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The following "outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to culture:

"Culture – set of patterns of human activity within a "community or social group and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. Customs, laws, dress, architectural style, social standards, religious beliefs, and traditions are all examples of cultural elements. Since 2010, Culture is considered the Fourth Pillar of Sustainable Development by UNESCO[1]. More: "Agenda 21 for Culture or in short "Culture 21.

Cultural groups[edit]

Elements of culture[edit]

Types of cultures[edit]

Cultures by aspect[edit]

Cultural cross-sections[edit]



Types of cultures[edit]

Specific subcultures[edit]

Academic disciplines that study culture[edit]

Cultures of the world[edit]

Area studies[edit]

"Area studies

Cultures by ethnicity or ethnic sphere[edit]

Cultures of continents and major geopolitical regions[edit]

(non-continents are italicized)

Cultures by political divisions of the World[edit]

(arranged by continent or major geopolitical region)

Cultures of Africa[edit]

"Culture of Africa

Culture of Antarctica[edit]

Cultures of Asia[edit]

"Culture of Asia

Cultures of the Caucasus[edit]

(a region considered to be in both Asia and Europe, or between them)

Cultures of Europe[edit]

"Culture of Europe

Cultures of North America[edit]

Cultures of Oceania[edit]

"Culture of Oceania

Cultures of South America[edit]

"Culture of South America

Cultures of the South America[edit]

History of culture[edit]

Cultural histories[edit]

By period[edit]

By region[edit]

By subject[edit]

Historical cultures[edit]

Politics of culture[edit]

Sociology of culture[edit]

Research fields[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster "Gastronomy - Definition"
  3. ^ "wine". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 25 June 2008. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ Some definitions of opera: "dramatic performance or composition of which music is an essential part, branch of art concerned with this" ("Concise Oxford English Dictionary); "any dramatic work that can be sung (or at times declaimed or spoken) in a place for performance, set to original music for singers (usually in costume) and instrumentalists" (Amanda Holden, Viking Opera Guide); "musical work for the stage with singing characters, originated in early years of 17th century" ("Pears Cyclopaedia, 1983 ed.).
  6. ^ Marg Gilks; Paula Fleming & Moira Allen (2003). "Science Fiction: The Literature of Ideas". 
  7. ^ "UNWTO technical manual: Collection of Tourism Expenditure Statistics" (PDF). World Tourism Organization. 1995. p. 10. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  8. ^ Manila Declaration on World Tourism (PDF). World Tourism Conference. "Manila, "Philippines. 10 October 1980. pp. 1–4. 
  9. ^ Pinch, T. and Bijsterveld, K, 2004, Sound Studies: new Technologies and Music, in "Social Studies of Science", 34\5, pp. 635-648 DOI: 10.1177/1056492611415279 Anne E. Witte Making the Case for a Post-national Cultural Analysis of Organizations, Journal of Management Inquiry 2012 21: 141 originally published online 13 September 2011

External links[edit]

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