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See also: "List of gaming NFC platforms

NFC was used in "video games starting with "Skylanders: Spyro's Adventure.["citation needed] With it you buy figurines that are customizable and contain personal data with each figure, so no two figures are exactly alike. The "Wii U was the first system to include NFC technology out of the box via the "GamePad. It was later included in the "New Nintendo 3DS range. The "Amiibo range of accessories utilises NFC technology to unlock features.

Bluetooth comparison[edit]

Aspect NFC Bluetooth Bluetooth Low Energy
Tag requires power No Yes Yes
Cost of Tag US$0.10 US$5.00 US$5.00
"RFID compatible ISO 18000-3 Active Active
Standardisation body ISO/IEC Bluetooth SIG Bluetooth SIG
Network "standard ISO 13157 etc. IEEE 802.15.1 (no longer maintained) IEEE 802.15.1 (no longer maintained)
Network type Point-to-point WPAN WPAN
Cryptography Not with RFID Available Available
Range < 20 cm ~100 m (class 1) ~50 m
Frequency 13.56 MHz 2.4–2.5 GHz 2.4–2.5 GHz
Bit rate 424 kbit/s 2.1 Mbit/s 1 Mbit/s
Set-up time < 0.1 s < 6 s < 0.006 s
Current consumption < 15mA (read) Varies with class < 15 mA (read and transmit)

NFC and Bluetooth are both short-range communication technologies available on "mobile phones. NFC operates at slower speeds than Bluetooth, but consumes far less power and doesn't require pairing.[61]

NFC sets up more quickly than standard Bluetooth, but has a lower transfer rate than "Bluetooth low energy. With NFC, instead of performing manual configurations to identify devices, the connection between two NFC devices is automatically established in less than .1 second. The maximum data transfer rate of NFC (424 kbit/s) is slower than that of Bluetooth V2.1 (2.1 Mbit/s).

With a maximum working distance of less than 20 cm, NFC has a shorter range, which reduces the likelihood of unwanted interception. That makes NFC particularly suitable for crowded areas that complicate correlating a signal with its transmitting physical device (and by extension, its user).["citation needed]

NFC is compatible with existing passive RFID (13.56 MHz ISO/IEC 18000-3) infrastructures. NFC requires comparatively low power, similar to the Bluetooth V4.0 low energy protocol. When NFC works with an unpowered device (e.g. on a phone that may be turned off, a contactless smart credit card, a smart poster), however, the NFC power consumption is greater than that of Bluetooth V4.0 Low Energy, since illuminating the passive tag needs extra power.[61]

Devices[edit]

List of NFC-enabled mobile devices

In 2011, handset vendors released more than 40 NFC-enabled handsets with the "Android mobile operating system. The "iPhone 6 line is the first set of handsets from "Apple to support NFC.[62] "BlackBerry devices support NFC using BlackBerry Tag on devices running BlackBerry OS 7.0 and greater.[63]

"MasterCard added further NFC support for PayPass for the Android and BlackBerry platforms, enabling PayPass users to make payments using their Android or BlackBerry smartphones.[64] A partnership between "Samsung and "Visa added a '"payWave' application on the Galaxy S4 smartphone.[65]

"Microsoft added native NFC functionality in their "mobile OS with "Windows Phone 8, as well as the "Windows 8 operating system. Microsoft provides the "Wallet hub" in Windows Phone 8 for NFC payment, and can integrate multiple NFC payment services within a single application.[66]

Deployments[edit]

List of applications of near field communication

As of April 2011, hundreds of NFC trials had been conducted. Some firms moved to full-scale service deployments, spanning one or more countries. Multi-country deployments include "Orange's rollout of NFC technology to banks, retailers, transport, and service providers in multiple European countries,[67] and "Airtel Africa and "Oberthur Technologies deploying to 15 countries throughout Africa.[68]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  7. ^ a b "ISO/IEC 18092:2004 Information technology -- Telecommunications and information exchange between systems -- Near Field Communication -- Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1)". "ISO. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  8. ^ a b "GSMA NFC Standards". 
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  12. ^ "libnfc download page (current version)". Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
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  14. ^ Charles A. Walton "Portable radio frequency emitting identifier" U.S. Patent 4,384,288 issue date May 17, 1983.
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  32. ^ John Biggs, TechCrunch. “Swatch Is Teaming With Visa To Offer Payments From Your Wrist.” November 30, 2015
  33. ^ Chinavasion blog page. “Google Launches Android Pay App.”
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  35. ^ Patauner, C.; Witschnig, H.; Rinner, D.; Maire, A.; Merlin, E.; Leitgeb, E. (24 September 2007). High Speed RFID/NFC at the Frequency of 13.56 MHz (PDF). RFID 2007. Vienna, Austria. 
  36. ^ a b Haselsteiner, Ernst; Breitfuß, Klemens. "Security in near field communication (NFC)]" (PDF). 
  37. ^ Hancke, Gerhard P (July 2008). "Eavesdropping Attacks on High-Frequency RFID Tokens" (PDF). 4th Workshop on RFID Security (RFIDsec'08). 
  38. ^ Gerhard P. Hancke:A practical relay attack on ISO/IEC 14443 proximity cards, February 2005.
  39. ^ Timo Kasper et al. 2007
  40. ^ Gerhard P. Hancke, et al.:Confidence in Smart Token Proximity: Relay Attacks Revisited
  41. ^ Lishoy Francis, et al.:Practical Relay Attack on Contactless Transactions by Using NFC Mobile Phones
  42. ^ Ecma International: Standard ECMA-340, Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1), December 2004
  43. ^ Ecma International: Standard ECMA-352, Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol–2 (NFCIP-2), December 2003
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  45. ^ Electronista Article: New NFC spec lets two phones swap messages, October 2011
  46. ^ a b World's leading mobile operators announce commitment to NFC technology, GSMA press release, corporate website, February 21, 2011 .[1]
  47. ^ GSM Association Aims For Global Point Of Sale Purchases by Mobile Phone, GSM Association, 13 February 2007
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  50. ^ "Page Not Found". 
  51. ^ "Trusted Services Manager" (PDF). 
  52. ^ "secure element" (PDF). 
  53. ^ "HCE Deployment". 
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