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Main article: "Newspaper
Reading the newspaper: "Brookgreen Gardens in "Pawleys Island, "South Carolina.

A newspaper is a lightweight and disposable "publication (more specifically, a "periodical), usually printed on low-cost paper called "newsprint. It may be general or special interest, and may be published daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly, or quarterly.

General-interest newspapers are usually journals of current "news on a variety of topics. Those can include "political events, "crime, "business, "sports, and opinions (either "editorials, "columns, or "political cartoons). Many also include weather news and "forecasts. Newspapers increasingly use photographs to illustrate stories; they also often include "comic strips and other entertainment, such as "crosswords.

Print journalism[edit]

Journalists at work in "Montreal in the 1940s

A story is a single article, "news item or "feature, usually concerning a single event, issue, "theme, or profile of a person. Correspondents report news occurring in the main, locally, from their own country, or from foreign cities where they are stationed.

Most reporters file information or write their stories electronically from remote locations. In many cases, breaking stories are written by staff members, through information collected and submitted by other reporters who are out on the field gathering information for an event that has just occurred and needs to be broadcast instantly. Radio and television reporters often compose stories and report "live" from the scene. Some journalists also interpret the news or offer opinions and analysis to readers, viewers, or listeners. In this role, they are called commentators or columnists.

"Reporters take notes and also take photographs or shoot videos, either on their own, or through a "photographer or camera person. In the second phase, they organize the material, determine the focus or emphasis (identify the peg), and finally write their stories. The story is then "edited by news or copy-editors (U.S. style) or sub-editors in Europe, who function from the news desk. The headline of the story is decided by the news desk, and practically never by the reporter or the writer of the piece. Often, the news desk also heavily re-writes or changes the style and tone of the first draft prepared by the reporter / writer originally. Finally, a collection of stories that have been picked for the newspaper or magazine edition, are laid out on dummy (trial) pages, and after the chief editor has approved the content, style and language in the material, it is sent for "publishing. The writer is given a byline for the piece that is published; his or her name appears alongside the article. This process takes place according to the frequency of the publication. News can be published in a variety of formats ("broadsheet, "tabloid, "magazine and periodical publications) as well as periods (daily, weekly, semi-weekly, fortnightly or monthly).


Cover of "2512, a monthly newsmagazine published in "Réunion.

A newsmagazine, sometimes called news magazine, is a usually weekly magazine featuring articles on current events. News magazines generally go more in-depth into stories than newspapers, trying to give the reader an understanding of the context surrounding important events, rather than just the facts.


A "newsreel was a "documentary film common in the first half of the 20th century, that regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed "news stories.

Created by "Pathé Frères of "France in 1908, this form of film was a staple of the typical North American, "British, and "Commonwealth countries (especially Canada, Australia and New Zealand), and throughout European "cinema programming schedule from the "silent era until the 1960s when television news broadcasting completely supplanted its role.

Online journalism[edit]

Online newspaper and "Online magazine
""Empty newspaper vending boxes on the street, left to right, the Los Angeles Times (cut off), Epoch Times, a San Diego paper (Gone to the Web, sddt.com), a white unnamed box, and the San Diego Business Journal (cut off)
Newspaper "gone to the Web" in California

Online journalism is "reporting and other "journalism produced or distributed via the "Internet. The "Internet has allowed the formal and informal publication of news stories through mainstream media outlets as well as "blogs and other "self-published news stories. Journalists working on the Internet have been referred to as J-Bloggers, a term coined by Australian Media Academic Dr Nicola Goc to describe journalists who [blog] and [blog]gers who produce journalism. "J-Bloggers: Internet bloggers acting in the role of journalists disseminating newsworthy information, who subscribe to the journalistic ideals of an obligation to the truth and the public's right to know".[1]

An early leader was "The News & Observer in "Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

Many news organizations based in other media also distribute news online. How much they take advantage of the medium varies. Some news organizations, such as the Gongwer News Service, use the web only or primarily.

The Internet challenges traditional news organizations in several ways. They may be losing "classified ads to Web sites, which are often targeted by interest instead of geography. The "advertising on news web sites is sometimes insufficient to support the investment.

Even before the Internet, technology and perhaps other factors were dividing people's attention, leading to more but narrower media outlets.

Online journalism also leads to the spread of independent online media such as "openDemocracy and the UK, "Wikinews as well as allowing smaller news organizations to publish to a broad audience, such as "mediastrike.

News coverage and new media[edit]

By covering news, politics, weather, sports, entertainment, and vital events, the daily media shape the dominant cultural, social and political picture of society. Beyond the media networks, independent news sources have evolved to report on events which escape attention or underlie the major stories. In recent years, the "blogosphere has taken reporting a step further, mining down to the experiences and perceptions of individual citizens.

An exponentially growing phenomenon, the blogosphere can be abuzz with news that is overlooked by the press and TV networks. Apropos of this was "Robert F. Kennedy Jr.'s 11,000-word "Rolling Stone article apropos of the "2004 United States presidential election, published June 1, 2006. By June 8, there had been no mainstream coverage of the documented allegations by President John F. Kennedy's nephew. On June 9, this sub-story was covered by a "Seattle Post-Intelligencer article.[2]

Media coverage during the "2008 Mumbai attacks highlighted the use of "new media and Internet social networking tools, including "Twitter and "Flickr, in spreading information about the attacks, observing that Internet coverage was often ahead of more traditional media sources. In response, traditional media outlets included such coverage in their reports.[3] However, several outlets were criticised as they did not check for the reliability and verifiability of the information.[4] Some public opinion research companies have found that a majority or plurality of people in various countries distrust the news media.[5][6]

Media integrity[edit]

Media integrity refers to the ability of a news media outlet to serve the "public interest and "democratic process, making it resilient to institutional "corruption within the media system,[7] economy of influence, conflicting dependence and "political clientelism. Media integrity encompasses following qualities of a media outlet:

The concept was devised particularly for the media systems in the region of "South East Europe,[8] within the project "South East European Media Observatory, gathering organisations which are part of the South East European Network for Professionalization of Media (SEENPM).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Media and Journalism: Theory to Practice (2008) Melbourne: OUP, p45
  2. ^ Public Interest in News Topics Beyond Control of Mainstream Media , June 9, 2006.
  3. ^ As it happened: Mumbai attacks 27 Nov, BBC News, November 27, 2008.
  4. ^ Twitter In Controversial Spotlight Amid Mumbai Attacks, Information Week, November 29, 2008.
  5. ^ Karen Dawisha, Bruce Parrott - 1997, Politics, Power and the Struggle for Democracy in South-East Europe p 164
  6. ^ Frank Newport - 2012, The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion 2011 - Page 335
  7. ^ Lessig, Lawrence. "Institutional Corruption - LessigWiki". wiki.lessig.org. Retrieved 2016-03-11. 
  8. ^ Petković, Brankica, ed. (2014). Media Integrity Matters: Reclaiming Public Service Values in Media and Journalism: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia (PDF). Ljubljana: Peace Institute. 

External links[edit]

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