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Oder (Odra)
River
""Oder bei Kienitz.JPG
Oder between Kienitz and Zollbrücke, Germany
Countries "Poland, "Czech Republic, "Germany
Source
 - location Fidlův kopec, Oderské vrchy, Nízký Jeseník, "Olomouc District, "Olomouc Region, "Moravia, "Czech Republic
 - elevation 634 m (2,080 ft)
 - coordinates 49°36′47″N 017°31′15″E / 49.61306°N 17.52083°E / 49.61306; 17.52083
Mouth "Szczecin Lagoon
 - location Baltic Sea, "Poland
 - coordinates 53°40′19″N 14°31′25″E / 53.67194°N 14.52361°E / 53.67194; 14.52361"Coordinates: 53°40′19″N 14°31′25″E / 53.67194°N 14.52361°E / 53.67194; 14.52361
Length 854 km (531 mi)
Basin 118,861 km2 (45,892 sq mi)
Discharge "mouth
 - average 574 m3/s (20,271 cu ft/s)
""Oder.png
Polen = Poland, Deutschland = Germany, and Tschechien = Czech Republic
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Oder in "Wrocław
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The Oder view from Ziegenwerder Island in "Frankfurt (Oder), Germany to "Słubice, Poland
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Estuary of the "Lusatian Neisse into the Oder
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Oder in "Szczecin, Wały Chrobrego
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Łarpia, a left "distributary of Oder in winter, The Old Town of "Police, Poland

The Oder ("/ˈdər/; "Czech, "Lower Sorbian and "Polish: Odra, "German: Oder, "Upper Sorbian: Wódra)[1] is a "river in "Central Europe. It rises in the Czech Republic and flows (generally north- and northwest-ward) through western "Poland, later forming 187 kilometres (116 mi) of the border between Poland and Germany, part of the "Oder–Neisse line. The river ultimately flows into the "Szczecin Lagoon north of "Szczecin and then into three branches (the "Dziwna, "Świna and "Peene) that empty into the Gulf of Pomerania of the "Baltic Sea.

Contents

Names[edit]

The Oder is known by several names in different languages, but the modern ones are very similar: English and German: Oder; Czech, Polish, and "Lower Sorbian: Odra, "Upper Sorbian: Wódra; "Kashubian: Òdra (pronounced "[ˈwɛdra]); "Medieval Latin: Od(d)era; "Renaissance Latin: Viadrus (invented in 1534).

"Ptolemy knew the modern Oder as the Συήβος (Suebos; "Latin Suevus), a name apparently derived from the "Suebi, a Germanic people. While he also refers to an outlet in the area as the Οὐιαδούα Ouiadoua (or Οὐιλδούα Ouildoua; Latin Viadua or Vildua), this was apparently the modern "Wieprz, as it was said to be a third of the distance between the Suebos and "Vistula.[2][3] The name Suebos may be preserved in the modern name of the "Świna river (German Swine), an outlet from the "Szczecin Lagoon to the Baltic.

In the "Old Church Slavonic language, the name of the river is Vjodr.[4]

Geography[edit]

The Oder is 854 kilometres (531 miles) long: 112 km (70 miles) in the Czech Republic, 742 km (461 miles) in Poland (including 187 km (116 miles) on the border between Germany and Poland) and is the second longest river in Poland (after the Vistula). It drains a basin of 118,861 square kilometres (45,892 sq mi), 106,056 km2 (40,948 sq mi) of which are in Poland (89%), 7,217 km2 (2,786 sq mi) in the Czech Republic (6%), and 5,587 km2 (2,157 sq mi)in Germany (5%). Channels connect it to the "Havel, "Spree, Vistula system and "Kłodnica. It flows through "Silesian, "Opole, "Lower Silesian, "Lubusz, and "West Pomeranian voivodeships of Poland and the states of "Brandenburg and "Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany.

The main branch empties into the Szczecin Lagoon near "Police, Poland. The Szczecin Lagoon is bordered on the north by the islands of "Usedom (west) and "Wolin (east). Between these two islands, there is only a narrow channel (Świna) going to the "Bay of Pomerania, which forms a part of the Baltic Sea.

The largest city on the Oder is "Wrocław, in "Lower Silesia.

Navigation[edit]

The Oder is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as the town of "Koźle, where the river connects to the "Gliwice Canal. The upstream part of the river is canalized and permits larger barges (up to CEMT Class IV) to navigate between the industrial sites around the Wrocław area.

Further downstream the river is free flowing, passing the towns of "Eisenhüttenstadt (where the "Oder–Spree Canal connects the river to the Spree in Berlin) and "Frankfurt upon Oder. Downstream of Frankfurt the river "Warta forms a navigable connection with "Poznań and "Bydgoszcz for smaller vessels. At "Hohensaaten the "Oder–Havel Canal connects with the Berlin waterways again.

Near its mouth the Oder reaches the city of "Szczecin, a major maritime port. The river finally reaches the Baltic Sea through the Szczecin Lagoon and the river mouth at "Świnoujście.[5]

History[edit]

The river in "Germania Magna was known to the "Romans as the Viadrus or Viadua in "Classical Latin, as it was a branch of the "Amber Road from the Baltic Sea to the "Roman Empire (see "via). In German language it was and is called the Oder, written in older records as Odera or Oddera in Medieval Latin documents. It was mentioned in the "Dagome iudex, which described territory of the "Duchy of Poland under "Mieszko I of Poland ca. 990, as a part of duchy's western frontier.

Before "Slavs settled along its banks, the Oder was an important trade route and towns in Germania were documented along with many tribes living between the rivers "Albis (aka Elbe), Oder, and Vistula. Centuries later, after Germanic tribes were long gone, the "Bavarian Geographer (ca. 845) specifies the following "West Slavic peoples: "Sleenzane, Dadosesani, "Opoloni, Lupiglaa, and Golensizi in "Silesia and Wolinians and "Pyrzycans in "Western Pomerania. A document of the Bishopric of "Prague (1086) mentions Zlasane, Trebovyane, Poborane, and Dedositze in Silesia.

In the 13th century, the first dams were built to protect agricultural lands.

The "Finow Canal, first built in 1605, connects the Oder and Havel. After completion of the more straight Oder–Havel Canal in 1914, its economic relevance decreased.

The earliest important undertaking with a view to improving the waterway was initiated by "Frederick the Great, who recommended diverting the river into a new and straight channel in the swampy tract known as "Oderbruch near "Küstrin. The work was carried out in the years 1746–53, a large tract of marshland being brought under cultivation, a considerable detour cut off and the main stream successfully confined to a canal.

In the late 19th century, three additional alterations were made to the waterway:

By the "Treaty of Versailles, navigation on the Oder became subject to International Commission of the Oder.[6] Following the articles 363 and 364 of the Treaty "Czechoslovakia was entitled to lease in Stettin (now Szczecin) its own section in the harbour, then called Tschechoslowakische Zone im Hafen Stettin.[7] The contract of lease between Czechoslovakia and "Germany, and supervised by the United Kingdom, was signed on February 16, 1929, and would end in 2028, however, after 1945 Czechoslovakia did not regain this legal position, de facto abolished in 1938–39.

At the 1943 "Tehran Conference the allies decided that the new Eastern border of Germany would run along the Oder[8] but after World War II, the Oder and the "Lusatian Neisse formed the "Oder–Neisse line, which was designated by the victorious "allies at the "Potsdam Conference as the new border between Poland and Germany. A significant percentage of the German populations east of these two rivers were evacuated by the "Nazis or fled before the approaching "Red Army. After the war, the remaining population was "forcibly expelled in accordance with the "Potsdam Agreement.[9] East Germany confirmed the border with Poland in 1950, then West Germany, after a period of refusal, finally accepted the border in 1970. In 1990 newly reunified Germany and the "Republic of Poland signed a treaty recognizing it as their border.

Cities[edit]

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Oder in "Police, Poland

Main section:

"Ostrava – "Bohumín – "Racibórz – "Kędzierzyn-Koźle – "Krapkowice – "Opole – "Brzeg – "Oława – "Jelcz-Laskowice – "Wrocław – "Brzeg Dolny – "Ścinawa – "Szlichtyngowa – "Głogów – "Bytom Odrzański – "Nowa Sól – "Zielona Góra – "Krosno Odrzańskie – "Eisenhüttenstadt – "Frankfurt (Oder) – "Słubice – "Kostrzyn – "Cedynia – "Schwedt – "Vierraden – "Gartz – "Gryfino – "Szczecin – "Police

Dziwna branch (between "Wolin Island and mainland Poland):

"Wolin – "Kamień Pomorski – "Dziwnów

Świna branch (between Wolin and the "Usedom islands):

"Świnoujście

Szczecin Lagoon:

"Nowe Warpno – "Ueckermünde

Peene branch (between Usedom Island and the German mainland):

"Usedom – "Lassan – "Wolgast

Eastern tributaries[edit]

"Ostravice – "OlzaRudaBierawka – "KłodnicaCzarnka – "Mała PanewStobrawa – "WidawaJezierzyca – "BaryczKrzycki RówObrzycaJabłonnaPliszkaOłobokGryżynka – "Warta with the "NotećMyślaKurzycaStubiaRurzyca – "Tywa – "Płonia – "Ina – "Gowienica - "Śmieszka

Western tributaries[edit]

"Opava – Psina (Cyna) – Cisek – Olszówka – Stradunia – "Osobłoga – Prószkowski Potok – "Nysa Kłodzka – Oława – "Ślęza – Bystrzyca – Średzka Woda – Cicha Woda – "Kaczawa – Ślepca – "Zimnica – Dębniak – Biała Woda – Czarna Struga – Śląska Ochla – Zimny Potok – "Bóbr – Olcha – Racza – "Lusatian Neisse – "Finow – "Gunica

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Czech pronunciation: "[ˈodra], Polish pronunciation: "[ˈɔdra]
  2. ^ Claudius Ptolemaios: Geographike Hyphegesis, Kap. 11: Germania Magna. (altgriech./lat./engl.)
  3. ^ Ralf Loock: Mündungen der Flüsse bestimmt. In: Märkische Oderzeitung, Frankfurt 2008,3 (März); Ralf Loock: Namenskrimi um Viadrus in: Märkische Oderzeitung – Journal. Frankfurt 25./26. Nov. 2006, S. 2; siehe auch Alfred Stückelberger, Gerd Graßhoff (Hrsg.): Ptolemaios – Handbuch der Geographie. Schwabe, Basel 2006, S. 223, "ISBN "3-7965-2148-7
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica's 9th edition 1870–1890: Oder&
  5. ^ NoorderSoft Waterways Database Archived November 9, 2005, at the "Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ The commission was staffed with one representative of Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, "Poland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom each and three representatives of "Prussia, being the German state competent for the navigable section of the Oder, comprised within the latter's borders. Cf. Der Große Brockhaus: Handbuch des Wissens in zwanzig Bänden: 21 Bde., completely revised ed., Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 151928-1935, vol 13 (1932): Dreizehnter Band Mue–Ost, article: 'Oder', pp. 600seq., here p. 601. No ISBN.
  7. ^ Cf. Archiwum Państwowe w Szczecinie (State Archive of Szczecin), Rep. 126, Krajowy Urząd Skarbowy w Szczecinie [1]
  8. ^ Allen DJ (2003) The Oder-Neisse line: the United States, Poland, and Germany in the Cold War, Praeger P13
  9. ^ XII. ORDERLY TRANSFER OF GERMAN POPULATIONS. The Three Governments, having considered the question in all its aspects, recognize that the transfer to Germany of German populations, or elements thereof, remaining in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, will have to be undertaken. They agree that any transfers that take place should be effected in an orderly and humane manner.

External links[edit]

"" This article incorporates text from a publication now in the "public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Oder". "Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2–3. 

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