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Two New Hampshire residents openly carrying holstered pistols.

In the "United States, open carry refers to the practice of "openly carrying a "firearm in public", as distinguished from "concealed carry, where firearms cannot be seen by the casual observer. The practice of open carry, where gun owners openly carry firearms while they go about their daily business, has seen an increase in the U.S. in recent years.[1][2] This has been marked by a number of organized events intended to increase the visibility of open carry and public awareness about the practice.[3] Proponents of open carry point to history and statistics, noting that criminals usually conceal their weapons, a stark contrast to the law-abiding citizens who display their sidearms.[4] Encouraged by groups like The Modern American Revolution,[5] OpenCarry.org, "GeorgiaCarry.org and some participants of the "Free State Project, open carry has seen a revival in recent years,[6][7][8] but it is not yet clear if this represents just a short-term trend.[9][10]

The "gun rights community has become supportive of the practice. "Alan Gottlieb of the "Second Amendment Foundation has been cautious in expressing support,[11] while groups such as the aforementioned OpenCarry.org and GeorgiaCarry.org, and certain national groups such as the "NRA and "Gun Owners of America (GOA) have been more outspoken in favor of the practice.

Open carry is strongly opposed by "gun control groups such as the "Brady Campaign and the "Coalition to Stop Gun Violence.[12][13]



A man openly carrying a handgun at a fast food restaurant in "Eagle, Colorado.
Open carry
The act of publicly carrying a firearm on one's person in plain sight.
Plain sight
Broadly defined as not being hidden from common observation; varies somewhat from state to state. Some states specify that open carry occurs when the weapon is "partially visible," while other jurisdictions require the weapon to be "fully visible" to be considered carried openly.
Loaded weapon
Definition varies from state to state. Depending on state law, a weapon may be considered "loaded" under one of the following criteria:
  • Only when a live round of ammunition is in the "firing chamber of the weapon
  • When a magazine with ammunition is inserted into the firearm, regardless of whether or not a round is in the chamber
  • When a person has both the firearm and its ammunition in his or her possession (or readily accessible, in some instances), without regard as to whether a round is in the chamber or a magazine with ammunition is inserted into the firearm (most common legal definition in "gun-control" states)
In the context of open carry: the act of a state legislature passing laws which limit or eliminate the ability of local governments to regulate the possession or carrying of firearms.
Prohibited persons
This refers to people who are prohibited by law from carrying a firearm. Typical examples are "felons, those convicted of a "misdemeanor of "domestic violence, those found to be "addicted to alcohol or drugs, those who have been involuntarily committed to a "mental institution, and those who have been "dishonorably discharged from the "United States Armed Forces.

Categories of law[edit]

Today in the United States, the laws vary from state to state regarding open carry of firearms. The categories are defined as follows:

A hunter carrying a revolver in a visible rear holster.
Permissive open carry states
a state has passed full preemption of all firearms laws, with few exceptions. They do not prohibit open carry for all nonprohibited citizens and do not require a permit or license to open carry. Open carry is lawful on foot and in a "motor vehicle.
Permissive rural open carry states
a state that generally allows open carry without a license, but local restrictions may exist. Some states exempt license holders from local restrictions while others don't.
Licensed open carry states
a state has passed full preemption of all firearms laws, with few exceptions. They permit open carry of a handgun to all nonprohibited citizens once they have been issued a permit or license. Open carry of a handgun is lawful on foot and in a motor vehicle. In practice however, some of these states that have May-Issue licensing laws can be regarded as Non-Permissive for open carry, as issuing authorities rarely or never grant licenses to ordinary citizens.
Anomalous open carry states
open carry is generally prohibited except in unincorporated areas of counties in which population densities are below statutorily-defined thresholds, and local authorities have enacted legislation to allow open carry with a permit in such jurisdictions (California). Thus, some local jurisdictions may permit open carry, and others may impose varying degrees of restrictions or prohibit open carry entirely.
Nonpermissive open carry states
open carry of a handgun is not lawful or is lawful only under such a limited set of circumstances that public carry is effectively prohibited. They may include when one is hunting or traveling to/from hunting locations, on property controlled by the person carrying, or for lawful self-defense. Additionally, some states with May-Issue licensing laws are NonPermissive when issuing authorities are highly restrictive in the issuance of licenses allowing open carry.

Jurisdictions in the United States[edit]

A Map of Open Carry Laws in the United States:
  Permissive Open Carrying
  Permissive Rural Open Carrying
  Licensed Open Carrying

In the United States, the laws concerning open carry vary by "state and sometimes by municipality. The following chart lists state policies for openly carrying a loaded handgun in public.

Status of open carry, by jurisdiction
Jurisdiction[14] Permissive Permissive Rural Licensed Anomalous Non-
"Alabama YesY[15] Open carry without permit allowed. Permit required if carrying in vehicle.
"Alaska YesY
"American Samoa YesY Open carry is prohibited
"Arizona YesY
"Arkansas YesY In August 2015 Attorney General Leslie Rutledge issued a non-binding opinion that open carry without a license is legal. Her opinion can be found at https://web.archive.org/web/20160304040540/http://ag.arkansas.gov/opinions/docs/2015-064.html with the following extracts noted:
More details

On open carry:

In my opinion, Act 746’s amendments to § 5-73-120 mean that (1) the statute only criminalizes a person’s “possess[ing] a handgun on or about his or her person, in a vehicle occupied by the person, or otherwise readily available for use” if he or she simultaneously has the intent “to attempt to unlawfully employ the handgun…as a weapon” against a person, and (2) this unlawful intent may not be presumed simply because that person possesses a loaded handgun.

On Concealed Carry:

Nothing in Act 746, § 5-73-120(a), or this opinion is intended to suggest a person may carry a concealed handgun in public without a properly issued concealed-carry license. In fact, except during a journey, it is likely that the Arkansas Supreme Court would allow the presumption that a person who has flouted the concealed-carry regime in Arkansas law by possessing a concealed handgun without a concealed-carry license has the requisite unlawful intent for a violation of § 5-73-120(a).

Point 4 requires additional explanation. In my opinion, a person may not lawfully carry a concealed handgun in public without a properly issued concealed-carry license. I believe this necessarily follows from the concealed-carry licensing scheme that predates Act 746 and that, in my opinion, was unaffected by Act 746. The licensing requirement is recognized in the “concealed handgun” exception under § 5-73-120:

Attorney General Leslie Rutledge has also stated that open carry may generate reasonable suspicion for an officer to stop and briefly detain a person

   [A]ny person who carries a handgun should be aware that a law enforcement officer might lawfully inquire into that person’s purpose. Determining culpability or potential culpability under Ark. Code Ann. § 5-73-120 is initially a matter for law enforcement following guidelines that routinely apply when investigating a misdemeanor involving the danger of forcible injury to persons. A law enforcement officer may stop and detain any person reasonably suspected of violating § 5-73-120 if necessary to identify the person or determine the lawfulness of his or her conduct.
   Whether an officer has reasonable suspicion will depend upon a number of circumstance-specific factors. Some of these factors are recounted in Ark. Code Ann. § 16-81-203 (Repl. 2005), including: (1) the demeanor of the suspect; (2) the gait and manner of the suspect; (3) any information received from third persons; and (4) the suspect’s proximity to known criminal conduct. While merely possessing a loaded handgun completely on its own is not enough for reasonable suspicion of a violation of § 5-73-120(a), possessing a loaded handgun in combination with just one additional factor may, depending on the circumstances, be enough to create reasonable suspicion of intent to unlawfully employ the handgun as a weapon (and thus reasonable suspicion of a violation of § 5-73-120(a)).
"California YesY Open carry legal in rural counties with local ordinances allowing open carry. Some of these counties issue a permit for open carry. Additionally, a person may also open carry if he or she "reasonably believes that any person or the property of any person is in immediate, grave danger and that the carrying of the weapon is necessary for the preservation of that person or property."[17] One can expect to be detained and questioned by law enforcement in most urban areas if using the latter rationale as the basis for openly carrying a firearm in public.
"Colorado YesY Open carry without a license permitted statewide, except in the City and County of Denver (where open carry is prohibited by local ordinances that pre-date Colorado's statewide pre-emption law).
"Connecticut YesY Open carry with a valid pistol permit is legal statewide. Connecticut is Shall-Issue, with Limited Discretion for granting pistol permits. Connecticut is Anomalous for long gun carry, as state law does not address the open carry of rifles and shotguns; restrictions on long gun carry vary throughout Connecticut based on local policies.
More details
Connecticut is "May-Issue according to state law, but "Shall-Issue according to court precedence and in practice. While Connecticut's pistol permit law states that the issuing authority may-issue a pistol permit to a qualified individual, Connecticut law does not require applicants to show "good cause" for needing a pistol permit. As such, the state's courts have generally ruled that issuing authorities must grant pistol permits to qualified individuals who have passed a criminal and mental health background check and completed the required firearms safety training. State law does not address the open carry of rifles and shotguns. Some municipalities have enacted ordinances restricting or banning the open carry of long guns.
"Delaware YesY No permit or special license required.
More details
The "grandfathered" Dover city ordinance restricting open carry that pre-dated state pre-emption was repealed in 2015.
"District of Columbia YesY Civilian open carry is not allowed in the District of Columbia.
"Florida YesY[18][19] Open carry is generally prohibited with certain exceptions, such as when one is at home, their place of work, hunting, fishing, camping, or while practice shooting and while traveling to and from those activities.

The constitutionality of the general ban on open carry was challenged in the U.S Supreme Court case of Norman v. Florida[20][21][22] but the court refused to hear the case, leaving the ban in place.[23]

More details

F.S. 790.25(3) states the provisions of ss. 790.053 [open carry ban] and 790.06 [concealed carry license] do not apply in the following instances, and, despite such sections, it is lawful for the following persons to own, possess, and lawfully use firearms and other weapons, ammunition, and supplies for lawful purposes. A few instances are listed below: (h) A person engaged in fishing, camping, or lawful hunting or going to or returning from a fishing, camping, or lawful hunting expedition; (i) A person engaged in the business of manufacturing, repairing, or dealing in firearms, or the agent or representative of any such person while engaged in the lawful course of such business; (j) A person firing weapons for testing or target practice under safe conditions and in a safe place not prohibited by law or going to or from such place; (k) A person firing weapons in a safe and secure indoor range for testing and target practice; (l) A person traveling by private conveyance when the weapon is securely encased or in a public conveyance when the weapon is securely encased and not in the person’s manual possession; (m) A person while carrying a pistol unloaded and in a secure wrapper, concealed or otherwise, from the place of purchase to his or her home or place of business or to a place of repair or back to his or her home or place of business; (n) A person possessing arms at his or her home or place of business;

"Georgia YesY Licenses granted on a Shall-Issue basis. Open carry of long guns allowed without a license.
"Guam YesY FOID required.[24]
"Hawaii YesY In practice Licenses rarely issued to ordinary citizens. Licenses valid in the issuing county only. No laws against open carrying long guns.
"Idaho YesY
"Illinois YesY[25][26]
"Indiana YesY Licenses granted on a Shall Issue basis. Preemption law enacted in 2011. Indiana recognizes firearms carry licenses issued by all other states.
"Iowa YesY Open carry without permit allowed outside city limits. Permit required inside city limits.
"Kansas YesY
"Kentucky YesY
"Louisiana YesY Open carry is legal in Louisiana. Attorney General Opinion No. 78-795 – The AG replies to two questions: "1. Is it legal to carry an exposed handgun?" and "2. Do Parishes and/or Municipalities have the power to regulate the carrying of exposed handguns?" The AG responds, "the carrying of an exposed handgun is not illegal, except as provided in LSA R.S. 14:95.1." And citing City of Shreveport V. Curry and City of Shreveport V. Bukhett, 357 S.2d 1078, (LA. 1978), the AG states: "It is the opinion of this office that the state statutes aforementioned have the purpose of establishing a general scheme to control weapons (handguns) and that a fair reading of those statutes show this would constitute an area in which the state has pre-empted [sic] the legislative control and has implicitly authorized the carrying of unconcealed weapons. Therefore, an ordinance enacted by a Parish and/or Municipality requlating [sic] the carrying of exposed handguns would be without effect as being in conflict with State Law."[27]
"Maine YesY
"Maryland YesY In practice Licenses are rarely issued to ordinary citizens. However, no permit is required to openly carry a rifle or shotgun.
"Massachusetts YesY Pistol permits are issued by local authorities on a May-Issue basis. Ability to obtain a pistol permit varies between localities. Pistol permits are valid statewide, regardless of where they were issued. In practice, open carry is highly discouraged by authorities, and one may be charged with Disorderly Conduct or Breach of Peace if open carry causes public alarm. Open carry of long guns prohibited.
"Michigan YesY[28] No License needed for open carry (not in a Vehicle). A valid Concealed Pistol License (CPL) is required to carry in a vehicle and are granted on a Shall-Issue basis.
More details
State law says: "A local unit of government shall not impose special taxation on, enact or enforce any ordinance or regulation pertaining to, or regulate in any other manner the ownership, registration, purchase, sale, transfer, transportation, or possession of pistols or other firearms, ammunition for pistols or other firearms, or components of pistols or other firearms, except as otherwise provided by federal law or a law of this state."
"Minnesota YesY Licenses are granted on a Shall-Issue basis
"Mississippi YesY
"Missouri YesY[29] While open carry is not illegal at the state level, some localities outlaw it. However, possession of a concealed carry permit allows for preemption of local laws. Thus a permit is not required to open carry unless you wish to open carry in a locality that outlaws it.
"Montana YesY
"Nebraska YesY Open carry without a license is allowed but some localities may have restrictions.
"Nevada YesY
"New Hampshire YesY[30] New Hampshire allows open carry in all public places, except for some government buildings.[31]
"New Jersey YesY In practice Licenses rarely granted to ordinary citizens. Open carry of long guns with a valid FID card is technically legal, but generally not practiced except while hunting.
"New Mexico YesY Open carry of handguns and long guns permitted, per Article II Section 6 of the New Mexico State Constitution. State law does not preempt tribal laws on Native American reservations, except when traversing a reservation on a state-owned highway. Some tribes do not permit open carry, while some others may require a tribal permit for open carry.
"New York YesY Open carry of pistols generally prohibited except while hunting or at a range. Open carry of unloaded long guns is not explicitly prohibited by any law, but is generally not practiced.
"North Carolina YesY
"North Dakota YesY License required for open carry of loaded handgun. Without a license, may open carry unloaded handgun during the day (i.e. between one hour before sunrise and one hour after sunset). No license required for open carry of long guns.[32]
"Northern Mariana Islands YesY Ban on transporting operable firearms was ruled unconstitutional. New legislation to deal with the court ruling is still pending. Open carry remains legal currently.[33]
"Ohio YesY Ohio is an open carry state. Open carry is not permitted in vehicles without a Concealed Handgun License. Local firearm laws were preempted in 2007.[34][35]
"Oklahoma YesY Residents of permitless carry states may openly carry without a license with a valid ID from their home state.
"Oregon YesY Open carry legal without license. However, some more populous locations (Portland, Salem, etc.) have ordinances restricting open carry. Persons with concealed carry licenses are exempt from local open carry restrictions.
"Pennsylvania YesY May open carry without a license. However, license to carry needed to open carry in a motor vehicle[36] or in a city of the first class (pop over 1,000,000 – currently only Philadelphia falls into this category)[37]
"Puerto Rico YesY
"Rhode Island YesY In practice Open carry of handguns permitted with permit issued by the Attorney General's Office. No permit required to carry long guns.
"South Carolina YesY Open carry of a handgun is prohibited. Open carry of long guns without permit is allowed.
"South Dakota YesY
"Tennessee YesY Open carry of handguns allowed with permit. Open carry of loaded long guns is prohibited. Open carry of unloaded long guns allowed without permit.
"Texas YesY As of 1 January 2016, licensed open carry of handguns (only if carried in a belt or shoulder holster) is legal.[38] Open carry of long guns or antique pistols without a permit was already legal.
"U.S. Virgin Islands YesY Open carry is prohibited.
"Utah YesY Permit holder may open carry loaded firearm.

Utah allows unlicensed carry of a firearm in a vehicle (loaded handguns or unloaded long guns; loaded long guns in vehicles is prohibited). Unlicensed open carry on foot is also allowed if the firearm is at least 2 actions from firing. For example, a semi-auto may have a full mag but the chamber must be empty (thus requiring 1. racking the slide, and 2. pulling the trigger).

"Vermont YesY
"Virginia YesY Open carry is generally allowed without a permit for people 18 years of age and older. The following cities and counties have exceptions that disallow the open carry of "assault weapons" (any firearm that is equipped with a magazine that will hold more than 20 rounds of ammunition or is designed by the manufacturer to accommodate a silencer or equipped with a folding stock) or shotguns equipped with a magazine that holds more than 7 rounds: the Cities of Alexandria, Chesapeake, Fairfax, Falls Church, Newport News, Norfolk, Richmond, and Virginia Beach and in the Counties of Arlington, Fairfax, Henrico, Loudoun, and Prince William. These restrictions do not apply to valid concealed carry permit holders. Stated differently, you may open carry an assault weapon/shotgun with more than 7 rounds with a permit in the aforementioned locations, but do not need a permit to do so in any other locality in Virginia.
"Washington[39] YesY Open carry is legal without a license, but to carry a handgun loaded in a vehicle one needs a concealed pistol license (CPL).[40] Carry of loaded rifles and shotguns in vehicles is also restricted, per RCW 77.15.460[41]
More details
There are exceptions to the CPL for loaded in a vehicle requirement such as coming from or going to a lawful outdoor recreational activity.[42] Openly carried pistol may be fully loaded. Washington State also has full state preemption.[43]
"West Virginia YesY May open carry without a license. Preemption of local restrictions.[44][45]
"Wisconsin YesY Section 32 of 2011 Wisconsin Act 35 (codified as Wis. Stat. 167.31(2)(b), removed the vehicle carry restriction for handguns. However, what constitutes open carry is defined by case law. If one does not possess a Wisconsin concealed weapons license (or a qualifying out of state license), ensuring that the weapon is visible from the outside is essential.[46]
"Wyoming[14] YesY

Constitutional implications[edit]

Open carry has never been authoritatively addressed by the United States Supreme Court. The most obvious predicate for a federal "right" to do so would arise under the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

In the majority opinion in the case of "District of Columbia v. Heller (2008), Justice "Antonin Scalia wrote concerning the entirety of the elements of the Second Amendment; "We find that they guarantee the individual right to possess and carry weapons in case of confrontation." However, Scalia continued, "Like most rights, the Second Amendment right is not unlimited. It is not a right to keep and carry any weapon whatsoever in any manner whatsoever and for whatever purpose."[47]

Forty five "states' constitutions recognize and secure the "right to keep and bear arms in some form, and none of those prohibit the open carrying of firearms. Five state constitutions provide that the state legislature may regulate the manner of keeping or bearing arms, and advocates argue that none rule out open carry specifically. Nine states' constitutions indicate that the concealed carrying of firearms may be regulated and/or prohibited by the state legislature.[48] Open carry advocates argue that, by exclusion, open carrying of arms may not be legislatively controlled in these states. But this is not settled law.["citation needed]

Section 1.7 [49] of Kentucky's state constitution only empowers the state to enact laws prohibiting "concealed carry".

In 2015, former Florida congressman "Allen West opined, regarding the 2015 Supreme Court decision in "Obergefell v. Hodges, "Using the same 'due process clause' argument as the Supreme Court just applied to gay marriage, my concealed carry permit must now be recognized as valid in all 50 states and the District of Columbia."[50] This opinion echoes reasoning contained in an Amicus curiae brief in Obergefell.[51] Others have indicated support or expressed skepticism for this line of reasoning.[52][53]

Demonstrations and events[edit]

Diversity in state laws[edit]

State laws on open carry vary widely. Four states, the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands and the "District of Columbia fully prohibit the open carry of handguns. On the other side, twenty-five states permit open carry of a handgun without requiring the citizen to apply for any permit or license. Fifteen states require some form of permit (often the same permit as allows a person to carry "concealed), and the remaining five states, though not prohibiting the practice in general, do not preempt local laws or law enforcement policies, and/or have significant restrictions on the practice, such as prohibiting it within the boundaries of an incorporated urban area. Illinois allows open carry on private property only.[83]

On October 11, 2011, California Governor "Jerry Brown signed into law that it would be a "misdemeanor to openly carry an exposed and unloaded handgun in public or in a vehicle." This does not apply to the open carry of rifles or long guns or persons in rural areas where permitted by ordinance.

On November 1, 2011, Wisconsin explicitly acknowledged the legality of open carry by amending its disorderly conduct statute (Wis. Stat. 947.01). A new subsection 2 states "Unless other facts and circumstances that indicate a criminal or malicious intent on the part of the person apply, a person is not in violation of, and may not be charged with a violation of, this section for loading, carrying, or going armed with a firearm, without regard to whether the firearm is loaded or is concealed or openly carried."

On May 15, 2012, Oklahoma Governor "Mary Fallin signed Senate Bill 1733, an amendment to the Oklahoma Self Defense Act, which will allow people with Oklahoma concealed weapons permits to open carry if they so choose. The law took effect November 1, 2012. "Under the measure, businesses may continue to prohibit firearms to be carried on their premises. SB 1733 prohibits carrying firearms on properties owned or leased by the city, state or federal government, at corrections facilities, in schools or college campuses, liquor stores and at sports arenas during sporting events."[84]

Federal Gun Free School Zones Act[edit]

The Federal "Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990 limits where a person may legally carry a firearm by generally prohibiting carry within 1000 ft of the property line of any K-12 school in the nation, with private property excluded.[85] A state-issued permit to carry may exempt a person from the restriction depending on the laws of the state, and most issuing states qualify for the exception. However, according to the "Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, the exception in federal law is inapplicable to permit holders outside the state that physically issued their permit, and it does not exempt people with out-of-state permits even if the permit is recognized by state reciprocity agreements. BATFE letter explaining reciprocity of CCW permit holders and how it applies to Gun-Free School Zones.

In a 1995 Supreme Court case, the Act was declared unconstitutional: "The Court today properly concludes that the Commerce Clause does not grant Congress the authority to prohibit gun possession within 1,000 feet of a school, as it attempted to do in the Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-647, 104 Stat. 4844." [86]

The law was reenacted in the slightly different form, in 1996.[87]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Gun supporters cheer Starbucks policy". Associated Press. February 28, 2010. Retrieved 2013-03-05. Even in some "open carry" states, businesses are allowed to ban guns in their stores. And some have, creating political confrontations with gun owners. But Starbucks, the largest chain targeted, has refused to take the bait, saying in a statement this month that it follows state and local laws and has its own safety measures in its stores. 
  2. ^ O'Connell, Vanessa; Jargon, Julie (2010-03-04). "Starbucks, Other Retailers Dragged Into Gun-Control Dispute". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2010-03-11. The "open carry" movement, in which gun owners carry unconcealed handguns as they go about their everyday business, is loosely organized around the country but has been gaining traction in recent months. Gun-control advocates have been pushing to quash the movement, including by petitioning the Starbucks coffee chain to ban guns on its premises. Anti-gun activists gathered at the original Starbucks in Seattle to push retailers like the coffee chain to ban customers from openly carrying guns, WSJ's Nick Wingfield reports. Businesses have the final say on their property. But the ones that don't opt to ban guns – such as Starbucks – have become parade grounds of sorts for open-carry advocates. 
  3. ^ "Gun-rights activists to descend on downtown Palo Alto". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2010-03-11. Today, a group of gun-rights advocates will exercise their Second Amendment rights by congregating in the plaza with unloaded firearms in plain view. Bay Area members of the national "open carry" movement said they chose the city in part because it is one of the few in the state that has a municipal ban on gun possession. Don't expect any '60s-style confrontations with authorities, however. Palo Alto officials said Friday they will not attempt to enforce the city's ordinance, since it is superseded by state law allowing people to carry guns openly as long as they're not loaded. "We're not going to try to fight state law on this," said Palo Alto police Lt. Sandra Brown. "We're just going to let it happen." 
  4. ^ Pierce, John (April 15, 2010). "Why 'Open Carry' Gun Laws Work". US News and World Report. Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  5. ^ ModernAmericanRevolution, The (January 1, 2010). "America WILL HAVE 'Open Carry/Concealed Carry/Constitutional Carry' In ALL 50 States!". The Modern American Revolution. Retrieved March 24, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Jurjevics, Rosa (July 15, 2009). "They Carry Guns". San Diego Reader. Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  7. ^ Riccardi, Nicholas (2008-06-07). "Have gun, will show it". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  8. ^ "Louisville's Bring Your Firearms to Church Day". Time. 2009-06-25. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  9. ^ Mensching, Colleen (August 7, 2009). "Police officers eyes opening to 'open carry'". North County Times. Archived from the original on February 18, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Gun Movement Encourages Display Of Weapons". NPR. July 2, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  11. ^ Urbina, Ian (2010-03-07). "Locked, Loaded, and Ready to Caffeinate". The New York Times. 
  12. ^ Leinwand, Donna (2009-02-11). "4 states, among last holdouts, eye open-carry gun laws". Usatoday.Com. Retrieved 2016-03-10. 
  13. ^ Stuckey, Mike (August 25, 2009). "Guns near Obama fuel 'open-carry' debate". MSNBC. Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  14. ^ a b Kranz, Steven W. (2006). "A Survey of State Conceal And Carry Statutes: Can Small Changes Help Reduce the Controversy?". Hamline Law Review. 29 (638). 
  15. ^ Changes Coming to Alabama Gun Laws, WTVM Channel 9, May 22, 2013
  16. ^ Arkansas. "Attorney General". Attorney General Opinions. Arkansas AG. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2015. 
  17. ^ Ruling on Peruta v. San Diego, 9th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals, June 9, 2016
  18. ^ "Chapter 790 Section 053 – 2013 Florida Statutes – The Florida Senate". Flsenate.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  19. ^ a b "Chapter 790 Section 25 – 2013 Florida Statutes – The Florida Senate". Flsenate.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  20. ^ "Norman v. State" Court challenge to constitutionality of Florida's open carry ban statute.
  21. ^ "Florida's Fourth District Court of Appeals Website". 4dca.org. 2014-11-06. Retrieved 2016-03-10. 
  22. ^ "U.S. Supreme Court Docket". supremecourt.gov. 2017-07-10. Retrieved 2017-11-08. 
  23. ^ "U.S. Supreme Court Rejects Assault Rifle, Open-Carry Appeals". Bloomberg.com. 2017-11-27. Retrieved 2017-11-28. 
  24. ^ "Guam". handgunlaw.us. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
  25. ^ "Illinois", OpenCarry.org. Retrieved May 27, 2014. "Open carry is clearly prohibited except in unincorporated areas where the county has not made open carry illegal. Additionally, note that open carry is prohibited inside a vehicle even when in unincorporated areas. Further, a recent review of Illinois statutes indicates that even open carry on foot in unincorporated areas may also be unlawful, and so in an abundance of caution, we classify Illinois as a state banning open carry entirely."
  26. ^ "Open Carrying in Illinois", Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence. Retrieved May 27, 2014. "Thus, while a person – whether a concealed carry licensee or not – is prohibited from knowingly carrying a fully unconcealed handgun in public, a concealed carry licensee may lawfully carry a partially exposed handgun."
  27. ^ http://www.laopencarry.org/print/AG_Opinion_78_795.pdf
  28. ^ "Michigan Open Carry – FAQ". Michigan Open Carry, Inc. 
  29. ^ "Missouri approves concealed guns at schools and open carry in public". the Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  30. ^ Morris, Allie (22 February 2017). "N.H. eliminates concealed carry license requirement". Concord Monitor. Retrieved 16 March 2017. 
  31. ^ "Title XII – Public Safety and Welfare – Chapter 159 – Pistols and Revolvers". New Hampshire General Court. State of New Hampshire. Retrieved 16 March 2017. 
  32. ^ "Chapter 62.1-03 Handguns" (PDF). 
  33. ^ Variety, Marianas. "US court: $1,000 tax on handguns unconstitutional". Marianas Variety. Retrieved 2016-10-02. 
  34. ^ "Lawriter – ORC – 9.68 Right to bear arms – challenge to law". Codes.ohio.gov. 2007-03-14. Retrieved 2016-03-10. 
  35. ^ "Lawriter – ORC". Codes.ohio.gov. Retrieved 2016-03-10. 
  36. ^ "Title 18". The official website for the Pennsylvania General Assembly. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  37. ^ "Title 18". The official website for the Pennsylvania General Assembly. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  38. ^ "Texas Lawmakers Approve Licensed Open Carry of Handguns, Governor Says He Will Sign Bill Into Law". "The Blaze. May 29, 2015. 
  39. ^ "RCW 9.41.270". State of Washington. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  40. ^ "RCW 9.41.050". State of Washington. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  41. ^ "RCW 77.15.460: Loaded rifle or shotgun in vehicle – Unlawful use or possession – Unlawful use of a loaded firearm – Penalty". Apps.leg.wa.gov. 2016-01-25. Retrieved 2016-03-10. 
  42. ^ "RCW 9.41.060". State of Washington. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  43. ^ "RCW 9.41.290". State of Washington. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  44. ^ "WV Code 5A". www.legis.state.wv.us. Retrieved 2017-07-18. 
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