epistemology, which Gangeśa examined rigorously, developing and improving the Nyāya scheme, and offering examples. The results, especially his analysis of "cognition, were taken up and used by other darśanas.
Navya-Nyāya developed a sophisticated language and conceptual scheme that allowed it to raise, analyse, and solve problems in logic and epistemology. It systematised all the Nyāya concepts into four main categories (sense-)perception (pratyakşa), inference (anumāna), comparison or similarity (upamāna), and testimony (sound or word; "śabda).
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