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A nymph ("Greek: νύμφη, nýmphē "[nýmpʰɛː]) in "Greek and "Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform. Different from other "goddesses, nymphs are generally regarded as divine spirits who animate nature, and are usually depicted as beautiful, young "nubile maidens who love to dance and sing; their amorous freedom sets them apart from the restricted and "chaste wives and daughters of the Greek "polis. They are beloved by many and dwell in mountainous regions and forests by lakes and streams. Although they would never die of old age nor illness, and could give birth to fully "immortal children if mated to a god, they themselves were not necessarily immortal, and could be beholden to death in various forms. "Charybdis and "Scylla were once nymphs.
Other nymphs, always in the shape of young maidens, were part of the "retinue of a god, such as "Dionysus, "Hermes, or "Pan, or a goddess, generally the huntress "Artemis. Nymphs were the frequent target of "satyrs.
Nymphs are personifications of the creative and fostering activities of nature, most often identified with the life-giving outflow of springs: as "Walter Burkert (Burkert 1985:III.3.3) remarks, "The idea that rivers are gods and springs divine nymphs is deeply rooted not only in poetry but in belief and ritual; the worship of these deities is limited only by the fact that they are inseparably identified with a specific locality."
The "Greek word νύμφη has "bride" and "veiled" among its meanings: hence a marriageable young woman. Other readers refer the word (and also "Latin nubere and "German Knospe) to a root expressing the idea of "swelling" (according to "Hesychius, one of the meanings of νύμφη is "rose-bud").
The Greek nymphs were spirits invariably bound to places, not unlike the Latin "genius loci, and the difficulty of transferring their cult may be seen in the complicated myth that brought "Arethusa to Sicily. In the works of the Greek-educated "Latin poets, the nymphs gradually absorbed into their ranks the indigenous Italian divinities of springs and streams ("Juturna, "Egeria, "Carmentis, "Fontus), while the "Lymphae (originally Lumpae), Italian water-goddesses, owing to the accidental similarity of their names, could be identified with the Greek Nymphae. The mythologies of classicizing Roman poets were unlikely to have affected the rites and cult of individual nymphs venerated by country people in the springs and clefts of "Latium. Among the "Roman literate class, their sphere of influence was restricted, and they appear almost exclusively as divinities of the watery element.
In modern Greek folklore
The ancient Greek belief in nymphs survived in many parts of the country into the early years of the twentieth century, when they were usually known as ""nereids". At that time, John Cuthbert Lawson wrote: "...there is probably no nook or hamlet in all Greece where the womenfolk at least do not scrupulously take precautions against the thefts and malice of the nereids, while many a man may still be found to recount in all good faith stories of their beauty, passion and caprice.
"Nor is it a matter of faith only; more than once I have been in villages where certain Nereids were known by sight to several persons (so at least they averred); and there was a wonderful agreement among the witnesses in the description of their appearance and dress."
Nymphs tended to frequent areas distant from humans but could be encountered by lone travelers outside the village, where their music might be heard, and the traveler could spy on their dancing or bathing in a stream or pool, either during the noon heat or in the middle of the night. They might appear in a whirlwind. Such encounters could be dangerous, bringing dumbness, besotted infatuation, madness or stroke to the unfortunate human. When parents believed their child to be nereid-struck, they would pray to Saint Artemidos.
Modern sexual connotations
A Sleeping Nymph Watched by a Shepherd
by "Angelica Kauffman
, about 1780, (V&A Museum no. 23-1886)
Due to the depiction of the mythological nymphs as females who mate with men or women freely and without care, the term is often related to women who are perceived as behaving similarly. (For example, the title of the "Perry Mason detective novel The Case of the Negligent Nymph (1956) by "Erle Stanley Gardner is derived from this meaning of the word.)
The term "nymphomania was created by modern "psychology as referring to a "desire to engage in "human sexual behavior at a level high enough to be considered clinically significant", nymphomaniac being the person suffering from such a disorder. Due to widespread use of the term among lay persons (often shortened to nympho) and stereotypes attached, professionals nowadays prefer the term "hypersexuality, which can refer to males and females alike.
The word "nymphet is used to identify a sexually precocious girl. The term was made famous in the novel "Lolita by "Vladimir Nabokov. The main character, "Humbert Humbert, uses the term many times, usually in reference to the title character.
As "H.J. Rose states, all the names for various classes of nymphs are plural feminine adjectives agreeing with the substantive nymphai, and there was no single classification that could be seen as canonical and exhaustive. Thus, the classes of nymphs tend to overlap, which complicates the task of precise classification. Rose mentions "dryads and "hamadryads as nymphs of trees generally, "meliai as nymphs of "ash trees, and "naiads as nymphs of water, but no others specifically.
Classification by type of dwelling
The following is not the authentic Greek classification, but is intended simply as a guide:
- Celestial nymphs
- "Aurae (breezes), also called Aetae or Pnoae
- Asteriae (stars), mainly comprising the "Atlantides (daughters of "Atlas)
- "Nephele (clouds)
- Land nymphs
- Wood and plant nymphs
- Water nymphs (Hydriades or Ephydriades)
- Underworld nymphs
- Cocytiae, daughters of the river god "Cocytus
- "Lampades – torch bearers in the retinue of "Hecate
- Underworld nymphs:
- "Orphne is a representation of the darkness of the river "Styx, the river of hatred, but is not to be confused with the goddess Styx-herself, but she is associated with both Styx and "Nyx. She is the consort of "Acheron, (the god of the river in Hades), and the mother of "Ascalaphus, (the "orchardist of Hades).
- "Leuce ("white poplar tree), lover of "Hades
- "Minthe ("mint), lover of "Hades, rival of "Persephone
- "Melinoe (μήλινος) "Orphic nymph, daughter of "Persephone and "Zeus disguised as "Pluto". Her name is a possible epithet of "Hecate.
- Other nymphs
- Hecaterides (rustic dance) – sisters of the "Dactyls, mothers of the Oreads and the "Satyrs
- Kabeirides – sisters of the "Kabeiroi
- "Maenads or Bacchai or Bacchantes – frenzied nymphs in the retinue of "Dionysus
- Lenai (wine-press)
- Mimallones (music)
- Naides ("Naiads)
- Thyiai or Thyiades ("thyrsus bearers)
- Melissae (honey bees), likely a subgroup of Oreades or Epimelides
- "The Muses (memory, knowledge, art)
- Themeides – daughters of "Zeus and "Themis, prophets and keepers of certain divine artifacts
Location-specific groupings of nymphs
The following is a list of groups of nymphs associated with this or that particular location. Nymphs in such groupings could belong to any of the classes mentioned above (Naiades, Oreades, and so on).
- Aeaean Nymphs ("Aeaea Island), handmaidens of "Circe
- Aegaeides (Aegaeus River on the island of "Scheria)
- Aesepides ("Aesepus River in "Anatolia)
- Acheloides ("Achelous River)
- Acmenes (Stadium in "Olympia, "Elis)
- Amnisiades (Amnisos River on the island of "Crete), who entered the retinue of "Artemis
- "Anigrides (Anigros River in "Elis), who were believed to cure skin diseases
- "Asopides ("Asopus River in "Sicyonia and "Boeotia)
- Astakides (Lake Astakos in "Bithynia)
- Asterionides ("Asterion River) – nurses of "Hera
- Carian Naiades ("Caria)
- Nymphs of "Ceos
- "Corycian Nymphs ("Corycian Cave)
- Cydnides (River "Cydnus in "Cilicia)
- Cyrenaean Nymphs (City of "Cyrene, Libya)
- Cypriae Nymphs (Island of "Cyprus)
- Cyrtonian Nymphs (Town of Cyrtone, "Boeotia)
- Deliades (Island of "Delos) – daughters of the river god Inopos
- Dodonides (Oracle at "Dodona)
- Erasinides (Erasinos River in "Argos), followers of "Britomartis
- Nymphs of the river "Granicus
- "Heliades (River "Eridanos) – daughters of "Helios who were changed into trees
- Himeriai Naiades (Local springs at the town of "Himera, "Sicily)
- Hydaspides (River "Hydaspes in "India), nurses of infant "Zagreus
- Idaean Nymphs ("Mount Ida), nurses of infant "Zeus
- Inachides ("Inachus River)
- "Ionides ("Kytheros River in "Elis)
- Ithacian Nymphs (Local springs and caves on the island of "Ithaca)
- Ladonides ("Ladon River)
- Lamides or Lamusides ("Lamos River in "Cilicia), possible nurses of infant "Dionysus
- Leibethrides (Mounts "Helicon and Leibethrios in "Boeotia; or Mount Leibethros in "Thrace)
- Lelegeides ("Lycia, "Anatolia)
- Lycaean Nymphs (Mount "Lycaeus), nurses of infant Zeus, perhaps a subgroup of the Oceanides
- Melian Nymphs (Island of "Melos), transformed into frogs by Zeus; not to be confused with the Meliae (ash tree nymphs)
- Mycalessides (Mount "Mycale in "Caria, "Anatolia)
- Mysian Nymphs (Spring of Pegai near Lake Askanios in "Bithynia), who abducted "Hylas
- Naxian Nymphs (Mount Drios on the island of "Naxos), nurses of infant Dionysus; were syncretized with the "Hyades
- Neaerides ("Thrinacia Island) – daughters of "Helios and "Neaera, watched over Helios' cattle
- Nymphaeides (Nymphaeus River in "Paphlagonia)
- "Nysiads (Mount "Nysa) – nurses of infant "Dionysos, identified with "Hyades
- Ogygian Nymphs (Island of "Ogygia), four handmaidens of "Calypso
- Ortygian Nymphs (Local springs of "Syracuse, "Sicily), named for the island of "Ortygia
- Othreides (Mount "Othrys), a local group of "Hamadryads
- Pactolides ("Pactolus River)
- Pelionides (Mount "Pelion), nurses of the "Centaurs
- Phaethonides, a synonym for the "Heliades
- Phaseides ("Phasis River)
- Rhyndacides ("Rhyndacus River in "Mysia)
- Sithnides (Fountain at the town of "Megara)
- Spercheides (River "Spercheios); one of them, Diopatra, was loved by "Poseidon and the others were changed by him into trees
- Sphragitides, or Cithaeronides (Mount "Cithaeron)
- Tagids, Tajids, Thaejids or Thaegids (River Tagus, in Portugal and Spain)
- Thessalides ("Peneus River in "Thessaly)
- "Thriae (Mount "Parnassos), prophets and nurses of "Apollo
- Trojan Nymphs (Local springs of "Troy)
Individual names of some of the nymphs
The following is a selection of names of the nymphs whose class was not specified in the source texts. For lists of Naiads, Oceanids, Dryades etc. see respective articles.
- "Aba, mother of Ergiscus by Poseidon
- Aora, "eponym of the town Aoros in "Crete
- "Axioche or Danais, mother of "Chrysippus by "Pelops
- Brettia, eponym of Abrettene, "Mysia
- Chania, a lover of "Heracles
- Cirrha, eponym of "Cirrha in "Phocis
- Clonia, consort of "Hyrieus
- Cnossia, mother of Xenodamus by "Menelaus
- Cretheis, briefly mentioned in "Suda
- Crimisa, eponym of "a city in Italy
- "Dercetis, known for seducing the young Lapithaon
- Echemeia (spelled "Ethemea" by "Hyginus), consort of "Merops
- Eunoe, possible mother of "Hecuba by Dymas
- Eunoste, nurse of "Eunostus
- "Hegetoria of "Rhodes, consort of "Ochimus
- Hyllis of "Argos, possible eponym of the tribe Hylleis and the city Hylle
- Mendeis, consort of "Sithon
- Menodice, mother of "Hylas by "Theiodamas
- "Mideia, mother of Aspledon by Poseidon
- Nacole, eponym of Nacoleia in Phrygia
- "Nomia of Arcadia, a friend of "Callisto
- Oinoie, mother of Sicinus by "Thoas
- Paphia, possibly the mother of "Cinyras by Eurymedon
- Pareia, mother of four sons by "Minos
- "Psalacantha, changed into a plant by Dionysus
- "Rhene of Mount Cyllene, who consorted with both "Hermes and "Oileus
- Semestra, nurse of "Keroessa
- Syllis, mother of "Zeuxippus by Apollo
- Teledice, a consort of "Phoroneus
In non-Greek tales influenced by Greek mythology
The statue of a sleeping nymph in a grotto at "Stourhead
A motif that entered European art during the "Renaissance was the idea of a statue of a nymph sleeping in a "grotto or spring. This motif supposedly came from an Italian report of a Roman sculpture of a nymph at a fountain above the "River Danube. The report, and an accompanying poem supposedly on the fountain describing the sleeping nymph, are now generally concluded to be a fifteenth-century forgery, but the motif proved influential among artists and landscape gardeners for several centuries after, with copies seen at neoclassical gardens such as the grotto at "Stourhead.
- ^ But see Jennifer Larson, "Handmaidens of Artemis?", The Classical Journal 92.3 (February 1997), pp. 249–257.
- ^ Lawson, John Cuthbert (1910). Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion (1st ed.). Cambridge: "Cambridge University Press. p. 131.
- ^ "heathen Artemis yielded her functions to her own genitive case transformed into Saint Artemidos", as "Terrot Reaveley Glover phrased it in discussing the "practical polytheism in the worship of the saints", in Progress in Religion to the Christian Era 1922:107.
- ^ Tomkinson, John L. (2004). Haunted Greece: Nymphs, Vampires and Other Exotika (1st ed.). Athens: Anagnosis. chapter 3. "ISBN "960-88087-0-7.
- ^ "Rose, Herbert Jennings (1959). A Handbook of Greek Mythology (1st ed.). New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. p. 173. "ISBN "0-525-47041-7.
- ^ Theoi Project – Classification of Nymphs
- ^ Orphic Hymn 71.
- ^ Theoi Project – List of Nymphs
- ^ "Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Aōros
- ^ Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. Abrettēnē
- ^ "Pausanias, Description of Greece, 10. 37. 5
- ^ Suda s. v. Kretheus
- ^ "Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Krimisa
- ^ Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Hylleis
- ^ "Suda s. v. Nakoleia
- ^ "The Nymph of the Spring". National Gallery of Art. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
- ^ Stephen John Campbell (2004). The Cabinet of Eros: Renaissance Mythological Painting and the Studiolo of Isabella D'Este. Yale University Press. pp. 95–6. "ISBN "0-300-11753-1.
- ^ Maryan Wynn Ainsworth; Joshua P. Waterman; Dorothy Mahon (2013). German Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1350-1600. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 95–6. "ISBN "978-1-58839-487-3.
- ^ Jay A. Levenson; National Gallery of Art (U.S.) (1991). Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Yale University Press. p. 260. "ISBN "978-0-300-05167-4.
- ^ Leonard Barkan (1999). Unearthing the Past: Archaeology and Aesthetics in the Making of Renaissance Culture. Yale University Press. pp. 237–8. "ISBN "978-0-300-08911-0.
- ^ Elisabeth B. MacDougall (January 1994). Fountains, Statues, and Flowers: Studies in Italian Gardens of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Dumbarton Oaks. pp. 37–56. "ISBN "978-0-88402-216-9.
- ^ Kenneth Gross (1992). The Dream of the Moving Statue. Cornell University Press. pp. 170–175. "ISBN "0-8014-2702-9.
- "Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek Religion (1st ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. "ISBN "0-674-36281-0.
- Larson, Jennifer Lynn (2001). Greek Nymphs: Myth, Cult, Lore. New York: "Oxford University Press. "ISBN "0-19-514465-1.
- Lawson, John Cuthbert, Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1910, p. 131
- paleothea.com homepage
- Tomkinson, John L., Haunted Greece: Nymphs, Vampires and other Exotika, Anagnosis, Athens, 2004, "ISBN "960-88087-0-7
- "" This article incorporates text from a publication now in the "public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Nymphs". "Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 930.
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