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Nelson A. Miles
""Nelson A. Miles by Brands Studios, 1898.jpg
Nelson A. Miles
Birth name Nelson Appleton Miles
Born (1839-08-08)August 8, 1839
"Westminster, "Massachusetts
Died May 15, 1925(1925-05-15) (aged 85)
"Washington, D.C.
Place of burial "Arlington National Cemetery
Allegiance "United States of America
Service/branch "United States Army
"Union Army
Years of service 1861–1903
Rank ""US-O9 insignia.svg "Lieutenant General
Commands held "61st New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
"Military Division of the Missouri
"Commanding General of the United States Army
Battles/wars "American Civil War
"Indian Wars
"Spanish–American War
Awards "Medal of Honor
Other work "Military Governor of Puerto Rico
Signature ""Nelson A Miles Signature.svg

Nelson Appleton Miles (August 8, 1839 – May 15, 1925) was an American military "general who served in the "American Civil War, the "American Indian Wars, and the "Spanish–American War. From 1895 to 1903, he served as the last "Commanding General of the United States Army before the office was abolished.

Contents

Early life[edit]

Miles was born in "Westminster, Massachusetts, on his family's farm. He worked in "Boston, read military history, and mastered military principles and techniques, including battle drills.

Civil War[edit]

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Miles during the Civil War

Miles was working as a crockery store clerk in Boston when the American Civil War began. He entered the "Union Army as a volunteer on September 9, 1861, and fought in many crucial battles. He became a lieutenant in the "22nd Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, and was commissioned a "lieutenant colonel of the "61st New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment on May 31, 1862. He was promoted to "colonel after the "Battle of Antietam.

Other battles he participated in include "Fredericksburg, "Chancellorsville (during which he was shot in the neck and abdomen), and the "Appomattox Campaign. Wounded four times in battle, on March 2, 1867, Miles was "brevetted a "brigadier general in the "regular army in recognition of his actions at Chancellorsville. He was again brevetted, this time to the rank of "major general, for his actions at the "Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. He received the "Medal of Honor on July 23, 1892 for his gallantry at Chancellorsville. He was appointed brigadier general of volunteers as of May 12, 1864, for the Battles of "the Wilderness and "Spotsylvania Court House. On October 21, 1865, he was appointed major general of volunteers at the age of 26.[1] After the war, he was commandant of "Fort Monroe, Virginia, where former Confederate President "Jefferson Davis was held prisoner. During his tenure at Fort Monroe, Miles was forced to defend himself against charges that Davis was being mistreated.

Indian Wars[edit]

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Mary Hoyt Sherman

In July 1866, Miles was appointed a colonel in the Regular Army. In March 1869, he became commander of the "5th U.S. Infantry Regiment. On June 30, 1868, he married Mary Hoyt Sherman (daughter of "Charles Taylor Sherman, niece of "William T. Sherman and "John Sherman, and granddaughter of "Charles R. Sherman).[2]

Miles played a leading role in nearly all of the U.S. Army's campaigns against the "American Indian tribes of the Great Plains. In 1874–1875, he was a field commander in the force that defeated the "Kiowa, "Comanche, and the "Southern Cheyenne along the "Red River. Between 1876 and 1877, he participated in the campaign that scoured the Northern Plains after Lt. Col. "George Armstrong Custer's defeat at the "Battle of the Little Big Horn, and forced the "Lakota and their allies onto "reservations. In the winter of 1877, he drove his troops on a forced march across eastern "Montana to intercept the "Nez Perce band led by "Chief Joseph at the conclusion of the "Nez Perce War. For the rest of his career, Miles would quarrel with General "Oliver O. Howard over credit for Joseph's capture.

While on the "Yellowstone, he developed expertise with the "heliograph for sending communications signals, establishing a 140-mile-long (230 km) line of heliographs connecting "Fort Keogh and "Fort Custer, Montana, in 1878.[3][4] The heliographs were supplied by Brig. Gen. "Albert J. Myer of the "Signal Corps.[5]

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In December 1880, Miles was promoted to brigadier general in the Regular Army. He was then assigned to command the "Department of the Columbia (1881–85) and the "Department of Missouri (1885–86). In 1886, Miles replaced General "George Crook as commander of forces fighting against "Geronimo, a "Chiricahua Apache leader, in the "Department of Arizona. Crook had relied heavily on "Apache scouts in his efforts to capture Geronimo. Instead, Miles relied on white troops, who eventually traveled 3,000 miles (4,800 km) without success as they tracked Geronimo through the tortuous Sierra Madre Mountains. Finally, First Lieutenant "Charles B. Gatewood, who had studied Apache ways, succeeded in negotiating a surrender, under the terms of which Geronimo and his followers agreed to spend two years on a "Florida reservation. Geronimo agreed on these terms, being unaware of the real plot behind the negotiations (that there was no intent to let them go back to their native lands). The exile included even the Chiricahuas who had worked for the army, in violation of Miles' agreement with them. Miles denied Gatewood any credit for the negotiations and had him transferred to the Dakota Territory. During this campaign, Miles's special signals unit used the heliograph extensively, proving its worth in the field.[5] The special signals unit was under the command of Captain W.A. Glassford.[5] In 1888, Miles became the commander of the "Military Division of the Pacific and the "Department of California.

In April 1890, Miles was promoted to major general in the Regular Army and became the commander of the "Military Division of the Missouri. That same year, the last major resistance of the "Sioux on the Lakota reservations, known as the "Ghost Dance, brought Miles back into the field. His efforts to subdue the Sioux led to "Sitting Bull's death and the massacre of about 300 Sioux. This included women and children at "Wounded Knee on December 29, 1890. Miles was not directly involved at Wounded Knee and was critical of the commanding officer. Just two days after the event, Miles wrote to his wife, describing Wounded Knee as "the most abominable criminal military blunder and a horrible massacre of women and children".[6] After his retirement from the army, he fought for compensation payments to the survivors of the massacre. Overall, he believed that the United States should have authority over the Indians, with the Lakota under military control.

Spanish–American War and later life[edit]

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General Nelson Miles and other soldiers on horseback in Puerto Rico in 1898

In his capacity as commander of the "Department of the East from 1894 to 1895, Miles commanded the troops mobilized to put down the "Pullman strike riots. He was named "Commanding General of the United States Army in 1895, a post he held during the "Spanish–American War. Miles commanded forces at "Cuban sites such as "Siboney.

After the surrender of "Santiago de Cuba by the Spanish, he personally led the invasion of "Puerto Rico, landing in "Guánica in what is known as the "Puerto Rican Campaign. He served as the first head of the military government established on the island, acting as both head of the army of occupation and administrator of civil affairs. Upon returning to the United States, Miles was a vocal critic of the Army's quartermaster general, Brigadier General "Charles P. Eagan, for providing rancid canned meat to troops in the field during what was known as the "Army beef scandal. He was promoted to the rank of "lieutenant general in 1900 based on his performance in the war.

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Cartoon by "Bob Satterfield about Miles' retirement in August 1903

To show that he was still physically able to command, on July 14, 1903, less than a month before his 64th birthday, General Miles rode the 90 miles from "Fort Sill to "Fort Reno, Oklahoma, in eight hours' riding time (10 hrs 20 mins total), in temperatures between 90 and 100 °F (32 and 38 °C). The distance was covered on a relay of horses stationed at 10-mile intervals; the first 30 miles were covered in 2 hours, 25 minutes. This was the longest horseback ride ever made by a commanding general of the army.[7]

Called a "brave peacock" by President "Theodore Roosevelt,["citation needed] Miles nevertheless retired from the army in 1903 upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 64. Upon his retirement, the office of "Commanding General of the United States Army was abolished by an Act of Congress and the "Army Chief of Staff system was introduced. A year later, standing as presidential candidate at the "Democratic National Convention, he received a handful of votes.["citation needed] When the United States entered "World War I in 1917, the 77-year-old general offered to serve, but President "Woodrow Wilson turned him down.["citation needed]

Miles died in 1925 at the age of 85 from a "heart attack while attending a circus in Washington, D.C. with his grandchildren. He was one of the last surviving general officers who served during the Civil War on either side.[8] He is buried at "Arlington National Cemetery in the "Miles Mausoleum. It is one of only two "mausoleums within the confines of the cemetery. "George Burroughs Torrey painted his portrait.

Military awards[edit]

Medal of Honor citation[edit]

""Medal of honor old.jpg

Rank and Organization:

Colonel, 60th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. Entered service at: Roxbury, Mass. Birth: Westminster, Mass. Date of issue: July 23, 1892.

Citation:

Distinguished gallantry while holding with his command an advanced position against repeated assaults by a strong force of the enemy; was severely wounded.[9]

Memberships[edit]

General Miles was a member of several hereditary and military societies, including the "Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS), serving as Commander-in-Chief from 1919 to 1925, the "Grand Army of the Republic, "Sons of the American Revolution and the "Military Order of Foreign Wars. He was also an honorary member of the Massachusetts "Society of the Cincinnati.

Legacy[edit]

"Miles City, Montana is named in his honor,[10] as is Miles Street and the Miles Neighborhood in "Tucson, Arizona. Miles Canyon on the "Yukon River near "Whitehorse, Yukon, was named after him in 1883 by Lt. "Frederick Schwatka during his exploration of the river system. A "steamship, the "General Miles, was likely named for him. "Nelson M. Holderman, himself a Medal of Honor recipient, was also named after Miles.

Miles' legacy as an Indian fighter has seen him portrayed by "Kevin Tighe in the film "Geronimo: An American Legend and by Shaun Johnston in the film adaptation of "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. There is a bust of General Miles in the "Massachusetts State Capitol in Boston. General Miles' son, "Sherman Miles, was a career Army officer who graduated from West Point in 1905 and rose to the rank of major general during "World War II.

Dates of rank[edit]

Insignia Rank Component Date
""Union army 1st lt rank insignia.jpg "First Lieutenant 22nd Massachusetts Infantry 9 September 1861
""Union Army LTC rank insignia.png "Lieutenant Colonel 61st New York Infantry 31 May 1862
""Union Army colonel rank insignia.png "Colonel 61st New York Infantry 30 September 1862
""Union army brig gen rank insignia.jpg "Brigadier General "Volunteers 12 May 1864
""Union army maj gen rank insignia.jpg "Brevet Major General Volunteers 25 August 1864
""Union army maj gen rank insignia.jpg "Major General Volunteers 21 October 1865
""Union Army colonel rank insignia.png "Colonel 40th Infantry, "Regular Army 28 July 1866
""Union Army colonel rank insignia.png "Colonel 5th Infantry, Regular Army 15 March 1869
""Union army brig gen rank insignia.jpg "Brevet Brigadier General Regular Army 2 March 1867
""Union army maj gen rank insignia.jpg "Brevet Major General Regular Army 2 March 1867
""Union army brig gen rank insignia.jpg "Brigadier General Regular Army 15 December 1880
""Union army maj gen rank insignia.jpg "Major General Regular Army 5 April 1890
""Union army lt gen rank insignia.jpg "Lieutenant General Regular Army 6 June 1900

[11]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Eicher, p. 389.
  2. ^ Wooster, Robert (1996). Nelson A. Miles and the Twilight of the Frontier Army. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 50–51. 
  3. ^ "Signal Service Station on Mount Hood". Daily Alta California. September 20, 1884. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  4. ^ Reade, Lt. Philip (January 1880). "About Heliographs". The United Service. 2: 91–108. Retrieved June 21, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c Coe, Lewis (1993) The Telegraph: A History of Morse's Invention and its Predecessors in the United States McFarland, Jefferson, N.C., p. 10, "ISBN "0-89950-736-0
  6. ^ DeMontravel, Peter R. (1998). A Hero to His Fighting Men. Kent State University Press. p. 206. 
  7. ^ See newspaper reports from Washington, D.C. (Showing off his Stamina. General Miles making 90-mile horseback ride) and Kansas City, MO (General Miles made it in Triumph), July 14, 1903. Hot off the Press Long Riders Guild Academic Foundation. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  8. ^ Warner, pp. 323-24, states that Miles was the "last survivor of the full rank major generals of Civil War vintage" and of all general officers, was outlasted only by "John R. Brooke (died 1926) and "Adelbert Ames (died 1933).
  9. ^ "MILES, NELSON A., Civil War Medal of Honor recipient". American Civil War website. November 8, 2007. Retrieved November 8, 2007. 
  10. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 208. 
  11. ^ Heitman, Francis B. (1903). Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, 1789-1903, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. pp. 708–709. 

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
"John M. Schofield
"Commanding General of the United States Army
1895–1903
Succeeded by
None (Office abolished)
"Samuel B.M. Young
("Chief of Staff of the United States Army)
Preceded by
None
"Military Governor of Puerto Rico
1898
(Commandant)
Succeeded by
"John Ruller Brooke
) )