See more Packet switching articles on AOD.
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia
Main article: "NSFNET
The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) was a program of coordinated, evolving projects sponsored by the "National Science Foundation (NSF) beginning in 1985 to promote advanced research and education networking in the United States. NSFNET was also the name given to several nationwide backbone networks operating at speeds of 56 kbit/s, 1.5 Mbit/s (T1), and 45 Mbit/s (T3) that were constructed to support NSF's networking initiatives from 1985-1995. Initially created to link researchers to the nation's NSF-funded supercomputing centers, through further public funding and private industry partnerships it developed into a major part of the "Internet backbone.
NSFNET regional networks
In addition to the five NSF supercomputer centers, NSFNET provided connectivity to eleven regional networks and through these networks to many smaller regional and campus networks in the United States. The NSFNET regional networks were:
- BARRNet, the Bay Area Regional Research Network in "Palo Alto, California;
- CERFNET, "California Education and Research Federation Network in "San Diego, California, serving California and Nevada;
- CICNet, the "Committee on Institutional Cooperation Network via the Merit Network in "Ann Arbor, Michigan and later as part of the T3 upgrade via "Argonne National Laboratory outside of "Chicago, serving the "Big Ten Universities and the "University of Chicago in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin;
- "Merit/MichNet in "Ann Arbor, Michigan serving Michigan, formed in 1966, still in operation as of 2016;
- MIDnet in "Lincoln, Nebraska serving Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and South Dakota;
- "NEARNET, the New England Academic and Research Network in "Cambridge, Massachusetts, added as part of the upgrade to T3, serving Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont, established in late 1988, operated by "BBN under contract to MIT, BBN assumed responsibility for NEARNET on 1 July 1993;
- NorthWestNet in "Seattle, Washington, serving Alaska, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, and Washington, founded in 1987;
- "NYSERNet, New York State Education and Research Network in "Ithaca, New York;
- JVNCNet, the John von Neumann National Supercomputer Center Network in "Princeton, New Jersey, serving Delaware and New Jersey;
- SESQUINET, the Sesquicentennial Network in "Houston, Texas, founded during the 150th anniversary of the State of "Texas;
- "SURAnet, the Southeastern Universities Research Association network in "College Park, Maryland and later as part of the T3 upgrade in "Atlanta, Georgia serving Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, sold to "BBN in 1994; and
- Westnet in "Salt Lake City, Utah and "Boulder, Colorado, serving Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming.
The "National LambdaRail was launched in September 2003. It is a 12,000-mile high-speed national computer network owned and operated by the U.S. research and education community that runs over fiber-optic lines. It was the first transcontinental "10 Gigabit Ethernet network. It operates with high aggregate capacity of up to 1.6 Tbit/s and a high 40 Gbit/s bitrate, with plans for 100 Gbit/s.
TransPAC, TransPAC2, and TransPAC3
"TransPAC2 and TransPAC3, continuations of the TransPAC project, a high-speed international Internet service connecting research and education networks in the Asia-Pacific region to those in the US. TransPAC is part of the NSF’s International Research Network Connections (IRNC) program.
Very high-speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS)
The "Very high-speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS) came on line in April 1995 as part of a "National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored project to provide high-speed interconnection between NSF-sponsored "supercomputing centers and select access points in the United States. The network was engineered and operated by "MCI Telecommunications under a cooperative agreement with the NSF. By 1998, the vBNS had grown to connect more than 100 universities and research and engineering institutions via 12 national points of presence with "DS-3 (45 Mbit/s), "OC-3c (155 Mbit/s), and "OC-12c (622 Mbit/s) links on an all OC-12c backbone, a substantial engineering feat for that time. The vBNS installed one of the first ever production "OC-48c (2.5 Gbit/s) "IP links in February 1999 and went on to upgrade the entire backbone to OC-48c.
In June 1999 MCI WorldCom introduced vBNS+ which allowed attachments to the vBNS network by organizations that were not approved by or receiving support from NSF. After the expiration of the NSF agreement, the vBNS largely transitioned to providing service to the government. Most universities and research centers migrated to the Internet2 educational backbone. In January 2006, when "MCI and "Verizon merged, vBNS+ became a service of "Verizon Business.
- ^ Paul Baran, On Distributed Communications, Volume I–XI, Rand Corporation Research Report, August 1964
- ^ Larry Roberts, The Evolution of Packet Switching, Invited paper, IEEE, November 1978.
- ^ Martin Weik - Fiber Optics Standard Dictionary Springer Science & Business Media 6 Dec 2012, 1219 pages, "ISBN 1461560233 [Retrieved 2015-08-04]
- ^ National Telecommunication Information Administration - Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunications Terms published by "Government Institutes 1 Apr 1997, 480 pages, "ISBN 1461732328, Volume 1037, Part 3 of Federal Standard [Retrieved 2015-08-04]
- ^ a b Stewart, Bill (2000-01-07). "Paul Baran Invents Packet Switching". Living Internet. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
- ^ Baran, Paul (May 27, 1960). "Reliable Digital Communications Using Unreliable Network Repeater Nodes" (PDF). The RAND Corporation: 1. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
- ^ Baran, Paul (1962). "RAND Paper P-2626".
- ^ On Distributed Communications
- ^ "Davies, D. W. (17 March 1986), Oral History 189: D. W. Davies interviewed by Martin Campbell-Kelly at the National Physical Laboratory, Charles Babbage Institute University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, retrieved 21 July 2014
- ^ The IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, Columbia University Computing History
- ^ The IBM 1360 Photostore, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Computing History
- ^ Mendicino, Samuel (1970-11-30). "Octopus: The Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Network". Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- ^ Vinton G. Cerf; Robert E. Kahn (May 1974). "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Communications. 22 (5): 637–648. "doi:10.1109/tcom.1974.1092259. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016.
- ^ Interview with the author (of an MPLS-based VPN article), G. Pildush
- ^ Taylor, Steve; Jim Metzler (2008). "Vint Cerf on why TCP/IP was so long in coming".
- ^ a b "A History of Macintosh Networking", Alan Oppenheimer, MacWorld Expo, January 2004
- ^ Inside AppleTalk, Second Edition, Gursharan Sidhu, Richard Andrews and Alan Oppenheiner, Addison-Wesley, 1989, "ISBN 0-201-55021-0
- ^ Martel, C. C.; J. M. Cunningham; M. S. Grushcow. "THE BNR NETWORK: A CANADIAN EXPERIENCE WITH PACKET SWITCHING TECHNOLOGY". IFIP Congress 1974. pp. 10–14.
- ^ "A Technical History of CYCLADES". Technical Histories of the Internet & other Network Protocols. Computer Science Department, University of Texas Austin.
- ^ "The Cyclades Experience: Results and Impacts", Zimmermann, H., Proc. IFIP'77 Congress, Toronto, August 1977, pp. 465–469
- ^  "Digital Equipment Corporation, Nineteen Fifty-Seven to the Present", Digital Equipment Corporation, 1978, page 53. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- ^ Wood, David C. (1975). "A SURVEY OF THE CAPABILITIES OF 8 PACKET SWITCHING NETWORKS". Proceedings of Symposium on Computer Networks. pp. 1–7.
- ^ Bright, Roy D.; Smith, Michael A. (1973). "EXPERIMENTAL PACKET SWITCHING PROJECT OF THE UK POST OFFICE". Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Computer Communication Networks. Sussex, United Kingdom: Noordhoff International Publishing. pp. 435–44.
- ^ Pearson, DJ; Wilkin, D (1974). "Some Design Aspects of a public packet switching network". Proceedings of the 2nd ICCC 74. pp. 199–213.
- ^ Kirstein, Peter T. (1973). "A SURVEY OF PRESENT AND PLANNED GENERAL PURPOSE EUROPEAN DATA AND COMPUTER NETWORKS". Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Computer Communication Networks. Sussex, United Kingdom: Noordhoff International Publishing.
- ^ Schwartz, Mischa; Boorstyn, Rober R.; Pickholtz, Raymond L. (November 1972). "Terminal-Oriented Computer-Communication Networks". Proceedings of the IEEE. 60 (11): 1408–23. "doi:10.1109/proc.1972.8912.
- ^ "Maintaining IPX Compatibility During a Migration to TCP/IP on a NetWare Network", Rich Lee, Novell, 1 March 1998. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- ^ Merit receives administrative services under an agreement with the "University of Michigan.
- ^ A Chronicle of Merit's Early History, John Mulcahy, 1989, Merit Network, Ann Arbor, Michigan
- ^ a b Merit Network Timeline: 1970–1979, Merit Network, Ann Arbor, Michigan
- ^ Merit Network Timeline: 1980–1989, Merit Network, Ann Arbor, Michigan
- ^ Scantlebury, R. A.; Wilkinson, P.T. (1974). "The National Physical Laboratory Data Communications Network". Proceedings of the 2nd ICCC 74. pp. 223–228.
- ^ Mendicino, Samuel F. (1972). "1970 OCTOPUS: THE LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY NETWORK". COMPUTER NETWORKS. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc.: 95–100.
- ^ Pehrson, David L. (1970). "AN ENGINEERING VIEW OF THE LRL OCTOPUS COMPUTER NETWORK".
- ^ Fletcher, John G. (1975). "Principles of Design in the Octopus Computer network".
- ^ Burnett, D.J.; Sethi, H.R. "Packet Switching at Philips Research Laboratories". Computer Networks. North-Holland Publishing Company. 1: 341–348. "doi:10.1016/0376-5075(77)90010-1.
- ^ "David R. Boggs; "John F. Shoch; Edward A. Taft; "Robert M. Metcalfe (April 1980). "Pup: An Internetwork Architecture". "IEEE Transactions on Communications. 28 (4): 612–624. "doi:10.1109/TCOM.1980.1094684.
- ^ "Després, R. (1974). "RCP, THE EXPERIMENTAL PACKET-SWITCHED DATA TRANSMISSION SERVICE OF THE FRENCH PTT". Proceedings of ICCC 74. pp. 171–85.
- ^ Bache, A.; Matras, Y. (1976). "Fundamental Choices in the Development of RCP, the Experimental Packet-Switching Data Transmission Service of the French PTT". Proceedings of ICCC 76. pp. 311–16.
- ^ Bache, A.; L. Guillou; H. Layec; B. Long; Y. Matras (1976). "RCP, the Experimental Packet-Switched Data Transmission Service of the French PTT: History, Connections, Control". Proceedings of ICCC 76.
- ^ Alarcia, G.; Herrera, S. (1974). "C.T.N.E.'s PACKET SWITCHING NETWORK. ITS APPLICATIONS". Proceedings of 2nd ICCC 74. pp. 163–170.
- ^ Cuenca, L. (1980). "A PUBLIC PACKET SWITCHING DATA COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK: EIGHT YEARS OF OPERATING EXPERIENCE". Conference Record of ICC 80. IEEE. pp. 39.3.1–39.3.5.
- ^ Lavandera, Luis (1980). "ARCHITECTURE, PROTOCOLS AND PERFORMANCE OF RETD". Conference Record of ICC 80. IEEE. pp. 28.4.1–28.4.5.
- ^ Haarala, Arja-Riitta. "Libraries as key players at the local level".
- ^ Chretien, G.J.; Konig, W.M.; Rech, J.H. (1973). "The SITA Network". Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Computer Communication Networks. Sussex, United Kingdom: Noordhoff International Publishing. pp. 373–396.
- ^ Sundstrom, R.J.; G.D. Schultz (1980). "1980 SNA'S First Six Years: 1974-1980". Proceedings of 5th ICCC 80. pp. 578–585.
- ^ "Electronic post for switching data". Timothy Johnson. New Scientist. May 13, 1976
- ^ Mathison, S.L. Roberts, L.G.; Walker, P.M., The history of telenet and the commercialization of packet switching in the U.S., Communications Magazine, IEEE, May 2012
- ^ TYMES, LA ROY W. "TYMNET — A terminal oriented communication network". Proceedings of the SJCC 1971. 38. pp. 211–16.
- ^ TYMES, LA ROY W. (April 1981). "Routing and Flow Control in TYMNET". IEEE Transactions on Communications. COM-29 (4): 392–98.
- ^ Xerox System Integration Standard - Internet Transport Protocols, Xerox, Stamford, 1981.
- ^ "Chapter 12: Xerox Network Systems", AIX Version 4.3 Communications Programming Concepts, International Business Machines, October 1997.
- ^ H.J. Steneker: Graduation Report on X.25 data services in GSM network Electrical Engineering - "TUE, 16 May 1991. Chapter 3: page 20 and further, Retrieved 15 June 2011
- ^ Tomaru, K.; T. Kato; S.I. Yamaguchi (1980). "A Private Packet Network and Its Application in A Worldwide Integrated Communication Network". Proceedings of ICCC '80. pp. 517–22.
- ^ "X.25 Virtual Circuits - Transpac in France - Pre-Internet Data Networking".
- ^ Epstein, Nadine (1986-03-09). "Et Voila! Le Minitel". The New York Times.
- ^ "KDDI to Close VENUS-P International Public Data Communications Service", KDDI, 9 November 2005. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- ^ "The Internet—From Modest Beginnings". NSF website. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- ^ "Douglas Comer (October 1983). "History and overview of CSNET". Communications. "Association for Computing Machinery. 26 (10). "doi:10.1145/358413.358423.
- ^ "About Internet2", Retrieved on 2009-06-26
- ^ "Optical networking: The next generation", Marguerite Reardon, CNET News, October 11, 2004
- ^ "Speedy Internet2 gets 10x boost", Anick Jesdanun (AP), USAToday.com, October 11, 2007, Retrieved 26 June 2009.
- ^ NSFNET: The Partnership That Changed The World, Web site for an event held to celebrate the NSFNET, November 2007
- ^ "Retiring the NSFNET Backbone Service: Chronicling the End of an Era", Susan R. Harris and Elise Gerich, ConneXions, Vol. 10, No. 4, April 1996
- ^ "NSFNET: The Community", panel presentation slides, "Doug Gale moderator, NSFNET: The Partnership That Changed The World, 29 November 2007
- ^ "Merit–Who, What, and Why, Part One: The Early Years, 1964-1983", Eric M. Aupperle, Merit Network, Inc., in Library Hi Tech, vol. 16, No. 1 (1998)
- ^ "BBN to operate NEARnet", MIT News, 14 July 1993
- ^ "About NorthWestNet", NorthWestNet User Services Internet Resource Guide, NorthWestNet Academic Computing Consortium, Inc., 24 March 1992 accessed 3 July 2012
- ^ Michael Feldman (October 28, 2008). "National LambdaRail Opens for Business". HPCwire. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- ^ "About NLR", National LambdaRail, 3 September 2013.
- ^ "International TransPAC2 Inaugurated", HPC Wire, 8 April 2005.
- ^ "TransPAC website". Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- ^ "TransPAC3 - Asia-US High Performance International Networking", International Research Network Connections Program (IRNC), U.S. National Science Foundation, October 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- ^ NSF Solicitation 93-52 - Network Access Point Manager, Routing Arbiter, Regional Network Providers, and Very High Speed Backbone Network Services Provider for NSFNET and the NREN(SM) Program, May 6, 1993
- ^ "vBNS: not your father's Internet", John Jamison, Randy Nicklas, Greg Miller, Kevin Thompson, Rick Wilder, Laura Cunningham and Chuck Song, IEEE Spectrun, Volume 35 Issue 7 (July 1998), pp. 38-46.
- ^ "MCI WorldCom Introduces Next Generation vBNS+ For All Higher Education And Research Organizations", Verizon Business News, June 23, 1999
- ^ "Verizon and MCI Close Merger, Creating a Stronger Competitor for Advanced Communications Services", Verizon Business News, January 6, 2006
- ^ vBNS+, at http://www.verizonbusiness.com Home > Solutions > Government > Federal Government > Contract Vehicles > FTS2001 Bridge > Products
- Leonard Kleinrock, Information Flow in Large Communication Nets, (MIT, Cambridge, May 31, 1961) Proposal for a Ph.D. Thesis
- Leonard Kleinrock. Information Flow in Large Communication Nets (RLE Quarterly Progress Report, July 1961)
- Leonard Kleinrock. Communication Nets: Stochastic Message Flow and Delay (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964)
- Paul Baran et al., On Distributed Communications, Volumes I-XI (RAND Corporation Research Documents, August, 1964)
- Paul Baran, On Distributed Communications Networks, ("IEEE Transactions on Communications Systems, Vol. CS-12 No. 1, pp. 1–9, March 1964)
- D. W. Davies, K. A. Bartlett, R. A. Scantlebury, and P. T. Wilkinson, A digital communications network for computers giving rapid response at remote terminals (ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles. October 1967)
- R. A. Scantlebury, P. T. Wilkinson, and K. A. Bartlett, The design of a message switching Centre for a digital communication network (IFIP 1968)
- Larry Roberts and Tom Merrill, Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers (Fall AFIPS Conference. October 1966)
- Lawrence Roberts, The Evolution of Packet Switching (Proceedings of the IEEE, November, 1978)
- Abbate, Janet (2000), Inventing the Internet, MIT Press, "ISBN "9780262511155
- Hafner, Katie Where Wizards Stay Up Late (Simon and Schuster, 1996) pp 52–67
- Norberg, Arthur; O'Neill, Judy E. Transforming Computer Technology: Information Processing for the Pentagon, 1962-1982 (Johns Hopkins University, 1996)
- Oral history interview with Paul Baran. "Charles Babbage Institute University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Baran describes his working environment at RAND, as well as his initial interest in survivable communications, and the evolution, writing and distribution of his eleven-volume work, "On Distributed Communications". Baran discusses his interaction with the group at ARPA who were responsible for the later development of the ARPANET.
- Packet Switching History and Design, site reviewed by Baran, Roberts, and Kleinrock
- Paul Baran and the Origins of the Internet
- A Brief History of the Internet
- "Hobbes' Internet Timeline v8.1", Robert H'obbes' Zakon, Zakon Group LLC
- 20+ articles on packet switching in the 1970s
- "An Introduction to Packet Switched Networks", Phrack, 05/3/88
This article is based on material taken from the "Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the "GFDL, version 1.3 or later.