In 1961 to 1962, Borlaug's dwarf springs wheat strains were sent for multilocation testing in the International Wheat Rust Nursery, organized by the "U.S. Department of Agriculture. In March 1962, a few of these strains were grown in the fields of the "Indian Agricultural Research Institute in Pusa, New Delhi, India. In May 1962, "M. S. Swaminathan, a member of IARI's wheat program, requested of Dr. B. P. Pal, director of IARI, to arrange for the visit of Borlaug to India and to obtain a wide range of dwarf wheat seed possessing the Norin 10 dwarfing genes.["citation needed] The letter was forwarded to the Indian Ministry of Agriculture headed by Shri "C. Subramaniam, which arranged with the Rockefeller Foundation for Borlaug's visit. In March 1963, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Mexican government sent Borlaug and Dr. Robert Glenn Anderson to India to continue his work. He supplied 100 kg (220 lb) of seed from each of the four most promising strains and 630 promising selections in advanced generations to the IARI in October 1963, and test plots were subsequently planted at "Delhi, "Ludhiana, "Pant Nagar, "Kanpur, "Pune and "Indore.["citation needed] Anderson stayed as head of the Rockefeller Foundation Wheat Program in New Delhi until 1975.
During the mid-1960s, the "Indian subcontinent was at war and experienced "minor famine and starvation, which was limited partially by the U.S. shipping a fifth of its wheat production to India in 1966 & 1967. The Indian and "Pakistani bureaucracies and the region's cultural opposition to new agricultural techniques initially prevented Borlaug from fulfilling his desire to immediately plant the new wheat strains there. In 1965, as a response to food shortages, Borlaug imported 550 tons of seeds for the government.
Biologist "Paul R. Ehrlich wrote in his 1968 bestseller "The Population Bomb, "The battle to feed all of humanity is over ... In the 1970s and 1980s hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs embarked upon now." Ehrlich said, "I have yet to meet anyone familiar with the situation who thinks India will be self-sufficient in food by 1971," and "India couldn't possibly feed two hundred million more people by 1980."
In 1965, after extensive testing, Borlaug's team, under Anderson, began its effort by importing about 450 tons of Lerma Rojo and Sonora 64 semi-dwarf seed varieties: 250 tons went to Pakistan and 200 to India. They encountered many obstacles. Their first shipment of wheat was held up in Mexican customs and so it could not be shipped from the port at "Guaymas in time for proper planting.["citation needed] Instead, it was sent via a 30-truck convoy from Mexico to the U.S. port in Los Angeles, encountering delays at the "Mexico - United States border. Once the convoy entered the U.S., it had to take a detour, as the "U.S. National Guard had closed the freeway due to "Watts riots in Los Angeles. When the seeds reached Los Angeles, a Mexican bank refused to honor Pakistan treasury's payment of "US$100,000, because the check contained three misspelled words. Still, the seed was loaded onto a freighter destined for "Bombay, India, and "Karachi, "Pakistan. Twelve hours into the freighter's voyage, war broke out between India and Pakistan over the "Kashmir region. Borlaug received a "telegram from the Pakistani minister of agriculture, "Malik Khuda Bakhsh Bucha: "I'm sorry to hear you are having trouble with my check, but I've got troubles, too. Bombs are falling on my front lawn. Be patient, the money is in the bank ..."
These delays prevented Borlaug's group from conducting the germination tests needed to determine seed quality and proper seeding levels. They started planting immediately, and often worked in sight of "artillery flashes. A week later, Borlaug discovered that his seeds were germinating at less than half the normal rate.["citation needed] It later turned out that the seeds had been damaged in a Mexican warehouse by over-fumigation with a pesticide. He immediately ordered all locations to double their seeding rates.
The initial yields of Borlaug's crops were higher than any ever harvested in "South Asia. The countries subsequently committed to importing large quantities of both the Lerma Rojo 64 and Sonora 64 varieties. In 1966, India imported 18,000 tons—the largest purchase and import of any seed in the world at that time. In 1967, Pakistan imported 42,000 tons, and Turkey 21,000 tons. Pakistan's import, planted on 1.5 million acres (6,100 km²), produced enough wheat to seed the entire nation's wheatland the following year. By 1968, when Ehrlich's book was released, William Gaud of the "United States Agency for International Development was calling Borlaug's work a "Green Revolution". High yields led to a shortage of various utilities—labor to harvest the crops, bullock carts to haul it to the threshing floor, "jute bags, trucks, rail cars, and grain storage facilities. Some local governments were forced to close school buildings temporarily to use them for grain storage.
In Pakistan, wheat yields nearly doubled, from 4.6 million "tons in 1965 to 7.3 million tons in 1970; Pakistan was self-sufficient in wheat production by 1968.["citation needed] Yields were over 21 million tons by 2000. In India, yields increased from 12.3 million tons in 1965 to 20.1 million tons in 1970. By 1974, India was self-sufficient in the production of all cereals. By 2000, India was harvesting a record 76.4 million tons (2.81 billion "bushels) of wheat. Since the 1960s, food production in both nations has increased faster than the rate of population growth.["citation needed] India's use of high-yield farming has prevented an estimated 100 million acres (400,000 km²) of virgin land from being converted into farmland—an area about the size of "California, or 13.6% of the total area of India. The use of these wheat varieties has also had a substantial effect on production in six "Latin American countries, six countries in the "Near and "Middle East, and several others in Africa.["citation needed]
Borlaug's work with wheat contributed to the development of high-yield semi-dwarf indica and japonica "rice cultivars at the "International Rice Research Institute and China's Hunan Rice Research Institute. Borlaug's colleagues at the "Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research also developed and introduced a high-yield variety of rice throughout most of Asia. Land devoted to the semi-dwarf wheat and rice varieties in Asia expanded from 200 acres (0.8 km²) in 1965 to over 40 million acres (160,000 km²) in 1970. In 1970, this land accounted for over 10% of the more productive cereal land in Asia.
For his contributions to the world food supply, Borlaug was awarded the "Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. Norwegian officials notified his wife in Mexico City at 4:00 am, but Borlaug had already left for the test fields in the "Toluca valley, about 40 miles (65 km) west of Mexico City. A chauffeur took her to the fields to inform her husband. According to his daughter, Jeanie Laube, "My mom said, 'You won the Nobel Peace Prize,' and he said, 'No, I haven't', ... It took some convincing ... He thought the whole thing was a hoax". He was awarded the prize on December 10. In his Nobel Lecture the following day, he speculated on his award: "When the Nobel Peace Prize Committee designated me the recipient of the 1970 award for my contribution to the 'green revolution', they were in effect, I believe, selecting an individual to symbolize the vital role of agriculture and food production in a world that is hungry, both for bread and for peace". His speech repeatedly presented improvements in food production within a sober understanding of the context of "population. "The green revolution has won a temporary success in man's war against hunger and deprivation; it has given man a breathing space. If fully implemented, the revolution can provide sufficient food for sustenance during the next three decades. But the frightening power of human reproduction must also be curbed; otherwise the success of the green revolution will be ephemeral only. Most people still fail to comprehend the magnitude and menace of the "Population Monster"...Since man is potentially a rational being, however, I am confident that within the next two decades he will recognize the self-destructive course he steers along the road of irresponsible population growth..."
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Borlaug continually advocated increasing crop yields as a means to curb deforestation. The large role he played in both increasing crop yields and promoting this view has led to this methodology being called by agricultural economists the "Borlaug hypothesis", namely that increasing the productivity of agriculture on the best farmland can help control deforestation by reducing the demand for new farmland. According to this view, assuming that global food demand is on the rise, restricting crop usage to traditional low-yield methods would also require at least one of the following: the world population to decrease, either voluntarily or as a result of mass starvations; or the conversion of forest land into crop land. It is thus argued that high-yield techniques are ultimately saving "ecosystems from destruction. On a global scale, this view holds strictly true "ceteris paribus, if deforestation only occurs to increase land for agriculture. But other land uses exist, such as urban areas, pasture, or fallow, so further research is necessary to ascertain what land has been converted for what purposes, to determine how true this view remains. Increased profits from high-yield production may also induce cropland expansion in any case, although as world food needs decrease, this expansion may decrease as well.
Borlaug's name is nearly synonymous with the "Green Revolution, against which many "criticisms have been mounted over the decades by environmentalists and some nutritionalists. Throughout his years of research, Borlaug's programs often faced opposition by people who consider genetic crossbreeding to be unnatural or to have negative effects. Borlaug's work has been criticized for bringing large-scale "monoculture, "input-intensive farming techniques to countries that had previously relied on "subsistence farming. These farming techniques often reap large profits for U.S. "agribusiness and "agrochemical corporations and have been criticized for widening social inequality in the countries owing to uneven food distribution while forcing a capitalist agenda of U.S. corporations onto countries that had undergone "land reform.
Other concerns of his critics and critics of "biotechnology in general include: that the construction of roads in populated third-world areas could lead to the destruction of wilderness; the crossing of genetic barriers; the inability of crops to fulfill all nutritional requirements; the decreased biodiversity from planting a small number of varieties; the environmental and economic effects of inorganic fertilizer and pesticides; the amount of herbicide sprayed on fields of herbicide-resistant crops.
Borlaug dismissed most claims of critics, but did take certain concerns seriously. He stated that his work has been "a change in the right direction, but it has not transformed the world into a Utopia". Of environmental lobbyists he stated, "some of the environmental lobbyists of the "Western nations are the salt of the earth, but many of them are "elitists. They've never experienced the physical sensation of hunger. They do their lobbying from comfortable office suites in "Washington or "Brussels. If they lived just one month amid the misery of the developing world, as I have for fifty years, they'd be crying out for tractors and fertilizer and irrigation canals and be outraged that fashionable elitists back home were trying to deny them these things".
Following his retirement, Borlaug continued to participate in teaching, research and activism. He spent much of the year based at CIMMYT in Mexico, conducting research, and four months of the year serving at "Texas A&M University, where he had been a distinguished professor of international agriculture since 1984. From 1994 to 2003, Borlaug served on the "International Fertilizer Development Center board of directors. In 1999, the university's Board of Regents named its US$16 million Center for Southern Crop Improvement in honor of Borlaug. He worked in the building's Heep Center, and taught one semester each year.
In the early 1980s, environmental groups that were opposed to Borlaug's methods campaigned against his planned expansion of efforts into Africa. They prompted the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations and the "World Bank to stop funding most of his African agriculture projects. Western European governments were persuaded to stop supplying fertilizer to Africa. According to David Seckler, former Director General of the "International Water Management Institute, "the environmental community in the 1980s went crazy pressuring the donor countries and the big foundations not to support ideas like inorganic fertilizers for Africa."
In 1984, during the "Ethiopian famine, "Ryoichi Sasakawa, the chairman of the Japan Shipbuilding Industry Foundation (now the "Nippon Foundation), contacted the semi-retired Borlaug, wondering why the methods used in Asia were not extended to Africa, and hoping Borlaug could help. He managed to convince Borlaug to help with this new effort, and subsequently founded the Sasakawa Africa Association (SAA) to coordinate the project.
The SAA is a research and "extension organization that aims to increase food production in African countries that are struggling with food shortages. "I assumed we'd do a few years of research first," Borlaug later recalled, "but after I saw the terrible circumstances there, I said, 'Let's just start growing'." Soon, Borlaug and the SAA had projects in seven countries. Yields of maize in developed African countries tripled. Yields of wheat, "sorghum, "cassava, and "cowpeas also increased in these countries. At present, program activities are under way in "Benin, "Burkina Faso, "Ethiopia, "Ghana, "Guinea, "Mali, "Malawi, "Mozambique, "Nigeria, "Tanzania, and "Uganda.
From 1986 to 2009, Borlaug was the President of the SAA. That year, a joint venture between "The Carter Center and SAA was launched called Sasakawa-Global 2000 (SG 2000). The program focuses on food, population and agricultural policy. Since then, more than 8 million small-scale farmers in 15 African countries have been trained in SAA farming techniques, which have helped them to double or triple grain production. Those elements that allowed Borlaug's projects to succeed in India and Pakistan, such as well-organized economies and transportation and irrigation systems, are severely lacking throughout Africa, posing additional obstacles to increasing yields. Because of this, Borlaug's initial projects were restricted to developed regions of the continent.
Despite these setbacks, Borlaug found encouragement. Visiting "Ethiopia in 1994, "Jimmy Carter won Prime Minister "Meles Zenawi's support for a campaign seeking to aid farmers, using the fertilizer "diammonium phosphate and Borlaug's methods. The following season, Ethiopia recorded the largest harvests of major crops in history, with a 32% increase in production, and a 15% increase in average yield over the previous season. For Borlaug, the rapid increase in yields suggested that there was still hope for higher food production throughout sub-Saharan Africa, despite lingering questions and the absence of long-term studies.
The "World Food Prize is an international award recognizing the achievements of individuals who have advanced human development by improving the quality, quantity or availability of food in the world. The prize was created in 1986 by Norman Borlaug, as a way to recognize personal accomplishments, and as a means of education by using the Prize to establish role models for others. The first prize was given to Borlaug's former colleague, "M. S. Swaminathan, in 1987, for his work in India. The next year, Swaminathan used the US$250,000 prize to start the "MS Swaminathan Research Foundation for research on "sustainable development.
At the DuPont Agriculture & Nutrition Media Day held in "Des Moines, "Iowa, on September 25, 2000, Borlaug announced the launch of Norman Borlaug University, an Internet-based learning company for agriculture and food industry personnel. The University was unable to expand the necessary content or customer base, and since late 2001 has been defunct.
The limited potential for land expansion for cultivation worried Borlaug, who, in March 2005, stated that, "we will have to double the world food supply by 2050." With 85% of future growth in food production having to come from lands already in use, he recommends a multidisciplinary research focus to further increase yields, mainly through increased crop immunity to large-scale diseases, such as the rust fungus, which affects all cereals but rice. His dream was to "transfer rice immunity to cereals such as wheat, maize, sorghum and barley, and transfer bread-wheat proteins ("gliadin and "glutenin) to other cereals, especially rice and maize".
Borlaug believed that "genetically modified organisms (GMO) was the only way to increase food production as the world runs out of unused "arable land. GMOs were not inherently dangerous "because we've been genetically modifying plants and animals for a long time. Long before we called it science, people were selecting the best breeds." In a review of Borlaug's 2000 publication entitled Ending world hunger: the promise of biotechnology and the threat of antiscience zealotry, the authors argued that Borlaug's warnings were still true in 2010,
GM crops are as natural and safe as today’s bread wheat, opined Dr. Borlaug, who also reminded agricultural scientists of their moral obligation to stand up to the antiscience crowd and warn policy makers that global food insecurity will not disappear without this new technology and ignoring this reality global food insecurity would make future solutions all the more difficult to achieve.— Rozwadowski and Kagale
According to Borlaug, "Africa, the former Soviet republics, and the "cerrado are the last frontiers. After they are in use, the world will have no additional sizable blocks of arable land left to put into production, unless you are willing to level whole forests, which you should not do. So, future food-production increases will have to come from higher yields. And though I have no doubt yields will keep going up, whether they can go up enough to feed the population monster is another matter. Unless progress with agricultural yields remains very strong, the next century will experience sheer human misery that, on a numerical scale, will exceed the worst of everything that has come before".
Besides increasing the worldwide food supply, early in his career Borlaug stated that taking steps to decrease the rate of "population growth will also be necessary to prevent food shortages. In his Nobel Lecture of 1970, Borlaug stated, "Most people still fail to comprehend the magnitude and menace of the 'Population Monster' ... If it continues to increase at the estimated present rate of two percent a year, the world population will reach 6.5 billion by the year 2000. Currently, with each second, or tick of the clock, about 2.2 additional people are added to the world population. The rhythm of increase will accelerate to 2.7, 3.3, and 4.0 for each tick of the clock by 1980, 1990, and 2000, respectively, unless man becomes more realistic and preoccupied about this impending doom. The tick-tock of the clock will continually grow louder and more menacing each decade. Where will it all end?" However, some observers have suggested that by the 1990s Borlaug had changed his position on population control. They point to a quote from the year 2000 in which he stated: "I now say that the world has the technology—either available or well advanced in the research pipeline—to feed on a sustainable basis a population of 10 billion people. The more pertinent question today is whether farmers and ranchers will be permitted to use this new technology? While the affluent nations can certainly afford to adopt ultra low-risk positions, and pay more for food produced by the so-called 'organic' methods, the one billion chronically undernourished people of the low income, food-deficit nations cannot."  However, Borlaug remained on the advisory board of "Population Media Center, an organization working to stabilize world population, until his death.
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Borlaug died of "lymphoma at the age of 95, on September 12, 2009, in his "Dallas home. Borlaug's children released a statement saying,
We would like his life to be a model for making a difference in the lives of others and to bring about efforts to end human misery for all mankind.
"Prime Minister of India "Manmohan Singh and "President of India "Pratibha Patil paid tribute to Borlaug saying,
Borlaug's life and achievement are testimony to the far-reaching contribution that one man's towering intellect, persistence and scientific vision can make to human peace and progress.
United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) described Borlaug as
... a towering scientist whose work rivals that of the 20th century's other great scientific benefactors of humankind.
"Kofi Annan, former "Secretary-General of the United Nations said,
As we celebrate Dr. Borlaug's long and remarkable life, we also celebrate the long and productive lives that his achievements have made possible for so many millions of people around the world... we will continue to be inspired by his enduring devotion to the poor, needy and vulnerable of our world.
In 1968, Borlaug received what he considered an especially satisfying tribute when the people of "Ciudad Obregón, where some of his earliest experiments were undertaken, named a street after him. Also in that year, he became a member of the U.S. "National Academy of Sciences.
In 1970, he was given an "honorary doctorate by the "Agricultural University of Norway.
In 1970, he was awarded the "Nobel Peace Prize by the "Norwegian Nobel Committee "for his contributions to the 'green revolution' that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."
In 1974, he was awarded a Peace Medal (in the form of a dove, carrying a wheat ear in its beak) by "Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India.
In 1975, he was named a Distinguished Fellow of the "Iowa Academy of Science.
In 1980, he received the S. Roger Horchow Award for Greatest Public Service by a Private Citizen, an award given out annually by "Jefferson Awards.
In 1980, he was elected honorary member of the "Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
In 1984, his name was placed in the National Agricultural Hall of Fame at the national center in "Bonner Springs, "Kansas. Also that year, he was recognized for sustained service to humanity through outstanding contributions in plant breeding from the Governors Conference on Agriculture Innovations in "Little Rock, "Arkansas. Also in 1984, he received the Henry G. Bennet Distinguished Service Award at commencement ceremonies at "Oklahoma State University. He recently received the "Charles A. Black Award for his contributions to public policy and the "public understanding of science.
In 1985, the University of Minnesota named a wing of the new science building in Borlaug's honor, calling it "Borlaug Hall."
In 1986, Borlaug was inducted into the "Scandinavian-American Hall of Fame during Norsk Høstfest.
Borlaug was elected a "Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1987.
In 2012, a new elementary school in the Iowa City, IA school district opened, called "Norman Borlaug Elementary".
On 19 August 2013, his statue was unveiled inside the "ICAR's NASC Complex at "New Delhi, "India.
On 25 March 2014, a statue of Borlaug at the "United States Capitol was unveiled in a ceremony on the 100th anniversary of his birth.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, Borlaug received the 1977 U.S. "Presidential Medal of Freedom, the 2002 "Public Welfare Medal from the National Academy of Sciences, the 2002 "Rotary International Award for World Understanding and Peace, and the 2004 "National Medal of Science. As of January 2004, Borlaug had received 49 honorary degrees from as many universities, in 18 countries, the most recent from Dartmouth College on June 12, 2005, and was a foreign or honorary member of 22 international Academies of Sciences. In Iowa and Minnesota, ""World Food Day", October 16, is referred to as "Norman Borlaug World Food Prize Day". Throughout the United States, it is referred to as ""World Food Prize Day".
The "Government of India, where he is known as the Father of India's Green Revolution, conferred the "Padma Vibhushan, its second highest civilian award on him in 2006. He was awarded the Danforth Award for Plant Science by the "Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St Louis, "Missouri in recognition of his lifelong commitment to increasing global agricultural production through plant science.
Several research institutions and buildings have been named in his honor, including: the Norman E. Borlaug Center for Farmer Training and Education, "Santa Cruz de la Sierra, "Bolivia, in 1983; Borlaug Hall, on the "St. Paul Campus of the "University of Minnesota in 1985; Borlaug Building at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) headquarters in 1986; the Norman Borlaug Institute for Plant Science Research at "De Montfort University, "Leicester, United Kingdom in 1997; and the Norman E. Borlaug Center for Southern Crop Improvement, at Texas A&M University in 1999. In 2006, the Texas A&M University System created the Norman Borlaug Institute for International Agriculture["citation needed] to be a premier institution for agricultural development and to continue the legacy of Dr. Borlaug.
The "stained-glass World Peace Window at "St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral in "Minneapolis, "Minnesota, depicts "peace makers" of the 20th century, including Norman Borlaug. Borlaug was also prominently mentioned in an episode (""In This White House") of the TV show "The West Wing. The president of a fictional African country describes the kind of ""miracle" needed to save his country from the ravages of "AIDS by referencing an American scientist who was able to save the world from hunger through the development of a new type of wheat. The U.S. president replies by providing Borlaug's name.
Borlaug was also featured in an episode of "Penn & Teller: Bullshit!, where he was referred to as the "Greatest Human Being That Ever Lived". In that episode, "Penn & Teller play a card game where each card depicts a great person in history. Each player picks a few cards at random, and bets on whether one thinks one's card shows a greater person than the other players' cards based on a characterization such as humanitarianism or scientific achievement. Penn gets Norman Borlaug, and proceeds to bet all his chips, his house, his rings, his watch, and essentially everything he's ever owned. He wins because, as he says, "Norman is the greatest human being, and you've probably never heard of him." In the episode—the topic of which was genetically altered food—he is credited with saving the lives of over a billion people.
In August 2006, Dr. Leon Hesser published The Man Who Fed the World: Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Norman Borlaug and His Battle to End World Hunger, an account of Borlaug's life and work. On August 4, the book received the 2006 Print of Peace award, as part of International Read For Peace Week.
On September 27, 2006, the "United States Senate by unanimous consent passed the Congressional Tribute to Dr. Norman E. Borlaug Act of 2006. The act authorizes that Borlaug be awarded America's highest civilian award, the "Congressional Gold Medal. On December 6, 2006, the House of Representatives passed the measure by voice vote. President George Bush signed the bill into law on December 14, 2006, and it became Public Law Number 109–395. According to the act, "the number of lives Dr. Borlaug has saved [is] more than a billion people" The act authorizes the "Secretary of the Treasury to strike and sell duplicates of the medal in bronze. He was presented with the medal on July 17, 2007.
Borlaug was a foreign fellow of the Bangladesh Academy of Sciences.
The "Borlaug Dialogue (Norman E. Borlaug International Symposium) is named in his honour.
An assistant to the family says she fell recently and never recovered.
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