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Main article: "NSFNET

The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) was a program of coordinated, evolving projects sponsored by the "National Science Foundation (NSF) beginning in 1985 to promote advanced research and education networking in the United States.[63] NSFNET was also the name given to several nationwide backbone networks operating at speeds of 56 kbit/s, 1.5 Mbit/s (T1), and 45 Mbit/s (T3) that were constructed to support NSF's networking initiatives from 1985-1995. Initially created to link researchers to the nation's NSF-funded supercomputing centers, through further public funding and private industry partnerships it developed into a major part of the "Internet backbone.

NSFNET regional networks[edit]

In addition to the five NSF supercomputer centers, NSFNET provided connectivity to eleven regional networks and through these networks to many smaller regional and campus networks in the United States. The NSFNET regional networks were:[64][65]

National LambdaRail[edit]

The "National LambdaRail was launched in September 2003. It is a 12,000-mile high-speed national computer network owned and operated by the U.S. research and education community that runs over fiber-optic lines. It was the first transcontinental "10 Gigabit Ethernet network. It operates with high aggregate capacity of up to 1.6 Tbit/s and a high 40 Gbit/s bitrate, with plans for 100 Gbit/s.[69][70]

TransPAC, TransPAC2, and TransPAC3[edit]

"TransPAC2 and TransPAC3, continuations of the TransPAC project, a high-speed international Internet service connecting research and education networks in the Asia-Pacific region to those in the US.[71][72] TransPAC is part of the NSF’s International Research Network Connections (IRNC) program.[73]

Very high-speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS)[edit]

The "Very high-speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS) came on line in April 1995 as part of a "National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored project to provide high-speed interconnection between NSF-sponsored "supercomputing centers and select access points in the United States.[74] The network was engineered and operated by "MCI Telecommunications under a cooperative agreement with the NSF. By 1998, the vBNS had grown to connect more than 100 universities and research and engineering institutions via 12 national points of presence with "DS-3 (45 Mbit/s), "OC-3c (155 Mbit/s), and "OC-12c (622 Mbit/s) links on an all OC-12c backbone, a substantial engineering feat for that time. The vBNS installed one of the first ever production "OC-48c (2.5 Gbit/s) "IP links in February 1999 and went on to upgrade the entire backbone to OC-48c.[75]

In June 1999 MCI WorldCom introduced vBNS+ which allowed attachments to the vBNS network by organizations that were not approved by or receiving support from NSF.[76] After the expiration of the NSF agreement, the vBNS largely transitioned to providing service to the government. Most universities and research centers migrated to the Internet2 educational backbone. In January 2006, when "MCI and "Verizon merged,[77] vBNS+ became a service of "Verizon Business.[78]

See also[edit]


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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article is based on material taken from the "Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the "GFDL, version 1.3 or later.

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