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State of New Hampshire
""Flag of New Hampshire ""State seal of New Hampshire
"Flag "Seal
"Nickname(s): The Granite State[1]
"Motto(s): "Live Free or Die
"State song(s): ""Old New Hampshire[2]"
""Map of the United States with New Hampshire highlighted
"Official language English[3]
(French allowed for official business with Quebec)[4]
"Demonym Granite Stater, New Hampshirite
"Capital "Concord
"Largest city "Manchester
"Largest metro "Greater Manchester
Area "Ranked 46th
 • Total 9,349 sq mi
(24,214[5] km2)
 • Width 68 miles (110 km)
 • Length 190 miles (305 km)
 • % water 4.2
 • Latitude 42° 42′ N to 45° 18′ N
 • Longitude 70° 36′ W to 72° 33′ W
Population "Ranked 41st
 • Total 1,334,795 (2016 est)[6]
 • "Density 147/sq mi  (56.8/km2)
"Ranked 21st
 • "Median household income $75,675[7] (1st)
"Elevation
 • Highest point "Mount Washington[8][9][10][11]
6,288 ft (1916.66 m)
 • Mean 1,000 ft  (300 m)
 • Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[9]
sea level
Before statehood "Province of New Hampshire
"Admission to Union June 21, 1788 (9th)
"Governor "Chris Sununu ("R)
"President of the Senate "Chuck Morse ("R)[12]
"Legislature "General Court
 • "Upper house "Senate
 • "Lower house "House of Representatives
"U.S. Senators "Jeanne Shaheen ("D)
"Maggie Hassan (D)
"U.S. House delegation "1: "Carol Shea-Porter (D)
"2: "Ann McLane Kuster (D) ("list)
"Time zone "Eastern: "UTC "-5/"-4
"ISO 3166 "US-NH
Abbreviations "NH, "N.H.
Website www.nh.gov
"New Hampshire state symbols
""Flag of New Hampshire.svg
The "Flag of New Hampshire
""Seal of New Hampshire.svg
The "Seal of New Hampshire
Living insignia
"Amphibian "Red-spotted newt
Notophthalmus viridescens
"Bird "Purple finch
Haemorhous purpureus
"Butterfly "Karner Blue
Lycaeides melissa samuelis
"Dog breed "Chinook
"Fish Freshwater: "Brook trout
Salvelinus fontinalis
Saltwater: "Striped bass
Morone saxatilis
"Flower "Purple lilac
Syringa vulgaris
"Insect "Ladybug
Coccinellidae
"Mammal "White-tailed deer
Odocoileus virginianus
"Tree "White birch
Betula papyrifera
Inanimate insignia
"Food Fruit: "Pumpkin
Vegetable: "White Potato
"Gemstone "Smoky quartz
"Mineral "Beryl
"Motto "Live Free or Die
"Rock "Granite
"Song ""Old New Hampshire"
"Sport "Skiing
"Tartan "New Hampshire State Tartan
"State route marker
""New Hampshire state route marker
"State quarter
""New Hampshire quarter dollar coin
Released in 2000
"Lists of United States state symbols

New Hampshire (Listen""i"/n ˈhæmpʃər/) is a "state in the "New England region of the "northeastern United States. It is bordered by "Massachusetts to the south, "Vermont to the west, "Maine and the "Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the "Canadian province of "Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the "5th smallest by land area and the "9th least populous of the "50 United States.

In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American "colonies to establish a government independent of the "Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, and it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months later, it became one of the original "13 states that "founded the "United States of America, and in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the "Constitution, bringing that document into effect.

"Concord is the state capital, while "Manchester is the largest city in the state and in northern New England, including Vermont and Maine. It has no general "sales tax, nor is personal income (other than interest and dividends) "taxed at either the state or local level. The "New Hampshire primary is the first "primary in the U.S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the "state motto, ""Live Free or Die". The state's "nickname, "The "Granite State", refers to its extensive granite formations and "quarries.[13]

Among "prominent individuals from New Hampshire are "founding father "Nicholas Gilman, Senator "Daniel Webster, "Revolutionary War hero "John Stark, editor "Horace Greeley, founder of the "Christian Science religion "Mary Baker Eddy, poet "Robert Frost, astronaut "Alan Shepard, rock musician "Ronnie James Dio, author "Dan Brown, actor "Adam Sandler, inventor "Dean Kamen, comedians "Sarah Silverman and "Seth Meyers, restaurateurs "Richard and Maurice McDonald, and President of the United States "Franklin Pierce.

With some of the "largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include "skiing, snowmobiling, and other winter sports, hiking and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the "New Hampshire Motor Speedway, and "Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in "Weirs Beach near "Laconia in June. The "White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the "Appalachian Trail, and boasts the "Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot (1,917 m) "Mount Washington.

Contents

Etymology[edit]

The state was named after the southern "English "county of "Hampshire by "Captain John Mason.[14]

Geography[edit]

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New Hampshire, showing roads, rivers and major cities
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Shaded relief map of New Hampshire
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Mount Adams (5,774 ft or 1,760 m) is part of New Hampshire's "Presidential Range.
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New Hampshire is part of the "New England region. It is bounded by "Quebec, Canada, to the north and northwest; "Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east; "Massachusetts to the south; and "Vermont to the west. New Hampshire's major regions are the "Great North Woods, the "White Mountains, the "Lakes Region, the "Seacoast, the "Merrimack Valley, the "Monadnock Region, and the "Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U.S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles (29 km),[15] sometimes measured as only 13 miles (21 km).[16] New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the "Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in "Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003.

The "White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with "Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U.S. – site of the second-highest wind speed ever recorded[17] – and other mountains like "Mount Madison and "Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, and conspicuous "krumholtz (dwarf, matted trees much like a carpet of "bonsai trees), the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather".[18]

In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark "Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a "monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.

Major rivers include the 110-mile (177 km) "Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in "Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the "Contoocook River, "Pemigewasset River, and "Winnipesaukee River. The 410-mile (660 km) "Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's "Connecticut Lakes and flows south to "Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is usually the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side; meaning that the entire river along the Vermont border (save for areas where the water level has been raised by a dam) lies within New Hampshire.[19] Only one town – "Pittsburg – shares a land border with the state of Vermont. The "northwesternmost headwaters" of the Connecticut also define the Canada–U.S. border.

The "Piscataqua River and its several "tributaries form the state's only significant ocean port where they flow into the Atlantic at "Portsmouth. The "Salmon Falls River and the Piscataqua define the southern portion of the border with Maine. The Piscataqua River boundary was the subject of a "border dispute between New Hampshire and Maine in 2001, with New Hampshire claiming dominion over several islands (primarily "Seavey's Island) that include the "Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. The "U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the case in 2002, leaving ownership of the island with Maine. New Hampshire still claims sovereignty of the base, however.[20]

The largest of "New Hampshire's lakes is "Lake Winnipesaukee, which covers 71 square miles (184 km2) in the east-central part of New Hampshire. "Umbagog Lake along the Maine border, approximately 12.3 square miles (31.9 km2), is a distant second. "Squam Lake is the second largest lake entirely in New Hampshire.

New Hampshire has the "shortest ocean coastline of any state in the United States, approximately 18 miles (29 km) long.[21] "Hampton Beach is a popular local summer destination. About 7 miles (11 km) offshore are the "Isles of Shoals, nine small islands (four of which are in New Hampshire) known as the site of a 19th-century art colony founded by poet "Celia Thaxter, and the alleged location of one of the buried treasures of the pirate "Blackbeard.

It is the state with the highest percentage of timberland area in the country.[22] New Hampshire is in the "temperate broadleaf and mixed forests "biome. Much of the state, in particular the White Mountains, is covered by the "conifers and "northern hardwoods of the "New England-Acadian forests. The southeast corner of the state and parts of the Connecticut River along the Vermont border are covered by the mixed "oaks of the "Northeastern coastal forests.[23]

The northern third of the state is locally referred to as the "north country" or "north of the notches," in reference to White Mountain "passes that channel traffic. It contains less than 5% of the state's population, suffers relatively high poverty, and is steadily losing population as the logging and paper industries decline. However, the tourist industry, in particular visitors who go to northern New Hampshire to "ski, "snowboard, "hike and "mountain bike, has helped offset economic losses from mill closures.

Climate[edit]

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Köppen climate map of New Hampshire
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During autumn, the leaves on many hardwood trees in New Hampshire turn colors, attracting many tourists.
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A winter view of an apple orchard in Hollis, New Hampshire

New Hampshire experiences a "humid continental climate ("Köppen climate classification Dfa in southern areas and Dfb in the north), with warm, humid summers, cold, wet winters, and uniform precipitation all year. The climate of the southeastern portion is moderated by the "Atlantic Ocean and averages relatively milder and wetter weather, while the northern and interior portions experience cooler temperatures and lower humidity. Winters are cold and snowy throughout the state, and especially severe in the northern and mountainous areas. Average annual snowfall ranges from 60 inches (150 cm) to over 100 inches (250 cm) across the state.[24]

Average daytime highs are in the mid 70s°F to low 80s°F (around 24–28 °C) throughout the state in July, with overnight lows in the mid 50s°F to low 60s°F (13–15 °C). January temperatures range from an average high of 34 °F (1 °C) on the coast to overnight lows below 0 °F (−18 °C) in the far north and at high elevations. Average annual precipitation statewide is roughly 40 inches (100 cm) with some variation occurring in the "White Mountains due to differences in elevation and annual snowfall. New Hampshire's highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) in "Nashua on July 4, 1911, while the lowest recorded temperature was −47 °F (−44 °C) atop "Mount Washington on January 29, 1934. Mount Washington also saw an unofficial −50 °F (−46 °C) reading on January 22, 1885, which, if made official, would tie the all-time record low for New England (also −50 °F (−46 °C) at "Big Black River, Maine, on January 16, 2009, and "Bloomfield, Vermont on December 30, 1933).

Extreme snow is often associated with a "nor'easter, such as the "Blizzard of '78 and the "Blizzard of 1993, when several feet accumulated across portions of the state over 24 to 48 hours. Lighter snowfalls of several inches occur frequently throughout winter, often associated with an "Alberta Clipper.

New Hampshire, on occasion, is affected by "hurricanes and tropical storms although by the time they reach the state they are often "extratropical, with most storms striking the southern "New England coastline and moving inland or passing by offshore in the "Gulf of Maine. Most of New Hampshire averages fewer than 20 days of thunderstorms per year and an average of two tornadoes occur annually statewide.[25]

The "National Arbor Day Foundation plant "hardiness zone map depicts zones 3, 4, 5, and 6 occurring throughout the state[26] and indicates the transition from a relatively cooler to warmer climate as one travels southward across New Hampshire. The 1990 "USDA plant "hardiness zones for New Hampshire range from zone 3b in the north to zone 5b in the south.[27]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in New Hampshire[28]
Location July (°F) July (°C) January (°F) January (°C)
"Manchester 82/64 28/17 33/15 0/–9
"Nashua 82/59 28/15 33/12 0/–11
"Concord 82/57 28/14 30/10  –1/–12
"Portsmouth 79/61 26/16 32/16 0/–9
"Keene 82/56 28/13 31/9  –1/–12
"Laconia 81/60 27/16 30/11  –1/–11
"Lebanon 82/58 28/14 30/8 -1/-13

Metropolitan areas[edit]

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"Nashua

Metropolitan areas in the New England region are defined by the "U.S. Census Bureau as "New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs). The following is a list of NECTAs in New Hampshire:

From "The New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau". Archived from the original on January 11, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2014. 

History[edit]

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1922 map of New Hampshire published in the bulletin of the "Brown Company in "Berlin

Various "Algonquian ("Abenaki and "Pennacook) tribes inhabited the area before European settlement. English and French explorers visited New Hampshire in 1600–1605, and English fishermen settled at "Odiorne's Point in present-day "Rye in 1623. The first permanent settlement was at Hilton's Point (present-day "Dover). By 1631, the Upper Plantation comprised modern-day "Dover, "Durham and "Stratham; in 1679, it became the "Royal Province". "Father Rale's War was fought between the colonists and the "Wabanaki Confederacy throughout New Hampshire.

New Hampshire was one of the "thirteen colonies that rebelled against British rule during the "American Revolution. By the time of the American Revolution, New Hampshire was a divided province. The economic and social life of the Seacoast region revolved around sawmills, shipyards, merchants' warehouses, and established village and town centers. Wealthy merchants built substantial homes, furnished them with the finest luxuries, and invested their capital in trade and land speculation. At the other end of the social scale, there developed a permanent class of day laborers, mariners, indentured servants and even slaves.

The only battle fought in New Hampshire was the raid on "Fort William and Mary, December 14, 1774, in "Portsmouth Harbor, which netted the rebellion sizable quantities of gunpowder, small arms and cannon. ("General Sullivan, leader of the raid, described it as, "remainder of the powder, the small arms, bayonets, and cartouche-boxes, together with the cannon and ordnance stores") over the course of two nights. This raid was preceded by a warning to local patriots the previous day, by "Paul Revere on December 13, 1774, that the fort was to be reinforced by troops sailing from Boston. According to unverified accounts, the gunpowder was later used at the Battle of Bunker Hill, transported there by Major Demerit, who was one of several New Hampshire patriots who stored the powder in their homes until it was transported elsewhere for use in revolutionary activities. During the raid, the British soldiers fired upon the rebels with cannon and muskets. Although there were apparently no casualties, these were among the first shots in the American Revolutionary period, occurring approximately five months before the "Battles of Lexington and Concord.

The "United States Constitution was ratified by New Hampshire on June 21, 1788, when New Hampshire became the ninth state to do so.[29]

New Hampshire was a Jacksonian stronghold; the state sent "Franklin Pierce to the White House in the election of 1852. Industrialization took the form of numerous textile mills, which in turn attracted large flows of "immigrants from Quebec (the "French Canadians") and "Ireland. The northern parts of the state produced lumber, and the mountains provided tourist attractions. After 1960, the textile industry collapsed, but the economy rebounded as a center of high technology and as a service provider.

Starting in 1952, New Hampshire gained national and international attention for its "presidential primary held early in every presidential election year. It immediately became the most important testing grounds for candidates for the Republican and Democratic nominations. The media gave New Hampshire (and "Iowa) about half of all the attention paid to all states in the primary process, magnifying the state's decision powers (and spurring repeated efforts by out-of-state politicians to change the rules.)

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
"1790 141,885
"1800 183,858 29.6%
"1810 214,460 16.6%
"1820 244,155 13.8%
"1830 269,328 10.3%
"1840 284,574 5.7%
"1850 317,976 11.7%
"1860 326,073 2.5%
"1870 318,300 −2.4%
"1880 346,991 9.0%
"1890 376,530 8.5%
"1900 411,588 9.3%
"1910 430,572 4.6%
"1920 443,083 2.9%
"1930 465,293 5.0%
"1940 491,524 5.6%
"1950 533,242 8.5%
"1960 606,921 13.8%
"1970 737,681 21.5%
"1980 920,610 24.8%
"1990 1,109,252 20.5%
"2000 1,235,786 11.4%
"2010 1,316,470 6.5%
Est. 2016 1,334,795 1.4%
Source: 1910–2010[30]
2016 Estimate[6]
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New Hampshire population density

The "United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of New Hampshire was 1,334,795 on July 1, 2016, a 1.39% increase since the "2010 United States Census.[6] The "center of population of New Hampshire is located in "Merrimack County, in the town of "Pembroke.[31] The center of population has moved south 12 miles (19 km) since 1950,[32] a reflection of the fact that the fastest growth in the state has been along its southern border, which is within commuting range of Boston and other Massachusetts cities.

Race and ancestry[edit]

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Largest reported ancestry groups in New Hampshire by town. Dark purple indicates Irish, light purple English, turquoise French, pink French Canadian, dark blue Italian, and light blue German. Grey indicates towns(hips) with no reported population as of 2013.

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the racial makeup of New Hampshire was:[33]

"Hispanic and Latino Americans of any race made up 2.8% of the population in 2010.

New Hampshire Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990[34] 2000[35] 2010[36]
"White 98.0% 96.0% 93.9%
"Asian 0.8% 1.3% 2.2%
"Black 0.6% 0.7% 1.1%
"Native 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%
"Native Hawaiian and
"other Pacific Islander
-
"Other race 0.3% 0.6% 0.9%
"Two or more races 1.1% 1.6%

The largest ancestry groups in New Hampshire are, per 2015 Census Bureau estimates:[37]

The large "Irish American and "French-Canadian populations are descended largely from mill workers, and many still live in the former mill towns, like Manchester. As of 2015, New Hampshire has the highest percentage (23.4%) of residents with French/French-Canadian/Acadian ancestry of any U.S. state.[38]

According to the Census Bureau's "American Community Survey estimates from 2015, 2.1% of the population aged 5 and older speak "Spanish at home, while 1.8% speak "French.[39] In "Coos County, 9.6% of the population speaks French at home,[40] down from 16% in 2000.[41]

Religion[edit]

Religion in New Hampshire
Religion Percent
Protestant
  
34%
Catholic
  
29%
Non-religious
  
26%
Mormon
  
1%
Jewish
  
1%
Buddhist
  
1%
Hindu
  
0.5%
Islam
  
0.5%
Other Christian
  
0%

A Pew survey showed that the religious affiliations of the people of New Hampshire was as follows: "Protestant 34%, "Catholic 29%, "LDS ("Mormon) 1%, Jewish 1%, Jehovah's Witness 0.5%, Muslim 0.5%, Buddhist 1%, Hindu 0.5% and non-religious at 26%.[42]

A survey suggests that people in New Hampshire and Vermont[43] are less likely than other Americans to attend weekly services and only 54% say that they are "absolutely certain there is a God" compared to 71% in the rest of the nation.[44][45] New Hampshire and Vermont are also at the lowest levels among states in religious commitment. In 2012, 23% of New Hampshire residents in a Gallup poll considered themselves "very religious", while 52% considered themselves "non-religious".[46] According to the "Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) the largest denominations are the "Roman Catholic Church with 311,028 members; The "United Church of Christ with 26,321 members; and the "United Methodist Church with 18,029 members.[47]

Economy[edit]

The "Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that New Hampshire's "total state product in 2014 was $66 billion, ranking 40th in the United States.[48] "Median household income in 2008 was $49,467, the seventh highest in the country. Its agricultural outputs are dairy products, nursery stock, cattle, apples and eggs. Its industrial outputs are machinery, electric equipment, rubber and plastic products and tourism.[49]

New Hampshire experienced a significant shift in its economic base during the last century. Historically, the base was composed of the traditional New England manufactures of textiles, shoe making, and small machining shops drawing upon low-wage labor from nearby small farms and from parts of Quebec. Today, these sectors contribute only 2% for textiles, 2% for leather goods, and 9% for machining of the state's total manufacturing dollar value (Source: U.S. Economic Census for 1997, Manufacturing, New Hampshire). They experienced a sharp decline due to obsolete plants and the lure of cheaper wages in the "South.

The state's "budget in FY2008 was $5.11 billion, including $1.48 billion in federal funds. The issue of taxation is controversial in New Hampshire, which has a "property tax (subject to municipal control) but no broad "sales tax or income tax. The state does have narrower taxes on meals, lodging, vehicles, business and investment income, and tolls on state roads.

According to the "Energy Information Administration, New Hampshire's energy consumption and per capita energy consumption are among the lowest in the country. The "Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant, located near Portsmouth, is the largest nuclear reactor in New England and provides about 30 percent of New Hampshire's electricity. Two natural gas-fired plants and some fossil-fuel powered plants, including the coal-fired Merrimack Station plant in Bow, provide most of the rest.

New Hampshire's residential electricity use is low compared with the national average, in part because demand for air conditioning is low during the generally mild summer months and because few households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating. Over half of New Hampshire households use "fuel oil for winter heating. New Hampshire has potential for renewable energies like "wind power, "hydroelectricity, and "wood fuel.[50]

The state has no general sales tax and no personal "state income tax (the state does tax, at a 5 percent rate, income from dividends and interest), and the legislature has exercised fiscal restraint. Efforts to diversify the state's general economy have been ongoing.

New Hampshire's lack of a broad-based tax system has resulted in the state's local communities having some of the nation's highest property taxes. However, the state's overall tax burden is relatively low; in 2010 New Hampshire ranked 44th highest among states in combined average state and local tax burden.[51]

As of February 2010, the state's unemployment rate was 7.1%.[52] By October 2010, the unemployment rate dropped to 5.4%.[53]

According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, New Hampshire had the eighth-highest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 6.48 percent.[54] In 2013, New Hampshire also had the nation's lowest poverty rate at just 8.7% of all residents according to the Census Bureau.[55]

Law and government[edit]

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"Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.
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The governor of New Hampshire, as of January 5, 2017, is "Chris Sununu (Republican). New Hampshire's two U.S. senators are "Jeanne Shaheen and "Maggie Hassan (both Democrats). New Hampshire's two U.S. representatives are "Carol Shea-Porter and "Ann McLane Kuster (both Democrats).

New Hampshire is an "alcoholic beverage control state, and through the "State Liquor Commission it takes in $100 million from the sale and distribution of liquor.[56]

New Hampshire is the only state in the US that does not require adults to wear seat belts in their vehicles. The state made "same-sex marriage legal on January 1, 2010, just two years after it had made "civil unions legal.

Governing documents[edit]

The "New Hampshire State Constitution of 1783 is the supreme law of the state, followed by the "New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated and the "New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules. These are roughly analogous to the federal "United States Constitution, "United States Code and "Code of Federal Regulations respectively.

Branches of government[edit]

New Hampshire has a bifurcated executive branch, consisting of the governor and a five-member "executive council which votes on state contracts worth more than $5,000 and "advises and consents" to the governor's nominations to major state positions such as department heads and all judgeships and "pardon requests. New Hampshire does not have a "lieutenant governor; the Senate president serves as "acting governor" whenever the governor is unable to perform the duties.

The legislature is called the "General Court. It consists of the "House of Representatives and the "Senate. There are 400 representatives, making it one of the largest elected bodies in the English-speaking world,[57] and 24 senators. Most are effectively volunteers, nearly half of which are "retirees. (For details, see the article on "Government of New Hampshire.)

The state's sole appellate court is the "New Hampshire Supreme Court. The "Superior Court is the court of general jurisdiction and the only court which provides for jury trials in "civil or "criminal cases. The other state courts are the "Probate Court, "District Court, and the "Family Division.

Local government[edit]

New Hampshire has "10 counties and "234 cities and towns.

New Hampshire is a ""Dillon Rule" state, meaning that the state retains all powers not specifically granted to municipalities. Even so, the legislature strongly favors local control, particularly with regard to land use regulations. New Hampshire municipalities are classified as "towns or cities, which differ primarily by the form of government. Most towns generally operate on the "town meeting form of government, where the registered voters in the town act as the town legislature, and a "board of selectmen acts as the executive of the town. Larger towns and the state's thirteen cities operate either on a "council-manager or "council-mayor form of government. There is no difference, from the point of view of the state government, between towns and cities besides the form of government. All state-level statutes treat all municipalities identically.

New Hampshire has a small number of "unincorporated areas that are titled as grants, locations, purchases, or townships. These locations have limited to no self-government, and services are generally provided for them by neighboring towns or the county or state where needed. As of the 2000 census, there were 25 of these left in New Hampshire, accounting for a total population of 173 people (as of 2000); several were entirely depopulated. All but two of these unincorporated areas are located in "Coos County.

Politics[edit]

Presidential elections results[58]
Year "Republican "Democratic
"2016 47.22% 345,789 47.59% 348,521
"2012 46.40% 329,918 51.98% 369,561
"2008 44.52% 316,534 54.13% 384,826
"2004 48.87% 331,237 50.24% 340,511
"2000 48.07% 273,559 46.80% 266,348

The "Republican Party and the "Democratic Party are the two largest parties in the state. A plurality of voters are registered as undeclared, and can choose either ballot in the primary and then regain their undeclared status after voting.[59] The "Libertarian Party had official party status from 1990 to 1996. There is also a program known as the "Free State Project with the goal of turning New Hampshire into a libertarian stronghold by suggesting that libertarians move there so they can concentrate their power. The "Libertarian Party regained ballot access after the 2016 election because the gubernatorial candidate received over 4% of the vote.[60]

As of February 5, 2016, there were 882,959 registered voters, of whom 389,472 (44.1%) did not declare a political party affiliation, 262,111 (29.7%) were Republican, and 231,376 (26.2%) were Democratic.[61]

New Hampshire primary[edit]

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"Saint Anselm College has held several national debates on campus.

New Hampshire is internationally known for the "New Hampshire primary, the first "primary in the quadrennial American presidential election cycle. State law requires that the Secretary of State schedule this election at least one week before any "similar event." However, the "Iowa caucus has preceded the New Hampshire primary. This primary, as the nation's first contest that uses the same procedure as the general election, draws more attention than those in other states, and has often been decisive in shaping the national contest.

State law permits a town with fewer than 100 residents to open its polls at midnight, and close when all registered citizens have cast their ballots. As such, the communities of "Dixville Notch in "Coos County and "Hart's Location in "Carroll County, among others, have chosen to implement these provisions. Dixville Notch and Hart's Location are traditionally the first places in both New Hampshire and the U.S. to vote in presidential primaries and elections.

Nominations for all other partisan offices are decided in a separate "primary election. In Presidential election cycles, this is the second primary election held in New Hampshire.

"Saint Anselm College in "Goffstown has become a popular campaign spot for politicians as well as several national presidential debates because of its proximity to "Manchester-Boston Regional Airport.[62][63][64]

Election results[edit]

In the past, New Hampshire has often voted Republican. Between 1856 and 1988, New Hampshire cast its electoral votes for the Democratic presidential ticket six times: "Woodrow Wilson (twice), "Franklin D. Roosevelt (three times), and "Lyndon B. Johnson (once).

Beginning in 1992, New Hampshire became a "swing state in both national and local elections. The state supported Democrats "Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996, "John Kerry in 2004, and "Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012. It was the only state in the country to switch from supporting Republican "George W. Bush in the "2000 election to supporting his Democratic challenger in the "2004 election, when "John Kerry, a senator from neighboring Massachusetts, won the state. "Donald Trump very narrowly lost the state in 2016.

The Democrats dominated elections in New Hampshire in 2006 and 2008. In 2006, Democrats won both congressional seats (electing "Carol Shea-Porter in the 1st district and "Paul Hodes in the 2nd district), re-elected Governor "John Lynch, and gained a majority on the Executive Council and in both houses of the legislature for the first time since 1911. Democrats had not held both the legislature and the governorship since 1874.[65] Neither U.S. Senate seat was up for a vote in 2006. In 2008, Democrats retained their majorities, governorship, and Congressional seats; and former governor "Jeanne Shaheen defeated incumbent Republican "John E. Sununu for the U.S. Senate in a rematch of the 2002 contest.

The 2008 elections resulted in women holding a majority, 13 of the 24 seats, in the New Hampshire Senate, a first for any legislative body in the United States.[66]

In the 2010 midterm elections, Republicans made historic gains in New Hampshire, capturing veto-proof majorities in the state legislature, taking all five seats in the Executive Council, electing a new U.S. senator, "Kelly Ayotte, winning both U.S. House seats, and reducing the margin of victory of incumbent Governor "John Lynch compared to his 2006 and 2008 landslide wins.

In the 2012 state legislative elections, Democrats took back the "New Hampshire House of Representatives and narrowed the Republican majority in the "New Hampshire Senate to 13-11.[67] In 2012, New Hampshire became the first state in U.S. history to elect an all-female federal delegation: Democratic Congresswomen "Carol Shea-Porter of "Congressional District 1 and "Ann McLane Kuster of "Congressional District 2 accompanied U.S. Senators "Jeanne Shaheen and "Kelly Ayotte in 2013. Further, the state elected its second female governor: Democrat "Maggie Hassan.

In the 2014 elections, Republicans retook the "New Hampshire House of Representatives with a 239-160 majority and expanded their majority in the "New Hampshire Senate to 14 of the Senate's 24 seats. On the national level, incumbent Democratic Senator "Jeanne Shaheen defeated her Republican challenger, former Massachusetts senator "Scott Brown. New Hampshire also elected "Frank Guinta (R) for its First Congressional District representative and "Ann Kuster (D) for its Second Congressional District representative.

In the 2016 elections, Republicans held the "New Hampshire House of Representatives with a majority of 220-175, and held onto their 14 seats in the "New Hampshire Senate. In the gubernatorial race, retiring Governor "Maggie Hassan was succeeded by Republican "Chris Sununu, who defeated Democratic nominee "Colin Van Ostern. Sununu became the state's first Republican governor since "Craig Benson, who left office in 2005 following defeat by "John Lynch. Republicans control the governor's office and both chambers of the state legislature, a governing trifecta in which the Republicans have full governing power.[68] In the presidential race, the state voted for the Democratic nominee, former "Secretary of State "Hillary Clinton over the Republican nominee, Donald Trump, by a margin of 2,736 votes, or 0.03%, one of the closest results the state has ever seen in a presidential race, while Libertarian nominee "Gary Johnson received 4.12% of the vote. The Democrats also won a competitive race in the Second Congressional District, as well as a competitive senate race. New Hampshire's congressional delegation currently consists of exclusively Democrats. It is one of only six states with an entirely Democratic delegation, five of which are in New England (the sixth is Delaware).

Free State Project[edit]

The "Free State Project seeks to entice 20,000 individuals with libertarian-leaning views to move to New Hampshire with the intent of reducing the size and scope of government at the local, state and federal levels through active participation in the political process. On February 3, 2016, the project reached its goal of 20,000 signers.[69] The Free State Project holds the annual "New Hampshire Liberty Forum[70] and the annual Porcupine Freedom Festival, also known as "PorcFest.[71]

Transportation[edit]

Highways[edit]

New Hampshire has a well-maintained, well-signed network of "Interstate highways, U.S. highways, and state highways. State highway markers still depict the "Old Man of the Mountain despite that rock formation's demise in 2003. Several route numbers align with the same route numbers in neighboring states. State highway numbering does not indicate the highway's direction. Major routes include:

Air[edit]

New Hampshire has 25 public-use airports, three with some scheduled commercial passenger service. The busiest airport by number of passengers handled is "Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester and "Londonderry, which serves the "Greater Boston metropolitan area.

Public transportation[edit]

Long-distance intercity passenger rail service is provided by "Amtrak's "Vermonter and "Downeaster lines.

"Greyhound, "Concord Coach, "Vermont Translines and Dartmouth Coach all provide intercity bus connections to and from points in New Hampshire and to long-distance points beyond and in between.

As of 2013, Boston-centered "MBTA Commuter Rail services reach only as far as northern Massachusetts. The "New Hampshire Rail Transit Authority is working to extend "Capital Corridor" service from "Lowell, Massachusetts, to Nashua, Concord, and Manchester, including "Manchester-Boston Regional Airport; and "Coastal Corridor" service from "Haverhill, Massachusetts, to "Plaistow, New Hampshire.[72][73] Legislation in 2007 created the "New Hampshire Rail Transit Authority (NHRTA) with the goal of overseeing the development of commuter rail in the state of New Hampshire. In 2011, Governor John Lynch vetoed HB 218, a bill passed by Republican lawmakers, which would have drastically curtailed the powers and responsibilities of NHRTA.[74][75] The I-93 Corridor transit study suggested a rail alternative along the "Manchester and Lawrence branch line which could provide freight and passenger service.[76] This rail corridor would also have access to Manchester-Boston Regional Airport.

Eleven public transit authorities operate local and regional bus services around the state, and eight private carriers operate express bus services which link with the national intercity bus network.[77] The "New Hampshire Department of Transportation operates a statewide ride-sharing match service, in addition to independent ride matching and guaranteed ride home programs.[77]

"Tourist railroads include the "Conway Scenic Railroad, "Hobo-Winnipesaukee Railroad, and the "Mount Washington Cog Railway.

Freight railways[edit]

Freight railways in New Hampshire include "Claremont & Concord Railroad (CCRR), "Pan Am Railways via subsidiary Springfield Terminal Railway (ST), the "New England Central Railroad (NHCR), the "St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad (SLR), and "New Hampshire Northcoast Corporation (NHN).

Education[edit]

""
""
""
Thompson Hall, at "UNH, was built in 1892.

High schools[edit]

The first public high schools in the state were the Boys' High School and the Girls' High School of "Portsmouth, established either in 1827 or 1830 depending on the source.[78][79][80]

New Hampshire has more than 80 public high schools, many of which serve more than one town. The largest is "Pinkerton Academy in "Derry, which is owned by a private non-profit organization and serves as the public high school of a number of neighboring towns. There are at least 30 private high schools in the state.

New Hampshire is also the home of several prestigious "university-preparatory schools, such as "Phillips Exeter Academy, "St. Paul's School, "Brewster Academy, and "Kimball Union Academy.

In 2008 the state tied with Massachusetts as having the highest scores on the SAT and ACT standardized tests given to high school students.[81]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Media[edit]

Daily newspapers[edit]

Other publications[edit]

Radio stations[edit]

See "List of radio stations in New Hampshire.

Television stations[edit]

Sports[edit]

The following professional and professional development sports teams are located in New Hampshire:

Club Sport / League Level
"New Hampshire Fisher Cats "Eastern League (class AA baseball) "Professional
"Manchester Monarchs "ECHL ("ice hockey) "Professional
"Seacoast United Phantoms "USL Premier Development League (soccer) Professional development (adult)
"Manchester Freedom "Independent Women's Football League "Professional
NH Olympic Development Program (soccer) US Soccer Region 1 Professional development (youth: ages 11–17)

The "New Hampshire Motor Speedway in "Loudon is an oval track and road course which has been visited by national motorsport championship series such as the "NASCAR "Sprint Cup Series, the NASCAR "Nationwide Series, the NASCAR "Camping World Truck Series, NASCAR "Whelen Modified Tour, "American Canadian Tour (ACT), the "Champ Car and the "IndyCar Series. Other motor racing venues include "Star Speedway and "New England Dragway in "Epping, Lee Speedway in "Lee, Twin State Speedway in "Claremont, Monadnock Speedway in "Winchester and "Canaan Fair Speedway in "Canaan.

New Hampshire has two "NCAA Division I teams: the "Dartmouth Big Green ("Ivy League) and the "New Hampshire Wildcats ("America East Conference), as well as three Division II teams: Franklin Pierce Ravens, Saint Anselm Hawks and Southern New Hampshire Penmen ("Northeast-10 Conference).

The "Seacoast United Phantoms are a "soccer team based in "Portsmouth. Founded in 1996, the team plays in the "USL Premier Development League (PDL), the fourth tier of the "American Soccer Pyramid, in the Northeast Division of the Eastern Conference. The team plays its home games in the stadium on the campus of "Portsmouth High School, where they have played since 2011.

Annually since 2002, high-school statewide all-stars compete against Vermont in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs.[84]

Culture[edit]

In the spring, New Hampshire's many "sap houses hold sugaring-off open houses. In summer and early autumn, New Hampshire is home to many "county fairs, the largest being the "Hopkinton State Fair, in "Contoocook. New Hampshire's "Lakes Region is home to many summer camps, especially around "Lake Winnipesaukee, and is a popular tourist destination. The Peterborough Players have performed every summer in "Peterborough, New Hampshire since 1933. The "Barnstormers Theatre in Tamworth, New Hampshire, founded in 1931, is one of the longest-running professional summer theaters in the United States.

In the fall, New Hampshire is host to the "New Hampshire Highland Games. New Hampshire has also registered an official "tartan with the proper authorities in "Scotland, used to make kilts worn by the "Lincoln Police Department while its officers serve during the games. The "fall foliage peaks in mid-October. In the winter, "New Hampshire's ski areas and "snowmobile trails attract visitors from a wide area.[85] After the lakes freeze over they become dotted with "ice fishing ice houses, known locally as bobhouses. "Funspot, the world's largest video arcade["citation needed] (now termed a museum), is located in "Laconia.

In fiction[edit]

Comics[edit]

Film[edit]

Literature[edit]

Many novels, plays and screenplays have been set in New Hampshire. The state has played other roles in fiction, including:

Television[edit]

Notable residents or natives[edit]

See article "List of people from New Hampshire.

New Hampshire firsts[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  10. ^ Elevation adjusted to "North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

State government

U.S. Government

Other

Preceded by
"South Carolina
"List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
Ratified "Constitution on June 21, 1788 (9th)
Succeeded by
"Virginia

"Coordinates: 44°00′N 71°30′W / 44°N 71.5°W / 44; -71.5

) )