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Orthoptera
Temporal range: "Carboniferous–recent 359–0 "Ma
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""Metrioptera roeseli male Richard Bartz.jpg
"Roesel's bush-cricket
"Scientific classification "e
Kingdom: "Animalia
Clade: "Euarthropoda
Class: "Insecta
(unranked): Panorthoptera
Order: Orthoptera
"Latreille, 1793
Extant "suborders and "superfamilies

Suborder "Ensifera

Suborder "Caelifera


Orthoptera is an "order of "insects that comprises the "grasshoppers, "locusts and "crickets, including closely related insects such as the "katydids and "wetas. The order is subdivided into two suborders: "Caelifera – grasshoppers, locusts and close relatives; and "Ensifera – crickets and close relatives.

More than 20,000 species are distributed worldwide.[1] The insects in the order have "incomplete metamorphosis, and produce "sound (known as a ""stridulation") by rubbing their wings against each other or their legs, the wings or legs containing rows of corrugated bumps. The tympanum or "ear is located in the front tibia in crickets, "mole crickets, and katydids, and on the first abdominal segment in the grasshoppers and locusts.[2] These organisms use vibrations to locate other individuals.

Grasshoppers and other orthopterans are able to fold their "wings, placing them in the group "Neoptera.

Contents

Etymology[edit]

The name is derived from the "Greek ὀρθός orthos meaning "straight" and πτερόν pteron meaning "wing".

Characteristics[edit]

Orthopterans have a generally "cylindrical body, with elongated hindlegs and musculature adapted for "jumping. They have "mandibulate mouthparts for biting and chewing and large "compound eyes, and may or may not have "ocelli, depending on the species. The "antennae have multiple joints and filiform type, and are of variable length.[2]

The first and third segments on the "thorax are larger, while the second segment is much smaller. They have two pairs of "wings, which are held overlapping the "abdomen at rest. The forewings, or tegmina, are narrower than the hindwings and hardened at the base, while the hindwing is membranous, with straight veins and numerous cross-veins. At rest, the hindwings are held folded fan-like under the forewings. The final two to three segments of the abdomen are reduced, and have single-segmented "cerci.[2] and their wing type is tegmina.

Life cycle[edit]

Orthopterans have a paurometabolous lifecycle or "incomplete metamorphosis. The use of sound is generally crucial in courtship, and most species have distinct songs.[3] Most grasshoppers lay their "eggs in the ground or on vegetation. The eggs hatch and the young "nymphs resemble adults, but lack wings and at this stage are often called 'hoppers'. They may often also have a radically different coloration from the adults. Through successive "moults, the nymphs develop wings until their final moult into a mature adult with fully developed wings.[2]

The number of moults varies between species; growth is also very variable and may take a few weeks to some months depending on food availability and weather conditions.

Phylogenetics[edit]

The suborders "Caelifera and "Ensifera appear to be monophyletic.[4][5][6]

Orthoptera
"Ensifera

"Grylloidea (crickets) ""Arachnocephalus vestitus01.jpg




"Rhaphidophoroidea (cave weta, cave crickets) ""Ceuthophiluscricket.jpg



"Tettigonoidea (grigs, weta, katydids, etc) ""Cricket September 2010-1.jpg



Elcanidea



Oedischiidea



Gryllavoidea



"Schizodactyloidea (dune crickets) ""Пальцепалый кузнечик.jpg




"Caelifera
Tridactylidea

"Tridactyloidea ""Pygmy mole cricket (8071068977) cropped.jpg



[2 extinct superfamilies]



 "Acrididea 

"Tetrigoidea ""Tetrix subulata 2.JPG


Acridomorpha

"Eumastacoidea ""Monkey hopper (14795010039).jpg




"Pneumoroidea ""Bladder Grasshopper (Bullacris intermedia) (30068047440).jpg




"Pyrgomorphoidea ""Variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus).jpg



"Acridoidea etc. ""Acrida turrita02.jpg








Classification[edit]

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Garden locust (Acanthacris ruficornis), "Ghana, family "Acrididae
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Variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus), "Ghana, family "Pyrgomorphidae
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Roesel's bush-cricket (Metrioptera roeselii diluta) male, family "Tettigoniidae, "UK

Orthoptera is divided into two suborders: Caelifera (grasshoppers and locusts) and Ensifera (crickets).

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"Proscopiidse sp. from the "Andes of "Peru

Relationships with humans[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Orthoptera - Grasshoppers, Locusts, Crickets, Katydids". Discover Life. Retrieved 2017-09-06. 
  2. ^ a b c d Hoell, H.V., Doyen, J.T. & Purcell, A.H. (1998). Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press. pp. 392–394. "ISBN "0-19-510033-6. 
  3. ^ Imes, Rick (1992), The practical entomologist, Simon and Schuster, pp. 74–75, "ISBN "0-671-74695-2 
  4. ^ Zhou Z, Ye H, Huang Y, Shi F. (2010) The phylogeny of Orthoptera inferred from mtDNA and description of Elimaea cheni (Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) mitogenome. J. Genet. Genomics. 37(5):315-324
  5. ^ Gwynne, Darryl T. (1995). "Phylogeny of the Ensifera (Orthoptera): a hypothesis supporting multiple origins of acoustical signalling, complex spermatophores and maternal care in crickets, katydids, and weta". J. Orth. Res. 4: 203–218. 
  6. ^ Flook, P. K.; Rowell, C. H. F. (1997). "The Phylogeny of the Caelifera (Insecta, Orthoptera) as Deduced from mtrRNA Gene Sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (1): 89–103. "doi:10.1006/mpev.1997.0412. "PMID 9242597. 
  7. ^ a b Society, National Geographic. "Locusts, Locust Pictures, Locust Facts - National Geographic". National Geographic. Retrieved 2016-04-11. 
  8. ^ Ph.D., Christian Krupke,. "Grasshoppers | Pests | Soybean | Integrated Pest Management | IPM Field Crops | Purdue University". extension.entm.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-11. 
  9. ^ Gordon, David George (1998), The eat-a-bug cookbook, Ten Speed Press, p. 3, "ISBN "0-89815-977-6 
  10. ^ Navigating the Bible: Leviticus 
  11. ^ Shi, Weibing; Xie, Shangxian; Chen, Xueyan; Sun, Su; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Lantao; Gao, Peng; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; No, En-Gyu (January 2013). "Comparative Genomic Analysis of the Endosymbionts of Herbivorous Insects Reveals Eco-Environmental Adaptations: Biotechnology Applications". PLoS Genetics. 9 (1). "doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003131. "PMC 3542064Freely accessible. "PMID 23326236. 

External links[edit]

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