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Part of "a series on the
"History of the
"Ottoman Empire
""Coat of Arms of the Ottoman Empire
"Historiography

The Ottoman Interregnum, or the Ottoman Civil War[1] ("20 July 1402 – "5 July 1413; "Turkish: Fetret Devri, "Interregnum Period"), was a civil war in the "Ottoman Empire between the sons of "Sultan "Bayezid I following the defeat of their father by the "Central Asian warlord "Timur at the "Battle of Ankara on 20 July 1402. Although "Mehmed Çelebi was confirmed as sultan by Timur, his brothers "İsa Çelebi, "Musa Çelebi, "Süleyman Çelebi, and later, "Mustafa Çelebi, refused to recognize his authority, each claiming the throne for himself.[2] Civil war was the result. The Interregnum lasted a little under 11 years until the "Battle of Çamurlu on 5 July 1413, when Mehmed Çelebi emerged as victor, crowned himself Sultan "Mehmed I, and restored the empire.

Contents

Civil war[edit]

Isa and Mehmed[edit]

Civil war broke out among the sons of Sultan Bayezid I upon his death in 1403. His oldest son, "Süleyman, with his capital at "Edirne, ruled northern "Greece, "Macedonia, "Bulgaria and "Thrace. The second son, "İsa Çelebi, established himself as an independent ruler at "Bursa[3] and Mehmed formed a kingdom at "Amasya.[4] War broke out between Mehmed and İsa, and following the battles of Ermeni-beli[5] and "Ulubad(March–May 1403),[3] Isa fled to Constantinople and Mehmed occupied Bursa.[6] The subsequent battle at Karasi between Mehmed and Isa resulted in a victory for Mehmed and Isa fleeing to "Karaman.[7] Isa was later killed in a bath by agents of Mehmed.[8]

Suleyman enters civil war[edit]

Meanwhile, the other surviving son of Bayezid, "Musa Çelebi, who was captured at the "battle of Ankara, was released by Timur into the custody of Yakub of "Germiyan[9] Mûsa was freed, after Mehmed made a request for his brother's release. Following Isa's death, Süleyman crossed the straits with a large army.[10] Initially, "Süleyman was successful. He invaded Anatolia, capturing Bursa (March 1404)[11] and Ankara later that year.

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Late 16th-century depiction of Musa and Suleyman, facing each other

During the stalemate in Anatolia, which lasted from 1405-1410, Mehmed sent Musa across the "Black Sea to "Thrace with a small force to attack Suleyman's territories in south-eastern Europe. This maneuver soon recalled Suleyman to Thrace, where a short but sanguinary contest between him and Mûsa ensued. At first Suleyman had the advantage, winning the "battle of Kosmidion in 1410, but in 1411 his army defected to Mûsa at Edirne and Suleyman was executed on the orders of Musa.[12][13] Mûsa was now the ruler of the Ottoman dominions in Thrace.

Mehmed and Musa[edit]

"Manuel II Palaiologos, the Byzantine emperor, had been the ally of Suleyman; Mûsa therefore "besieged Constantinople.[14] Manuel called on Mehmed to protect him, and Mehmed's Ottomans now garrisoned Constantinople against Musa's Ottomans of Thrace. Mehmed made several unsuccessful sallies against his brother's troops, and was obliged to re-cross the "Bosporus to quell a revolt that had broken out in his own territories. Mûsa now pressed the siege of Constantinople. Mehmed returned to Thrace, and obtained the assistance of "Stefan Lazarevic, the "Serbian Despot.

The armies of the rival Ottoman brothers met on the "plain of Chamurli (today "Samokov, Bulgaria). Hassan, the "Agha of the "Janissaries of Mehmed, stepped out before the ranks and tried to get the troops to change sides. Mûsa rushed towards Hassan and killed him, but was himself wounded by an officer who had accompanied Hassan. Mûsa's Ottomans fought well, but the battle was won by Mehmed and his allies.[15] Mûsa fled, was later captured and strangled.[16] With Mûsa dead, Mehmed was the sole surviving son of the late Sultan Bayezid I and became Sultan Mehmed I. The Interregnum was a striking example of the fratricide that would become common in Ottoman successions.

Political titles[edit]

During the Interregnum, only "Mehmed Celebi minted coins titling himself Sultan. His brother Suleyman's coins called himself, Emir Suleyman b. Bayezid, while Musa's coins stated, Musa b. Bayezid. No coins of Isa's have survived.[17]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dimitris J. Kastritsis, The Sons of Bayezid: Empire Building and Representation in the Ottoman. Civil War of 1402-1413, Brill, 2007, "ISBN "978-90-04-15836-8., xi.
  2. ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp, The Late Medieval Balkans, (University of Michigan Press, 1994), 499.
  3. ^ a b Dimitris J. Kastritsis, 79.
  4. ^ Dimitris J. Kastritsis, 73.
  5. ^ Donald Edgar Pitcher, An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire, (E.J.Brill, 1968), 59.
  6. ^ Dimitris J. Kastritsis, 90-91.
  7. ^ Donald Edgar Pitcher, 59.
  8. ^ Dimitris J. Kastritsis, 109-110.
  9. ^ Dimitris J. Kastritsis, 85.
  10. ^ Dimitris J. Kastritsis, 110.
  11. ^ Dimitris J. Kastritsis, 112.
  12. ^ Finkel, Caroline, Osman's Dream, (Basic Books, 2004), 32.
  13. ^ Dimitris J. Kastritsis , 155-156.
  14. ^ George Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State, (Rutgers University Press, 1969), 557.
  15. ^ Bertold Spuler, Frank Ronald Charles Bagley, Hans Joachim Kissling, The Last Great Muslim Empires: History of the Muslim World, (Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 14.
  16. ^ Nicol, Donald MacGillivray, The last centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, (Cambridge University Press, 1972), 327.
  17. ^ Dimitris J. Kastritsis, 198

References[edit]

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