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"Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70

Islamic Republic of Pakistan
اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان ("Urdu)
Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]
""Flag of Pakistan
""Emblem of Pakistan
Motto: "Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam
ایمان، اتحاد، نظم (Urdu)
"Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]
Anthem: "Qaumī Tarānah
قَومی ترانہ
"The National Anthem"[3]
""Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled region shown in light green
Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled region shown in light green
Capital "Islamabad
33°40′N 73°10′E / 33.667°N 73.167°E / 33.667; 73.167
Largest city "Karachi
24°51′36″N 67°00′36″E / 24.86000°N 67.01000°E / 24.86000; 67.01000
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
"National language "Urdu[11][12]
"Ethnic groups
"Demonym "Pakistani
"Government "Federal parliamentary constitutional republic
• "President
"Mamnoon Hussain
"Nasirul Mulk
"Sadiq Sanjrani
"Mian Saqib Nisar
Legislature "Parliament
"National Assembly
"Independence from British India
• "Dominion
14 August 1947
23 March 1956
14 August 1973
• Total
881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi)[a][17] ("33rd)
• Water (%)
• 2017 census
212,742,631 [18] ("5th)
• Density
244.4/km2 (633.0/sq mi) ("56th)
"GDP ("PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$1.060 trillion[19] ("25th)
• Per capita
$5,374[19] ("137th)
"GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$304.4 billion[20] ("42nd)
• Per capita
$1,629[21] ("145th)
"Gini (2013) 30.7[22]
"HDI (2015) Steady 0.550[23]
medium · "147th
Currency "Pakistani rupee (₨) ("PKR)
Time zone "PST ("UTC+5b)
"Drives on the "left[24]
"Calling code "+92
"ISO 3166 code "PK
"Internet TLD ".pk
  1. See also "Pakistani English.:

Pakistan[b] ("Urdu: پاکِستان‎), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ("Urdu: اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان‎), is a country in "South Asia. It is the "fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people.[18] In area, it is "the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) "coastline along the "Arabian Sea and "Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by "India to the east, "Afghanistan to the west, "Iran to the southwest, and "China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from "Tajikistan by Afghanistan's "Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a "maritime border with "Oman.

The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several "ancient cultures, including the "Mehrgarh of the "Neolithic and the "Bronze Age "Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including "Hindus, "Indo-Greeks, "Muslims, "Turco-Mongols, "Afghans, and "Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian "Achaemenid Empire, "Alexander III of Macedon, the Indian "Mauryan Empire, the Arab "Umayyad Caliphate, the "Gupta Empire,[25] the "Delhi Sultanate, the "Mongol Empire, the "Mughal Empire, the Afghan "Durrani Empire, the "Sikh Empire (partially), and, most recently, the "British Empire.

Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam.[26][27] As a result of the "Pakistan Movement led by "Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the "Indian subcontinent's struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent homeland for Indian Muslims.[28] It is an "ethnically and "linguistically diverse country, with a similarly diverse "geography and "wildlife. Initially a "dominion, Pakistan adopted a "constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic "civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of "East Pakistan as the new country of "Bangladesh.[29] In 1973 Pakistan adopted a new constitution establishing, alongside its pre-existing "parliamentary republic status, a federal government based in "Islamabad consisting of "four provinces and four federal territories. The new constitution also stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of "Islam as laid down in the "Quran and "Sunnah.[30]

A "regional[31][32][33] and "middle power,[34][35][36] Pakistan has the "sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a "nuclear power as well as a declared "nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the "Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised "economy with a well-integrated "agriculture sector and a growing services sector.[37][38] The Pakistani economy is the "24th-largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and the "41st-largest in terms of "nominal GDP (World Bank). It is ranked among the "emerging and growth-leading economies of the world,[39][40] and is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.[41][42]

Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and "conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including "overpopulation, "terrorism, "poverty, "illiteracy, and "corruption.[43][44][45][46] Pakistan is a member of the United Nations, the "Non-Aligned Movement, the "Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the "Commonwealth of Nations, the "Economic Cooperation Organisation, the "Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the "South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the "Developing Eight, and the "G20 developing nations, "Group of 24, "Group of 77, and "ECOSOC. It is also an associate member of "CERN. Pakistan is a signatory to the "Kyoto Protocol, the "Paris Agreement, and the "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.



The name Pakistan literally means "land of the pure" in "Urdu and "Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in "Persian and "Pashto.[47] The suffix ـستان ("-stān) is a Persian word meaning the place of, and also recalls the synonymous (and cognate) "Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान.[48]

The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by "Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a "Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet "Now or Never,[49] using it as an "acronym ("thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN") referring to the names of the five northern regions of the "British Raj: "Punjab, "Afghania, "Kashmir, "Sindh, and "Baluchistan.[50][51][52] The letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation.[53]


Early and medieval age[edit]

Indus Priest King Statue from "Mohenjo-Daro

Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.[54] The earliest known inhabitants in the region were "Soanian during the "Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the "Soan Valley of "Punjab.[55] The "Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh[56] and the Bronze Age "Indus Valley Civilisation[57][58][59][60][61] (2,800–1,800 BCE) at "Harappa and "Mohenjo-Daro.[62][63]

The "Vedic Civilisation (1500–500 BCE), characterised by "Indo-Aryan culture, during this period the "Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with "Hinduism, were composed and this culture later became well established in the region.[64][65] "Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre.[66] The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient "Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now "Taxila in the Punjab, which was founded around 1000 BCE.[67][56] Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian "Achaemenid Empire (around 519 BCE), "Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE[68] and the "Maurya Empire, founded by "Chandragupta Maurya and extended by "Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE.[56] The "Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by "Demetrius of Bactria (180–165 BCE) included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under "Menander (165–150 BCE), prospering the "Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.[56][69] Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, which was established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE.[70][71] The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis.[71] The ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was also recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE.[72][73][74][75]

At its zenith, the "Rai Dynasty (489–632 CE) of "Sindh ruled this region and the surrounding territories.[76] The "Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, which, under "Dharmapala and "Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now "Bangladesh through "Northern India to Pakistan.

The Arab conqueror "Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE.[77][78][79][80][81] The Pakistan government's official chronology claims this as the time when the foundation of Pakistan was laid[77][82][83] but the concept of Pakistan came in 19th century.The Early Medieval period (642–1219 CE) witnessed the spread of "Islam in the region. During this period, "Sufi "missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam.[84] These developments set the stage for the "rule of several successive Muslim empires in the region, including the "Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187 CE), the "Ghorid Kingdom, and the "Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE). The "Lodi dynasty, the last of the Delhi Sultanate, was replaced by the "Mughal Empire (1526–1857 CE).

The Mughals introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of "Indo-Persian culture in the region.[85] From the region of modern-day Pakistan, key cities during the Mughal rule were "Lahore and "Thatta,[86] both of which were chosen as the site of impressive "Mughal buildings.[87] In the early 16th century, the region remained under the "Mughal Empire ruled by "Muslim emperors.[88] By the early 18th century, increasing European influence contributed to the slow disintegration of the "empire as the lines between commercial and political dominance became increasingly blurred.[88]

During this time, the English "East India Company had established coastal outposts.[88] Control over the seas, greater resources, technology, and "British military protection led the Company to increasingly flex its military muscle, allowing the "Company to gain control over the "subcontinent by 1765 and sideline European competitors.[89] Expanding access beyond "Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its "army enabled it to annex or subdue most of region by the 1820s.[88] Many historians see this as the start of the region's colonial period.[88] By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the "British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the "Company began more deliberately to enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.[88] Such reforms included the enforcement of the "English Education Act in 1835 and the introduction of the "Indian Civil Service (ICS).[90] Traditional "madrasahs—primary institutions of higher learning for "Muslims in the "subcontinent—were no longer supported by the "English Crown, and nearly all of the madrasahs lost their financial endowment.[91]

Colonial period[edit]

Sir "Syed Ahmad Khan (1817–1898), whose "vision formed the basis of Pakistan
"Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948) served as Pakistan's first Governor-General and the leader of the "Pakistan Movement

The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century enabled the "Sikh Empire to control larger areas until the British "East India Company gained ascendancy over "South Asia.[92] A "rebellion in 1857 called the "Sepoy mutiny of "Bengal was the region's major armed struggle against the "British Empire and "Queen Victoria.[93] Divergence in the "relationship between Hinduism and Islam created a major rift in "British India that led to racially motivated "religious violence in British India.[94] The "language controversy further escalated the tensions between Hindus and Muslims.[95] The "Hindu renaissance witnessed an awakening of intellectualism in traditional "Hinduism and saw the emergence of more assertive influence in the social and political spheres in British India.[96][97] An "intellectual movement to counter the "Hindu renaissance was led by Sir "Syed Ahmad Khan, who helped found the "All-India Muslim League in 1901 and envisioned, as well as advocated for, the "two-nation theory.[92] In contrast to the "Indian Congress's "anti-British efforts, the Muslim League was a "pro-British movement whose political program "inherited the British values that would shape Pakistan's future "civil society.[98] In events during "World War I, "British Intelligence foiled an "anti-English "conspiracy involving the nexus of Congress and the "German Empire.["citation needed] The largely non-violent independence struggle led by the Indian Congress engaged millions of protesters in mass campaigns of "civil disobedience in the 1920s and 1930s against the "British Empire.[99][100][101]

Over 10 million people were uprooted from their homeland and travelled on foot, bullock carts, and trains to their promised new home during the "Partition of British India. During the partition, between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide.[102]

The Muslim League slowly rose to mass popularity in the 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of British "Muslims in "politics. In his presidential address of 29 December 1930, "Allama Iqbal called for "the amalgamation of "North-West Muslim-majority Indian states" consisting of Punjab, "North-West Frontier Province, "Sindh, and "Balochistan.[103] The perceived neglect of Muslim interests by Congress led British "provincial governments during the period of 1937–39 convinced "Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan to espouse the two-nation theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the "Lahore Resolution of 1940 presented by Sher-e- Bangla "A.K. Fazlul Haque, popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution.[92] In "World War II, Jinnah and "British-educated "founding fathers in the Muslim League supported the United Kingdom's "war efforts, countering opposition against it whilst working towards "Sir Syed's "vision.[104]

Pakistan Movement[edit]

The "1946 elections resulted in the Muslim League winning 90 percent of the seats reserved for Muslims. Thus, the 1946 election was effectively a plebiscite in which the Indian Muslims were to vote on the creation of Pakistan, a plebiscite won by the Muslim League.[105] This victory was assisted by the support given to the Muslim League by the support of the landowners of Sindh and Punjab. The "Congress, which initially denied the Muslim League's claim of being the sole representative of Indian Muslims, was now forced to recognise the fact.[105] The "British had no alternative except to take Jinnah's views into account as he had emerged as the sole spokesperson of the Entire British India's Muslims. However, the British did not want British India to be partitioned, and in one last effort to prevent it they devised the "Cabinet Mission plan.[106]

As the cabinet mission failed, the British government announced its intention to end the "British Rule in 1946–47.[107] "Nationalists in British India—including "Jawaharlal Nehru and "Abul Kalam Azad of Congress, Jinnah of the "All-India Muslim League, and "Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs—agreed to the proposed terms of transfer of power and independence in June 1947 with the "Viceroy of India, "Lord Mountbatten of Burma.[108] As the United Kingdom agreed to the "partitioning of India in 1947, the modern state of Pakistan was established on "14 August 1947 (27th of "Ramadan in 1366 of the "Islamic Calendar), amalgamating the "Muslim-majority eastern and northwestern regions of "British India.[101] It comprised the provinces of "Balochistan, "East Bengal, the "North-West Frontier Province, "West Punjab, and Sindh.[92][108]

In the riots that accompanied the partition in Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000[109][110][111][112][113][114] people were killed in what some have described as a retributive genocide between the religions[115][116] while 50,000 Muslim women were "abducted and raped by Hindu and Sikh men and 33,000 Hindu and Sikh women also experienced the same fate at the hands of Muslims.[117][118][119][120] Around 6.5 million Muslims moved from India to West Pakistan and 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved from West Pakistan to India.[121] It was the largest mass migration in human history.[122][123][124] Dispute over "Jammu and Kashmir led to the "First Kashmir War in 1948.[125][126]

Independence and modern Pakistan[edit]

The American "CIA film on Pakistan made in 1950 examines the history and geography of Pakistan.
"You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place or worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the State."

—"Muhammad Ali Jinnah's first speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan[127]

After "independence in 1947, Jinnah, the "President of the Muslim League, became the nation's first "Governor-General as well as the first "President-Speaker of the "Parliament,[128] but he died of tuberculosis on 11 September 1948.[129] Meanwhile, Pakistan's founding fathers agreed to appoint "Liaquat Ali Khan, the "secretary-general of the "party, the nation's "first "Prime Minister. With "dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations, independent Pakistan had two "British monarchs before it became a republic.[128]

The creation of Pakistan was never fully accepted by many British leaders, among them "Lord Mountbatten.[130] Mountbatten clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League's idea of Pakistan.[131] Jinnah refused Mountbatten's offer to serve as "Governor-General of Pakistan.[132] When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged Pakistan had he known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, he replied 'most probably'.[133]

Maulana "Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, a respected Deobandi alim (scholar) who occupied the position of Shaykh al-Islam in Pakistan in 1949, and "Maulana Mawdudi of "Jamaat-i-Islami played a pivotal role in the demand for an Islamic constitution. "Mawdudi demanded that the Constituent Assembly make an explicit declaration affirming the "supreme sovereignty of God" and the supremacy of the shariah in Pakistan.[134]

A significant result of the efforts of the Jamaat-i-Islami and the "ulama was the passage of the "Objectives Resolution in March 1949. The Objectives Resolution, which "Liaquat Ali Khan called the second most important step in Pakistan's history, declared that "sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority which He has delegated to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust". The Objectives Resolution has been incorporated as a preamble to the constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973.[135]

"Democracy was stalled by the "martial law that had been enforced by President "Iskander Mirza, who was replaced by "army chief, General "Ayub Khan. After adopting a "presidential system in 1962, the country experienced exceptional growth until a "second war with "India in 1965 that led to an economic downturn and wide-scale "public disapproval in 1967.[136][137] "Consolidating control from Ayub Khan in 1969, President "Yahya Khan had to deal with a devastating "cyclone that caused 500,000 deaths in "East Pakistan.[138]

Signing of the "Tashkent Declaration to end "hostilities with "India in 1965 in "Tashkent, "USSR, by President "Ayub alongside "Bhutto (centre) and "Aziz Ahmed (left)

In 1970 Pakistan held its "first democratic elections since independence, meant to mark a transition from "military rule to democracy, but after the East Pakistani "Awami League won against the "Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), Yahya Khan and the military establishment refused to hand over power.[139][140] "Operation Searchlight, a military crackdown on the Bengali nationalist movement, led to a declaration of independence and the waging of "a war of liberation by the Bengali "Mukti Bahini forces in East Pakistan.[140][141] However, in West Pakistan the conflict was described as a civil war as opposed to a war of liberation.[142]

Independent researchers estimate that between 300,000 and 500,000 civilians died during this period while the Bangladesh government puts the number of dead at three million,[143] a figure that is now nearly universally regarded as excessively inflated.[144] Some academics such as "Rudolph Rummel and "Rounaq Jahan say both sides[145] committed genocide; others such as "Richard Sisson and Leo E. Rose believe there was no genocide.[146] In response to India's support for the insurgency in East Pakistan, "preemptive strikes on "India by Pakistan's "air force, "navy, and "marines sparked a "conventional war in 1971 that resulted in an Indian victory and "East Pakistan gaining "independence as Bangladesh.[140]

With Pakistan "surrendering in the war, Yahya Khan was replaced by "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as president; the country worked towards promulgating its "constitution and putting the country on the road to democracy. Democratic rule resumed from 1972 to 1977—an era of self-"consciousness, intellectual "leftism, "nationalism, and nationwide reconstruction.[147] In 1972 Pakistan embarked on an ambitious plan to develop its "nuclear deterrence capability with "the goal of preventing any "foreign invasion; the country's "first "nuclear power plant was inaugurated in that same year.[148][149] Accelerated in response to India's "first nuclear test in 1974, this "crash program was completed in 1979.[149]

Democracy ended with a "military coup in 1977 against the "leftist PPP, which saw "General Zia-ul-Haq become the president in 1978. From 1977 to 1988, President Zia's "corporatisation and "economic Islamisation initiatives led to Pakistan becoming one of the fastest-growing economies in South Asia.[150] While building up the country's "nuclear program, increasing "Islamisation,[151] and the rise of a homegrown "conservative philosophy, Pakistan helped subsidise and distribute US "resources to factions of the "mujahideen against the "USSR's "intervention in "communist Afghanistan.[152][153] Pakistan's "North-West Frontier Province became a base for the anti-Soviet Afghan fighters, with the province's influential "Deobandi ulama playing a significant role in encouraging and organising the 'jihad'.[154]

"President Zia died in a plane crash in 1988, and "Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the country's "first female Prime Minister. The PPP was followed by conservative "Pakistan Muslim League (N), and over the next decade the leaders of the two parties fought for power, alternating in office while the country's situation worsened; economic indicators fell sharply, in contrast to the 1980s. This period is marked by prolonged "stagflation, instability, "corruption, "nationalism, "geopolitical rivalry with "India, and the clash of "left wing-"right wing ideologies.[155][156] As "PML(N) secured a "supermajority in "elections in 1997, Sharif authorised "nuclear testings (See:"Chagai-I and "Chagai-II), as a "retaliation to the "second nuclear tests ordered by India, led by Prime Minister "Atal Bihari Vajpayee in May 1998.[157]

President "George W. Bush meets with President "Musharraf in "Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.

Military tension between the two countries in the "Kargil district led to the "Kargil War of 1999, and turmoil in "civic-military relations allowed General "Pervez Musharraf to take over through a "bloodless coup d'état.[158][159] Musharraf governed Pakistan as "chief executive from 1999 to 2001 and as President from 2001 to 2008—a period of "enlightenment, social "liberalism, extensive "economic reforms,[160] and "direct involvement in the US-led war on terrorism. When the "National Assembly historically completed its first full five-year term on 15 November 2007, the new elections were called by the "Election Commission.[161]

After the "assassination of "Benazir Bhutto in 2007, the "PPP secured the "most votes in the "elections of 2008, appointing party member "Yousaf Raza Gillani as Prime Minister.[162] Threatened with "impeachment, President Musharraf resigned on 18 August 2008, and was succeeded by "Asif Ali Zardari.[163][164][165] Clashes with the "judicature prompted "Gillani's disqualification from the "Parliament and as the "Prime Minister in June 2012.[166] By its own financial calculations, Pakistan's "involvement in the war on terrorism has cost up to ~$118 billion,[167] "sixty thousand casualties and more than 1.8 million displaced civilians.[168] The "general election held in 2013 saw the PML(N) almost achieve a "supermajority, following which "Nawaz Sharif was elected as the Prime Minister, returning to the post for the third time in fourteen years, in a democratic transition.[169]

Role of Islam in Pakistan[edit]

The idea of Pakistan, which had received overwhelming popular support among Indian Muslims, especially those in the provinces of "British India where Muslims were in a minority such as the "United Provinces.,[170] was articulated in terms of an "Islamic state by the Muslim League leadership, the "ulama (Islamic clergy) and Jinnah.[171] Jinnah had developed a close association with the ulama and upon his death was described by one such alim, "Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, as the greatest Muslim after "Aurangzeb and as someone who desired to unite the Muslims of the world under the banner of Islam.[172][173]

The Objectives Resolution in March 1949, which declared God as the sole sovereign over the entire universe, represented the first formal step to transform Pakistan into an Islamic state.[174][135] Muslim League leader "Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman asserted that Pakistan could only truly become an Islamic state after bringing all believers of Islam into a single political unit.[175] Keith Callard, one of the earliest scholars on Pakistani politics, observed that Pakistanis believed in the essential unity of purpose and outlook in the Muslim world and assumed that Muslim from other countries would share their views on the relationship between religion and nationality.[176]

However, Pakistan's pan-Islamist sentiments for a united Islamic bloc called Islamistan were not shared by other Muslim governments,[177] although Islamists such as the Grand Mufti of Palestine, Al-Haj Amin al-Husseini, and leaders of the "Muslim Brotherhood, became drawn to the country. Pakistan's desire for an international organization of Muslim countries was fulfilled in the 1970s when the "Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) was formed.[178]

The strongest opposition to the Islamist ideological paradigm being imposed on the state came from the Bengali Muslims of East Pakistan[179] whose educated class, according to a survey by social scientist Nasim Ahmad Jawed, preferred secularism and focused on ethnic identity unlike educated West Pakistanis who tended to prefer an Islamic identity.[180] The Islamist party "Jamaat-e-Islami considered Pakistan to be an Islamic state and believed Bengali nationalism to be unacceptable. In the 1971 conflict over East Pakistan the Jamaat-e-Islami fought the Bengali nationalists on the Pakistan Army's side.[181]

After Pakistan's first ever general elections the "1973 Constitution was created by an elected Parliament.[182] The "Constitution declared Pakistan an Islamic Republic and Islam as the state religion. It also stated that all laws would have to be brought into accordance with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the "Quran and "Sunnah and that no law repugnant to such injunctions could be enacted.[30] The "1973 Constitution also created certain institutions such as the "Shariat Court and the "Council of Islamic Ideology to channel the interpretation and application of Islam.[183]

Pakistan's leftist Prime Minister "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto faced vigorous opposition which coalesced into a movement united under the revivalist banner of Nizam-e-Mustafa ("Rule of the "prophet")[184] which aimed to establish an Islamic state based on Sharia laws. Bhutto agreed to some Islamist demands before being overthrown in a coup.[185]

After taking power from Bhutto in a coup de'tat, General "Zia-ul-Haq, who came from a religious background,[186] committed himself to establishing an Islamic state and enforcing "sharia law.[185] Zia established separate Shariat judicial courts[187] and court benches[188][189] to judge legal cases using Islamic doctrine.[190] Zia bolstered the influence of the "ulama (Islamic clergy) and the Islamic parties.[190] "Zia-ul-Haq forged a strong alliance between the "military and Deobandi institutions[191] and even though most Barelvi ulama[192] and only a few Deobandi scholars had supported Pakistan's creation, Islamic state politics came to be mostly in favour of "Deobandi (and later Ahl-e-Hadith/"Salafi) institutions instead of Barelvi.[193] Sectarian tensions increased with Zia's anti-Shia policies.[194]

According to a PEW opinion poll a majority of Pakistanis support making Sharia the official law of the land.[195] In a survey of several Muslim countries, the PEW Research Centre also found that Pakistanis tend to identify with their religion more than their nationality in contrast to Muslims in other nations such as Egypt, Indonesia and Jordan.[196]

Geography, environment and climate[edit]

A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan

The "geography and "climate of Pakistan are extremely diverse, and the country is home to a wide variety of "wildlife.[197] Pakistan covers an area of 881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi), approximately equal to the combined land areas of France and the United Kingdom. It is the "33rd-largest nation by total area, although this ranking varies depending on how the disputed territory of Kashmir is counted. Pakistan has a 1,046 km (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south[198] and land borders of 6,774 km (4,209 mi) in total: 2,430 km (1,510 mi) with Afghanistan, 523 km (325 mi) with "China, 2,912 km (1,809 mi) with India and 909 km (565 mi) with "Iran.[199] It shares a marine border with Oman,[200] and is separated from Tajikistan by the cold, narrow "Wakhan Corridor.[201] Pakistan occupies a geopolitically important location at the crossroads of South Asia, the Middle East, and Central Asia.[12]

Geologically, Pakistan is located in the Indus–Tsangpo Suture Zone and overlaps the "Indian tectonic plate in its Sindh and Punjab provinces; Balochistan and most of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are within the "Eurasian plate, mainly on the "Iranian plateau. Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are "prone to violent earthquakes. This region has the highest rates of "seismicity and largest earthquakes in the Himalaya region.[202] Ranging from the coastal areas of the south to the glaciated mountains of the north, Pakistan's landscapes vary from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus.[203]

"K2, the "second-highest mountain on Earth
"Katpana Desert, the world's highest cold desert
The "Deosai Plains are the world's second highest alpine plain.

Pakistan is divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the "Indus River plain, and the Balochistan Plateau.[204] The northern highlands contain the "Karakoram, "Hindu Kush, and "Pamir mountain ranges (see "mountains of Pakistan), which contain some of the world's highest peaks, including five of the fourteen "eight-thousanders (mountain peaks over 8,000 metres or 26,250 feet), which attract adventurers and mountaineers from all over the world, notably "K2 (8,611 m or 28,251 ft) and "Nanga Parbat (8,126 m or 26,660 ft).[205] The Balochistan Plateau lies in the west and the "Thar Desert in the east. The 1,609 km (1,000 mi) Indus River and its tributaries flow through the country from the Kashmir region to the Arabian Sea. There is an expanse of alluvial plains along it in the Punjab and Sindh.[206]

The climate varies from tropical to temperate, with arid conditions in the coastal south. There is a "monsoon season with frequent flooding due to heavy rainfall, and a dry season with significantly less rainfall or none at all. There are four distinct seasons in Pakistan: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November.[92] Rainfall varies greatly from year to year, and patterns of alternate flooding and drought are common.[207]

Flora and fauna[edit]

The diversity of the landscape and climate in Pakistan allows a wide variety of trees and plants to flourish. The forests range from coniferous "alpine and "subalpine trees such as "spruce, "pine, and "deodar cedar in the extreme northern mountains to "deciduous trees in most of the country (for example, the mulberry-like "shisham found in the "Sulaiman Mountains), to palms such as "coconut and "date in the southern Punjab, southern Balochistan, and all of Sindh. The western hills are home to "juniper, "tamarisk, coarse grasses, and scrub plants. "Mangrove forests form much of the coastal wetlands along the coast in the south.[208]

Coniferous forests are found at altitudes ranging from 1,000 to 4,000 metres (3,300 to 13,100 feet) in most of the northern and northwestern highlands. In the "xeric regions of Balochistan, date palm and "Ephedra are common. In most of the Punjab and Sindh, the Indus plains support tropical and subtropical dry and moist broadleaf forest as well as tropical and xeric shrublands. These forests are mostly of "mulberry, "acacia, and "eucalyptus.[209] About 2.2% or 1,687,000 hectares (16,870 km2) of Pakistan was forested in 2010.[210]

""Medvěd plavý (Ursus arctos isabellinus).jpg
""Tibetan Wolf.JPG
""Lightmatter snowleopard.jpg
Bear, Tibetan wolf, and snow leopard, respectively

The fauna of Pakistan also reflects the country's varied climate. Around 668 bird species are found there,[211][212] including "crows, "sparrows, "mynas, "hawks, "falcons, and "eagles. "Palas, Kohistan, has a significant population of "western tragopan.[213] Many birds sighted in Pakistan are migratory, coming from Europe, Central Asia, and India.[214]

The southern plains are home to "mongooses, "civets, hares, the "Asiatic jackal, the "Indian pangolin, the "jungle cat, and the "desert cat. There are "mugger crocodiles in the Indus, and "wild boar, deer, "porcupines, and small rodents in the surrounding areas. The sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are home to Asiatic jackals, "striped hyenas, wildcats, and "leopards.[215][216] The lack of vegetative cover, the severe climate, and the impact of grazing on the deserts have left wild animals in a precarious position. The "chinkara is the only animal that can still be found in significant numbers in "Cholistan. A small number of "nilgai are found along the Pakistan–India border and in some parts of Cholistan.[215][217] A wide variety of animals live in the mountainous north, including the "Marco Polo sheep, the "urial (a subspecies of wild sheep), the "markhor goat, the "ibex goat, the "Asian black bear, and the "Himalayan brown bear.[215][218][219] Among the rare animals found in the area are the "snow leopard[218] and the blind "Indus river dolphin, of which there are believed to be about 1,100 remaining, protected at the Indus River Dolphin Reserve in Sindh.[218][220] In total, 174 mammals, 177 reptiles, 22 amphibians, 198 freshwater fish species and 5,000 species of invertebrates (including insects) have been recorded in Pakistan.[211][212]

The flora and fauna of Pakistan suffer from a number of problems. Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world, which, along with hunting and pollution, has had adverse effects on the ecosystem. The government has established a large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves to address these issues.[211][212]

Government and politics[edit]

Pakistan's political experience is essentially related to the struggle of Indian Muslims to regain the power they lost to British colonisation.[221] Pakistan is a democratic "parliamentary "federal republic, with Islam as the "state religion.[14] The "first constitution was adopted in 1956 but suspended by Ayub Khan in 1958, who replaced it with the "second constitution in 1962.[101] A complete and comprehensive "constitution was adopted in 1973—it was suspended by "Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 but reinstated in 1985—is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of the current government.[199] The Pakistani military establishment has played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout "Pakistan's political history.[101] The periods "1958–1971, "1977–1988, and "1999–2008 saw "military coups that resulted in the imposition of "martial law and military commanders who governed as de facto presidents.[222] Today Pakistan has a "multi-party "parliamentary system with clear "division of powers and "checks and balances among the branches of government. The first successful "democratic transition occurred in May 2013. "Politics in Pakistan is centred on, and dominated by, a homegrown "social philosophy comprising a blend of ideas from "socialism, "conservatism, and the "third way. As of the "general elections held in 2013, the three main political parties in the country are: the "centre-right "conservative "Pakistan Muslim League-N; the "centre-left "socialist PPP; and the "centrist and "third-way "Pakistan Movement for Justice (PTI).

Foreign relations[edit]

""(L-R) English: Motorcade for President Mohammad Ayub Khan of Pakistan. In open car (Lincoln-Mercury Continental with bubble top): Secret Service agent William Greer (driving); Military Aide to the President General Chester V. Clifton (front seat, centre); Secret Service Agent Gerald "Jerry" Behn (front seat, right, partially hidden); President Mohammad Ayub Khan (standing); President John F. Kennedy (standing). Crowd watching. 14th Street, Washington, D.C.
"Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan) with U.S. President "John F. Kennedy in 1961.

As the "Muslim world's second "most populous "nation-state (after "Indonesia) and its only "nuclear power state, Pakistan has an important role in the international community.[223][224] With a "semi-agricultural and "semi-industrialized economy, its "foreign policy determines its standard of interactions for its organisations, corporations, and individual citizens.[225][226] Its "geostrategic intentions were explained by Jinnah in a broadcast message in 1947, which is featured in a prominent quotation on the homepage of Pakistan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs website: "The foundation of our foreign policy is friendship with all nations across the globe."[227]

Since Independence, Pakistan has attempted to balance its relations with foreign nations.[228][229][230] Pakistan is a major "non-NATO ally of the United States in the "war against terrorism—a status achieved in 2004.[231] Pakistan's "foreign policy and "geostrategy mainly focus on the economy and security against threats to its "national identity and territorial integrity, and on the cultivation of close relations with other Muslim countries.[232]

The "Kashmir conflict remains the major point of contention between Pakistan and India; three of their "four wars were fought over this territory.[233] Due partly to difficulties in relations with its geopolitical rival India, Pakistan maintains close political relations with "Turkey and Iran,[234] and both countries have been a focal point in Pakistan's foreign policy.[234] Saudi Arabia also maintains a respected position in Pakistan's foreign policy.

A non-signatory party of the "Treaty on Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Pakistan is an influential member of the "IAEA.[235] In recent events, Pakistan has blocked an "international treaty to limit "fissile material, arguing that the "treaty would target Pakistan specifically".[236] In the 20th century, Pakistan's nuclear deterrence program focused on countering India's nuclear ambitions in the "region, and "nuclear tests by "India eventually led Pakistan to "reciprocate to maintain a geopolitical balance as becoming a "nuclear power.[237] Currently, Pakistan maintains a policy of "credible minimum deterrence, calling its program vital "nuclear deterrence against foreign aggression.[238][239]

Located in the strategic and geopolitical corridor of the world's major maritime oil supply lines and communication fibre optics, Pakistan has proximity to the natural resources of Central Asian countries.[240] Briefing on the country's foreign policy in 2004, a "Pakistani senator["clarification needed] reportedly explained: "Pakistan highlights sovereign equality of states, bilateralism, mutuality of interests, and non-interference in each other's domestic affairs as the cardinal features of its foreign policy."[241] Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations and has a "Permanent Representative to represent Pakistan's positions in international politics.[242] Pakistan has lobbied for the concept of ""enlightened moderation" in the Muslim world.[243][244] Pakistan is also a member of Commonwealth of Nations,[245] the "South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the "Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO),[246][247] and the "G20 developing nations.[248]

Because of ideological differences, Pakistan opposed the "Soviet Union in the 1950s, and during the "Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s, Pakistan was one of the closest allies of the United States.[241][249] Relations between Pakistan and Russia have greatly improved since 1999, and co-operation in various sectors has increased.[250] Pakistan has had an "on-and-off" relationship with the United States. A close ally of the United States during the "Cold war, Pakistan's relationship with the United States soured in the 1990s when the US "imposed sanctions because of Pakistan's secretive nuclear development.[251] Since "9/11, Pakistan has been a close ally of the United States on the issue of "counter-terrorism in the regions of the Middle East and South Asia, with the US supporting Pakistan with aid money and weapons.[252][253] Initially, the United States-led war on terrorism led to an improvement in the relationship, but it was strained by a divergence of interests and resulting mistrust during the "war in Afghanistan and by issues related to terrorism.[254][255][256][257]

Pakistan does not have "diplomatic relations with "Israel;[258] nonetheless, some Israeli citizens have visited the country on tourist visas.[259] However, an exchange took place between the two countries using Turkey as a communication conduit.[260] Despite Pakistan being the only country in the world that has not established "diplomatic relations with "Armenia, an "Armenian community still resides in Pakistan.[261] Pakistan had warm relations with Bangladesh, despite some initial strains in their relationship.

Relations with China[edit]

Pakistan Prime Minister "Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier "Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan. Pakistan is host to China's largest embassy.[262]

Pakistan was the first country to have established formal diplomatic relations with the "People's Republic of China, and the relationship continues to be warm since China's "war with "India in 1962.[263] In the 1960s to 1980s, Pakistan greatly helped China in reaching out to the world's major countries and helped facilitate US President "Nixon's "state visit to China.[263] Despite the change of "governments in Pakistan and fluctuations in the regional and global situation, China policy in Pakistan continues to be a dominant factor at all times.[263] In return, China is Pakistan's largest trading partner, and economic co-operation has flourished, with substantial Chinese investment in Pakistan's infrastructural expansion such as the Pakistani deep-water port at "Gwadar. Sino-Pakistani friendly relations touched new heights as both the countries signed 51 agreements and Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs) in 2015 for co-operation in different areas.[264][265][266][267] Both countries signed a "Free Trade Agreement in the 2000s, and Pakistan continues to serve as China's communication bridge to the Muslim world.[268] In 2016 China announced that it will set up an anti-terrorism alliance with Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.[269]

Emphasis on relations with Muslim world[edit]

After Independence, Pakistan vigorously pursued bilateral relations with other Muslim countries[270] and made an active bid for leadership of the "Muslim world, or at least for leadership in efforts to achieve unity.[271] The "Ali brothers had sought to project Pakistan as the natural leader of the Islamic world, in part due to its large manpower and military strength.[272] A top-ranking "Muslim League leader, "Khaliquzzaman, declared that Pakistan would bring together all Muslim countries into "Islamistan—a pan-Islamic entity.[273]

Such developments (along with Pakistan's creation) did not get American approval, and British Prime Minister "Clement Attlee voiced international opinion at the time by stating that he wished that India and Pakistan would re-unite.[274] Since most of the "Arab world was undergoing a nationalist awakening at the time, there was little attraction to Pakistan's Pan-Islamic aspirations.[275] Some of the Arab countries saw the 'Islamistan' project as a Pakistani attempt to dominate other Muslim states.[276]

Pakistan vigorously championed the right of self-determination for Muslims around the world. Pakistan's efforts for the independence movements of Indonesia, Algeria, Tunisia, "Morocco, and Eritrea were significant and initially led to close ties between these countries and Pakistan.[277] However, Pakistan also masterminded an attack on the Afghan city of "Jalalabad during the "Afghan Civil War to establish an Islamic government there. Pakistan had wished to foment an 'Islamic Revolution' that would transcend national borders, covering Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.[278]

On the other hand, Pakistan's relations with Iran have been strained at times due to sectarian tensions.[279] Iran and "Saudi Arabia used Pakistan as a battleground for their proxy sectarian war, and by the 1990s Pakistan's support for the Sunni "Taliban organisation in Afghanistan became a problem for "Shia Iran, which opposed a Taliban-controlled Afghanistan.[280] Tensions between Iran and Pakistan intensified in 1998 when Iran accused Pakistan of war crimes after Pakistani warplanes had bombarded Afghanistan's last Shia stronghold in support of the Taliban.[281][282]

Pakistan is an influential and founding member of the "Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Maintaining cultural, political, social, and economic relations with the "Arab world and other countries in the Muslim world is a vital factor in Pakistan's foreign policy.[283]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Administrative Division Capital Population
 "Balochistan "Quetta 12,344,408
 "Punjab "Lahore 110,012,442
 "Sindh "Karachi 47,886,051
 "Khyber Pakhtunkhwa "Peshawar 35,525,047
 "Gilgit-Baltistan "Gilgit 1,800,000
 "Azad Kashmir "Muzaffarabad 4,567,982
"Islamabad Capital Territory "Islamabad 2,851,868

A "federal parliamentary republic state, Pakistan is a federation that comprises "four provinces: "Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Balochistan[284] and three "territories: "Islamabad Capital Territory, "Gilgit–Baltistan, and "Azad Kashmir. The "Government of Pakistan exercises the "de facto jurisdiction over the "Frontier Regions and the "western parts of the "Kashmir Regions, which are organised into the separate political entities "Azad Kashmir and "Gilgit–Baltistan (formerly Northern Areas). In 2009, the "constitutional assignment (the Gilgit–Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order) awarded the "Gilgit–Baltistan a "semi-provincial status, giving it self-government.[285]

The "local government system consists of a three-tier system of "districts, "tehsils, and "union councils, with an elected body at each tier.[286] There are about 130 districts altogether, of which Azad Kashmir has ten[287] and Gilgit–Baltistan seven.[288] The Tribal Areas comprise seven tribal agencies and six small frontier regions detached from neighbouring districts.[289]

Clickable map of the four provinces and three federal territories of Pakistan.
Balochistan (Pakistan) Punjab (Pakistan) Sindh Islamabad Capital Territory Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Azad Kashmir Gilgit-BaltistanA clickable map of Pakistan exhibiting its administrative units.
""About this image

"Law enforcement is carried out by a joint network of the "intelligence community with jurisdiction limited to the relevant province or territory. The "National Intelligence Directorate coordinates the information intelligence at both federal and provincial level; including the "FIA, "IB, "Motorway Police, and "paramilitary forces such as the "Pakistan Rangers and the "Frontier Corps.[290]

Pakistan's "premier" intelligence agency, the "Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), was formed just within a year after the Independence of Pakistan in 1947.[291] Pakistan's "ISI was ranked as the top intelligence agency in the world in 2011 by the "International Business Times UK.[292] ABC News Point in 2014 also reported that the ISI was ranked as the top intelligence agency in the world[293] while "Zee News reported the ISI as ranking fifth among the world's most powerful intelligence agencies.[294]

The "court system is organised as a hierarchy, with the "Supreme Court at the apex, below which are "High Courts, "Federal Shariat Courts (one in each province and one in the federal capital), "District Courts (one in each district), Judicial Magistrate Courts (in every town and city), Executive Magistrate Courts, and civil courts. The "Penal code has limited jurisdiction in the Tribal Areas, where law is largely derived from tribal customs.[290][295]

Kashmir conflict[edit]

The "Kashmir—the most northwesterly region of South Asia—is a major "territorial dispute that has hindered "relations between "India and Pakistan. The "two nations have fought at least "three large-scale conventional wars in successive years in "1947, "1965, and "1971. The "conflict in 1971 witnessed Pakistan's unconditional "surrender and a "treaty that subsequently led to the "independence of Bangladesh.[296] Other serious military engagements and skirmishes have included the armed contacts in "Siachen Glacier (1984) and "Kargil (1999).[233] Approximately 45.1% of the "Kashmir region is "controlled by India, which also claims the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir, including most of Jammu, the "Kashmir Valley, "Ladakh, and the "Siachen.[233] The claim is contested by Pakistan, which "controls approximately 38.2% of the "Kashmir region, an area known as the "Azad Kashmir and "Gilgit–Baltistan.[233][297]

"Azad Kashmir is part of Pakistan-controlled Kashmir.

India claims the Kashmir on the basis of the "Instrument of Accession—a legal agreement with Kashmir's leaders executed by "Maharaja "Hari Singh, who agreed to cede the area to India.[298] Pakistan claims Kashmir on the basis of a Muslim majority and of geography, the same principles that were applied for the creation of the two independent states.[299][300] India referred the dispute to the United Nations on 1 January 1948.[301] In a "resolution passed in 1948, the UN's "General Assembly asked Pakistan to remove most of its troops as a "plebiscite would then be held. However, Pakistan failed to vacate the region and a "ceasefire was reached in 1949 establishing a "Line of Control (LoC) that divided Kashmir between the "two nations.[302] India, fearful that the Muslim majority populace of Kashmir would secede from India, did not allow a plebiscite to take place in the region. This was confirmed in a statement by India's Defense Minister, "Krishna Menon, who said: "Kashmir would vote to join Pakistan and no Indian Government responsible for agreeing to plebiscite would survive."[303]

Pakistan claims that its position is for the right of the "people of Jammu and Kashmir to determine their future through impartial elections as mandated by the United Nations,[304] while India has stated that Kashmir is an "integral part of India, referring to the "Simla Agreement (1972) and to the fact that "elections take place regularly.[305] In recent developments, certain Kashmiri "independence groups believe that Kashmir should be independent of both India and Pakistan.[233]

Law enforcement[edit]

The "law enforcement in Pakistan is carried out by joint network of several federal and provincial police agencies. The "four provinces and the "Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) each have a civilian police force with jurisdiction extending only to the relevant province or territory.[199] At the federal level, there are a number of civilian "intelligence agencies with nationwide jurisdictions including the "Federal Investigation Agency (FIA), "Intelligence Bureau (IB), and the "Motorway Patrol, as well as several "paramilitary forces such as the "National Guards ("Northern Areas), the "Rangers (Punjab and Sindh), and the "Frontier Corps (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan).

The most senior officers of all the civilian police forces also form part of the "Police Service, which is a component of the "civil service of Pakistan. Namely, there are four provincial "police service including the "Punjab Police, "Sindh Police, "Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Police, and the "Balochistan Police; all headed by the appointed senior "Inspector-Generals. The ICT has its own police component, the "Capital Police, to maintain "law and order in the capital. The "CID bureaus are the "crime investigation unit and forms a vital part in each provincial "police service.

The "law enforcement in Pakistan also has a "Motorway Patrol which is responsible for enforcement of traffic and safety laws, security and recovery on Pakistan's inter-provincial "motorway network. In each of provincial "Police Service, it also maintains a respective "Elite Police units led by the "NACTA—a counter-terrorism police unit as well as providing VIP escorts. In the Punjab and Sindh, the "Pakistan Rangers are an internal security force with the prime objective to provide and maintain security in war zones and areas of conflict as well as maintaining law and order which includes providing assistance to the police.[306] The "Frontier Corps serves the similar purpose in "Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, and the Balochistan.[306]


"Pakistan Air Force's "JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the 26,660-foot-high (8,130-metre) "Nanga Parbat.

The armed forces of Pakistan are the "eighth largest in the world in terms of numbers in full-time service, with about 617,000 personnel on active duty and 513,000 reservists, as of tentative estimates in 2010.[307] They "came into existence after independence in 1947, and the military establishment has frequently influenced in the "national politics ever since.[222] "Chain of command of the military is kept under the control of the "Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee; all of the branches joint works, co-ordination, military logistics, and joint missions are under the "Joint Staff HQ.[308] The "Joint Staff HQ is composed of the "Air HQ, "Navy HQ, and "Army GHQ in the vicinity of the "Rawalpindi Military District.[309]

The "Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee is the highest "principle staff officer in the armed forces, and the chief military adviser to the "civilian government though the chairman has no authority over the three branches of armed forces.[308] The "Chairman joint chiefs controls the military from the "JS HQ and maintains strategic communications between the military and the civilian government.[308] As of 2018, the "CJCSC is General "Zubair Hayat alongside "chief of army staff General "Qamar Javed Bajwa,[310] "chief of naval staff "Admiral "Muhammad Zaka,[311] and "chief of air staff "Air Chief Marshal "Mujahid Anwar Khan.[312] The main branches are the "Army–"Air Force–"Navy–"Marines, which are supported by the number of "paramilitary forces in the country.[313] Control over the "strategic arsenals, deployment, employment, development, "military computers and "command and control is a responsibility vested under the "National Command Authority which oversaw the work on the "nuclear policy as part of the credible "minimum deterrence.[157]

The United States, Turkey, and China maintain close military relations and regularly export military equipment and "technology transfer to Pakistan.[314] Joint logistics and major "war games are occasionally carried out by the militaries of China and Turkey.[313][315][316] Philosophical basis for the "military draft is introduced by the "Constitution in times of emergency, but it has never been imposed.[317]

Military history[edit]

Since 1947 Pakistan has been involved in "four "conventional wars, the "first war occurred in Kashmir with Pakistan gaining control of "Western Kashmir, ("Azad Kashmir and "Gilgit–Baltistan), and India retaining "Eastern Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir). Territorial problems eventually led to another "conventional war in 1965; over the issue of "Bengali refugees that led to "another war in 1971 which resulted in Pakistan's "unconditional surrender in "East Pakistan.[318] Tensions in Kargil brought the two countries at the "brink of war.[158] Since 1947 the unresolved "territorial problems with "Afghanistan saw "border skirmishes which was kept mostly at the "mountainous border. In 1961, the military and "intelligence community repelled the "Afghan incursion in the "Bajaur Agency near the "Durand Line border.[319][320]

Rising tensions with neighbouring USSR in "their involvement in Afghanistan, "Pakistani intelligence community, mostly the "ISI, "systematically coordinated the "US resources to the "Afghan mujahideen and "foreign fighters against the Soviet Union's presence in the region. Military reports indicated that the "PAF was in engagement with the "Soviet Air Force, supported by the "Afghan Air Force during the course of the "conflict;[321] one of which belonged to "Alexander Rutskoy.[321] Apart from its own conflicts, Pakistan has been an active "participant in United Nations peacekeeping missions. It played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from "Mogadishu, Somalia, in 1993 in "Operation Gothic Serpent.[322][323][324] According to UN reports, the Pakistani military are the third largest troop contributors to UN "peacekeeping missions after "Ethiopia and "India.[325][326]

Pakistan has "deployed its military in some "Arab countries, providing defence, training, and playing advisory roles.[327][328] The "PAF and "Navy's fighter pilots have voluntarily served in Arab nations' militaries against "Israel in "the Six-Day War (1967) and in the "Yom Kippur War (1973). Pakistan's "fighter pilots shot down ten Israeli planes in the Six-Day War.[322] In the 1973 war one of the PAF pilots, Flt. Lt. "Sattar Alvi (flying a MiG-21), shot down an Israeli Air Force Mirage and was honoured by the Syrian government.[329][330][331] Requested by the "Saudi monarchy in 1979, Pakistan's "special forces units, operatives, and commandos were rushed to assist "Saudi forces in "Mecca to "lead the operation of the "Grand Mosque. For almost two weeks Saudi Special Forces and Pakistani commandos fought the insurgents who had occupied the "Grand Mosque's compound.[332][333][334] In 1991 Pakistan got involved with the "Gulf War and sent 5,000 troops as part of a US-led coalition, specifically for the defence of "Saudi Arabia.[335]

Despite the UN arms embargo on "Bosnia, General "Javed Nasir of the "ISI airlifted anti-tank weapons and missiles to Bosnian mujahideen which turned the tide in favour of Bosnian Muslims and forced the Serbs to lift the siege. Under "Nasir's leadership the "ISI was also involved in supporting Chinese Muslims in "Xinjiang Province, rebel Muslim groups in the "Philippines, and some religious groups in Central Asia.[336][337]

Since 2004 the military has been engaged in a "war in North-West Pakistan, mainly against the homegrown "Taliban factions.[338][339] Major operations undertaken by the army include "Operation Black Thunderstorm, "Operation Rah-e-Nijat and "Operation Zarb-e-Azb.[340][341]

According to "SIPRI, Pakistan was the 9th largest recipient and importer of arms between 2012–2016.[342]



Pakistan's key economic statistics
Pakistan's GDP composition by sector [343]
Agriculture 20.9%
Industry 20.3%
Services 58.8%
Employment [344]
Labour force 61.04 million
People employed 57.42 million
Natural Resources [345][346]
Copper 12.3 million tonnes
Gold 20.9 million ounces
Coal 175 billion tonnes
Shale Gas 105 trillion cubic feet
Shale Oil 9 billion barrels
Gas production 4.2 billion cubic feet/day
Oil production 70,000 barrels/day
Iron ore 500 million[347]

Economists estimate that Pakistan was part of the wealthiest "region of the world throughout the first millennium CE, with the largest economy by GDP. This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions such as China and Western Europe edged forward.[348] Pakistan is considered a "developing country[349][350] and is one of the "Next Eleven, a group of eleven countries that, along with the "BRICs, have a high potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century.[351]

In recent years, after decades of social instability, as of 2013, serious deficiencies in "macromanagement and unbalanced "macroeconomics in basic services such as "rail transportation and "electrical energy generation have developed.[352] The economy is considered to be semi-industrialized, with centres of growth along the "Indus River.[353][354][355] The diversified economies of "Karachi and "Punjab's urban centres coexist with less-developed areas in other parts of the country, particularly in Balochistan.[354] According to the "Economic complexity index, Pakistan is the 67th-largest export economy in the world and the 106th most complex economy.[356] During the fiscal year 2015–16, Pakistan's exports stood at US$20.81 billion and imports at US$44.76 billion, resulting in a negative trade balance of US$23.96 billion.[357]

The "Pakistan Stock Exchange is one of the best-performing markets in the world. According to "Forbes, PSX delivered a return of 400% between 2010 and 2015.[358]

As of 2016 Pakistan's estimated "nominal GDP is US$271 billion.[19] The GDP by "PPP is "US$946,667 million.[359] The estimated nominal "per capita GDP is "US$1,561,[360] the "GDP (PPP)/capita is "US$5,010 ("international dollars),[361] and the "debt-to-GDP ratio is 66.50%.[362] According to the "World Bank, Pakistan has important strategic endowments and development potential. The increasing proportion of Pakistan's youth provides the country with both a potential demographic dividend and a challenge to provide adequate services and employment.[363] 21.04% of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day. The unemployment rate among the aged 15 and over population is 5.5%.[364] Pakistan has an estimated 40 million middle class citizens, projected to increase to 100 million by 2050.[365] A 2015 report published by the World Bank ranked Pakistan's economy at 24th-largest[366] in the world by purchasing power and 41st-largest[367] in absolute terms. It is South Asia's second-largest economy, representing about 15.0% of "regional GDP.[368][369]

Fiscal Year GDP growth[370] Inflation rate[371]
2013–14 Increase4.05% 108.6%
2014–15 Increase4.06% 104.5%
2015–16 Increase4.56% 102.9%
2016–17 Increase5.37% 104.2%
2017-18 Increase5.79% 103.8%

Pakistan's economic growth since its inception has been varied. It has been slow during periods of democratic transition, but robust during the three periods of "martial law, although the foundation for sustainable and equitable growth was not formed.[137] The early to middle 2000s was a period of "rapid economic reforms; the government raised development spending, which reduced poverty levels by 10% and increased GDP by 3%.[199][372] The economy cooled again from 2007.[199] Inflation reached 25.0% in 2008,[373] and Pakistan had to depend on a fiscal policy backed by the "International Monetary Fund to avoid possible bankruptcy.[374][375] A year later, the "Asian Development Bank reported that Pakistan's economic crisis was easing.[376] The inflation rate for the fiscal year 2010–11 was 14.1%.[377] Since 2013, as part of an "International Monetary Fund program, Pakistan's economic growth has picked up. In 2014 "Goldman Sachs predicted that Pakistan's economy would grow 15 times in the next 35 years to become the 18th-largest economy in the world by 2050.[378] In his 2016 book, The Rise and Fall of Nations, "Ruchir Sharma termed Pakistan's economy as at a 'take-off' stage and the future outlook until 2020 has been termed 'Very Good'. Sharma termed it possible to transform Pakistan from a "low-income to a middle-income country during the next five years".[379]

Pakistan is one of the largest producers of natural commodities, and its "labour market is the 10th-largest in the world. The 7-million–strong "Pakistani diaspora contributed US$19.9 billion to the economy in 2015–16.[380][381] The major source countries of remittances to Pakistan are: the "UAE; the United States; Saudi Arabia; the Gulf states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman); Australia; Canada; Japan; the United Kingdom; Norway; and Switzerland.[382][383] According to the "World Trade Organization, Pakistan's share of overall world exports is declining; it contributed only 0.128% in 2007.[384]

Agriculture and primary sector[edit]

"Surface mining in "Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by "Forbes.[385]

The structure of the Pakistani economy has changed from "a mainly agricultural to a strong service base. Agriculture as of 2015 accounts for only 20.9% of the GDP.[343] Even so, according to the United Nations "Food and Agriculture Organization, Pakistan produced 21,591,400 metric tons of wheat in 2005, more than all of Africa (20,304,585 metric tons) and nearly as much as all of South America (24,557,784 metric tons).[386] Majority of the population, directly or indirectly, is dependent on this sector. It accounts for 43.5% of employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings.[343][387]

A large portion of the country's manufactured exports are dependent on raw materials such as cotton and hides that are part of the agriculture sector, while supply shortages and market disruptions in farm products do push up inflationary pressures. The country is also the fifth-largest producer of cotton, with cotton production of 14 million bales from a modest beginning of 1.7 million bales in the early 1950s; is self-sufficient in sugarcane; and is the fourth-largest producer in the world of milk. Land and water resources have not risen proportionately, but the increases have taken place mainly due to gains in labour and agriculture productivity. The major breakthrough in crop production took place in the late 1960s and 1970s due to the "Green Revolution that made a significant contribution to land and yield increases of wheat and rice. Private tube wells led to a 50 percent increase in the cropping intensity which was augmented by tractor cultivation. While the tube wells raised crop yields by 50 percent, the High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of wheat and rice led to a 50–60 percent higher yield.[388] Meat industry accounts for 1.4 percent of overall GDP.[389]


Television assembly factory in "Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by "small and medium-sized enterprises.[390]

Industry is the third-largest sector of the economy, accounting for 20.3% of gross domestic product (GDP), and 13 percent of total employment. Large-scale manufacturing (LSM), at 12.2% of GDP, dominates the overall sector, accounting for 66% of the sectoral share, followed by small-scale manufacturing, which accounts for 4.9% of total GDP. Pakistan's cement industry is also fast growing mainly because of demand from "Afghanistan and from the domestic real estate sector. In 2013 Pakistan exported 7,708,557 "metric tons of cement.[391] Pakistan has an installed capacity of 44,768,250 metric tons of cement and 42,636,428 metric tons of clinker. In 2012 and 2013, the cement industry in Pakistan became the most profitable sector of the economy.[392]

The "textile industry has a pivotal position in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. In Asia, Pakistan is the eighth-largest exporter of textile products, contributing 9.5% to the GDP and providing employment to around 15 million people (some 30% of the 49 million people in the workforce). Pakistan is the fourth-largest producer of cotton with the third-largest spinning capacity in Asia after China and India, contributing 5% to the global spinning capacity.[393] China is the second largest buyer of Pakistani textiles, importing US$1.527 billion of textiles last fiscal. Unlike the US, where mostly value-added textiles are imported, China buys only cotton yarn and cotton fabric from Pakistan. In 2012, Pakistani textile products accounted for 3.3% or US$1.07bn of all UK textile imports, 12.4% or $4.61bn of total Chinese textile imports, 2.98% or $2.98b of all US textile imports, 1.6% or $0.88bn of total German textile imports and 0.7% or $0.888bn of total Indian textile imports.[394]


"Clifton Beach in "Karachi, with under-construction skyscrapers in the background.

Services sector has 58.8% share in GDP[343] and has emerged as the main driver of economic growth.[395] Pakistani society like other developing countries is a consumption oriented society, having a high marginal propensity to consume. The growth rate of services sector is higher than the growth rate of agriculture and industrial sector. Services sector accounts for 54 percent of GDP in 2014 and little over one-third of total employment. Services sector has strong linkages with other sectors of economy; it provides essential inputs to agriculture sector and manufacturing sector.[396] Pakistan's I.T sector is regarded as among the fastest growing sector's in Pakistan. The "World Economic Forum, assessing the development of Information and Communication Technology in the country ranked Pakistan 110th among 139 countries on the 'Networked Readiness Index 2016'.[397]

As of 2016, Pakistan has over 35 million Internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in Internet penetration.[398] Overall, it has the "20th-largest population of Internet users in the world. The current growth rate and employment trend indicate that Pakistan's Information Communication Technology (ICT) industry will exceed the $10-billion mark by 2020.[399] The sector employees 12,000 and count's among top five freelancing nations.[400][401] The country has also improved its export performance in telecom, computer and information services, as the share of their exports surged from 8.2pc in 2005–06 to 12.6pc in 2012–13. This growth is much better than that of China, whose share in services exports was 3pc and 7.7pc for the same period respectively.[402]

Corporations Headquarters 2012 revenue
(Mil. $)[403]
"Pakistan State Oil "Karachi 11,570 "Petroleum and Gas
"Pak-Arab Refinery "Qasba Gujrat 3,000 "Oil and refineries
"Sui Northern Gas Pipelines "Lahore 2,520 Natural gas
"Shell Pakistan "Karachi 2,380 "Petroleum
"Oil and Gas Development Co. "Islamabad 2,230 "Petroleum and Gas
"National Refinery "Karachi 1,970 "Oil refinery
"Hub Power Co. "Hub, Balochistan 1,970 "Energy
"K-Electric "Karachi 1,840 "Energy
"Attock Refinery "Rawalpindi 1,740 "Oil refinery
"Attock Petroleum "Rawalpindi 1,740 "Petroleum
"Lahore Electric Supply Co. "Lahore 1,490 "Energy
"Pakistan Refinery "Karachi 1,440 "Petroleum and Gas
"Sui Southern Gas Pipelines "Karachi 1,380 Natural gas
"Pakistan International Airlines "Karachi 1,360 "Aviation
"Engro Corporation "Karachi 1,290 "Food and Wholesale


Nuclear power and energy[edit]

"Tarbela Dam, the largest earth filled dam in the world, was constructed in 1968.

By the end of 2016, "nuclear power was provided by four licensed commercial "nuclear power plants.[404] The "Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is solely responsible for operating these power plants, while the "Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority regulates safe usage of the nuclear energy.[405] The "electricity generated by commercial nuclear power plants constitutes roughly 5.8% of Pakistan's electrical energy, compared to 64.2% from "fossil fuels ("crude oil and natural gas), 29.9% from "hydroelectric power, and 0.1% from "coal.[406][407][408] Pakistan is one of the four "nuclear armed states (along with "India, "Israel, and "North Korea) that is not a party to the "Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, but it is a member in good standing of the "International Atomic Energy Agency.[409][410][411]

The "KANUPP-I, a "Candu-type nuclear reactor, was supplied by Canada in 1971—the country's first commercial "nuclear power plant. The Sino-Pakistani nuclear cooperation began in the early 1980s. After a Sino-Pakistani nuclear cooperation agreement in 1986,[412] China provided Pakistan with a nuclear reactor dubbed "CHASNUPP-I for energy and industrial growth of the country. In 2005 "both countries proposed working on a joint energy security plan, calling for a huge increase in generation capacity to more than 160,000 "MWe by 2030. Under its Nuclear Energy Vision 2050, the Pakistani government plans to increase nuclear power generation capacity to 40,000 "MWe,[413] 8,900 "MWe of it by 2030.[414][415]

Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of "renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.[416]

In June 2008 the nuclear "commercial complex was expanded with the ground work of installing and operationalising the "Chashma-III and "Chashma–IV reactors at "Chashma, "Punjab Province, each with 325–340 MWe and costing " 129 billion,; from which the " 80 billion came from international sources, principally China. A further agreement for China's help with the project was signed in October 2008, and given prominence as a counter to the "US–India agreement that shortly preceded it. The cost quoted then was US$1.7 billion, with a foreign loan component of US$1.07 billion. In 2013 Pakistan established a second commercial "nuclear complex in "Karachi with plans of additional reactors, similar to the one in "Chashma.[417] The "electrical energy is generated by various "energy corporations and evenly distributed by the "National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) among the "four provinces. However, the "Karachi-based "K-Electric and the "Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) generates much of the electrical energy used in Pakistan in addition to gathering revenue nationwide.[418] As of 2014 Pakistan has an installed "electricity generation capacity of ~22,797"MWt.[406]


"Lahore Fort a landmark, "Lahore. It is listed as a "World Heritage Site.
"Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the "Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a "World Heritage Site.
"Derawar fort was built in the 9th century in "Cholistan desert by a "Rajput ruler. It is listed as a Tentative "World Heritage Site.

With its diverse cultures, people, and landscapes, Pakistan attracted around 1 million foreign tourists in 2014, contributing PKR 94.8 billion to the country's economy,[419] which represented a significant decline since the 1970s when the country received unprecedented numbers of foreign tourists due to the popular "Hippie trail. The trail attracted thousands of Europeans and Americans in the 1960s and 1970s who travelled via land through Turkey and Iran into India through Pakistan.[420] The main destinations of choice for these tourists were the "Khyber Pass, "Peshawar, "Karachi, "Lahore, "Swat and "Rawalpindi.[421] The numbers following the trail declined after the "Iranian Revolution and the "Soviet–Afghan War.[422]

The country continues to attract an estimated 500,000 foreign tourists annually.[423] Pakistan's tourist attractions range from the "mangroves in the south to the Himalayan "hill stations in the north-east. The country's tourist destinations range from the Buddhist ruins of "Takht-i-Bahi and "Taxila, to the 5,000-year-old cities of the "Indus Valley Civilization such as "Mohenjo-daro and "Harappa.[424] Pakistan is home to several "mountain peaks over 7,000 metres (23,000 feet).[425] The northern part of Pakistan has many old fortresses, examples of ancient architecture, and the "Hunza and Chitral valleys, home to the small pre-Islamic "animist "Kalasha community claiming descent from Alexander the Great. Pakistan's cultural capital, Lahore, contains many examples of "Mughal architecture such as the "Badshahi Masjid, the "Shalimar Gardens, the "Tomb of Jahangir, and the "Lahore Fort.

In October 2006, just one year after the "2005 Kashmir earthquake, "The Guardian released what it described as "The top five tourist sites in Pakistan" in order to help the country's tourism industry.[426] The five sites included "Taxila, "Lahore, the "Karakoram Highway, "Karimabad, and "Lake Saiful Muluk. To promote Pakistan's unique cultural heritage, the government organizes various festivals throughout the year.[427] In 2015 the "World Economic Forum's Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report ranked Pakistan 125 out of 141 countries.[428]


The "transport industry accounts for ~10.5% of the nation's GDP.[429] Pakistan's "motorway infrastructure is better than those of "India, "Bangladesh, and Indonesia, but the "train system lags behind those of India and China, and aviation infrastructure also needs improvement.[430] There is scarcely any "inland water transportation system, and coastal shipping only meets minor local requirements.[431]

"Boeing 737 owned and operated by "Pakistan International Airlines (PIA). PIA operates scheduled services to 70 domestic destinations and 34 international destinations in 27 countries.

"Highways form the backbone of Pakistan's transport system; a total road length of 263,942 kilometres (164,006 miles) accounts for 92% of passenger and 96% of inland freight traffic.[343] Road transport services are largely in the hands of the "private sector. The "National Highway Authority is responsible for the maintenance of national highways and motorways. The highway and motorway system depends mainly on north–south links connecting the southern ports to the populous provinces of Punjab and "Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Although this network only accounts for 4.59% of total road length,[343] it carries 85% of the country's traffic.[432][433]

The "Pakistan Railways, under the "Ministry of Railways (MoR), operates the railroad system. From 1947 until the 1970s the "train system was the primary means of transport until the nationwide constructions of the "national highways and the "economic boom of the "automotive industry. Beginning in the 1990s there was a marked shift in traffic from rail to highways; dependence grew on roads after the introduction of "vehicles in the country. Now the railway's share of inland traffic is below 8% for passengers and 4% for freight traffic.[343] As personal transportation began to be dominated by the automobile, total rail track decreased from 8,775 kilometres (5,453 miles) in 1990–91 to 7,791 kilometres (4,841 miles) in 2011.[432][434] Pakistan expects to use the rail service to boost "foreign trade with China, Iran, and Turkey.[435][436]

There are an estimated 139 "airports and airfields in Pakistan—including both the military and the mostly publicly owned "civilian airports. Though "Jinnah International Airport is the principal international gateway to Pakistan, the international airports in "Lahore, "Islamabad, "Peshawar, "Quetta, "Faisalabad, "Sialkot, and "Multan also handle significant amounts of traffic. The "civil aviation industry is mixed with "public and "private sectors, which was "deregulated in 1993. While the "state-owned "Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) is the major and dominant air carrier that carries about 73% of domestic passengers and all domestic freight, the private airlines such as "airBlue, "Shaheen Air International, and "Air Indus, also provide similar services at a "low cost. Major seaports are in "Karachi, Sindh (the "Karachi port, and "Port Qasim).[432][434] Since the 1990s some seaport operations have been moved to "Balochistan with the construction of "Gwadar Port and "Gadani Port.[432][434] According to the "WEF's Global Competitiveness Report, quality ratings of Pakistan's port infrastructure increased from 3.7 to 4.1 between 2007 and 2016.[437]

Science and technology[edit]

"Abdus Salam won the 1979 "Nobel Prize in Physics for his contribution to "electroweak interaction. He was the first Muslim to win a Nobel prize in science.
"Atta-ur-Rahman won the "UNESCO Science Prize for pioneering contributions in chemistry in 1999, the first Muslim to win it.
"Mahbub ul Haq was a Pakistani game theorist whose work led to the "Human Development Index. He had a profound effect on the field of "international development.

Developments in "science and technology have played an important role in Pakistan's infrastructure and helped the country connect to the rest of the world.[438] Every year, scientists from around the world are invited by the "Pakistan Academy of Sciences and the Pakistan Government to participate in the "International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics.[439] Pakistan hosted an international seminar on "Physics in Developing Countries" for the International Year of Physics 2005.[440] Pakistani theoretical physicist "Abdus Salam won a "Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the "electroweak interaction.[441] Influential publications and critical scientific work in the advancement of "mathematics, "biology, economics, "computer science, and "genetics have been produced by Pakistani scientists at both the domestic and international levels.[442]

In "chemistry, "Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was the first Pakistani scientist to bring the therapeutic constituents of the "neem tree to the attention of natural products chemists.[443][444][445] Pakistani neurosurgeon "Ayub Ommaya invented the "Ommaya reservoir, a system for treatment of brain tumours and other brain conditions.[446] Scientific research and development plays a pivotal role in "Pakistani universities, government- sponsored national laboratories, "science parks, and the "industry.[447] "Abdul Qadeer Khan, regarded as the founder of the "HEU-based "gas-centrifuge "uranium enrichment program for Pakistan's integrated "atomic bomb project.[448] He founded and established the "Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1976, serving as both its senior scientist and the "Director-General until his retirement in 2001, and he was an early and vital figure in other "science projects. Apart from participating in Pakistan's atomic bomb project, he made major contributions in "molecular morphology, physical "martensite, and its integrated applications in "condensed and "material physics.[449][450]

In 2010 Pakistan was ranked 43rd in the world in terms of published scientific papers.[451] The "Pakistan Academy of Sciences, a strong scientific community, plays an influential and vital role in formulating recommendations regarding science policies for the government.[452]

The 1960s saw the emergence of an active "space program led by "SUPARCO that produced advances in domestic "rocketry, "electronics, and "aeronomy.[453] The "space program recorded a few notable feats and achievements. The successful launch of its "first rocket into space made Pakistan the first South Asian country to have achieved such a task.[453] Successfully producing and launching the nation's "first space satellite in 1990, Pakistan became the first Muslim country and second South Asian country to put a satellite into space.[454][455]

Pakistan witnessed a fourfold increase in its scientific productivity in the past decade surging from approximately 2,000 articles per year in 2006 to more than 9,000 articles in 2015. Making Pakistan's cited article's higher than the "BRIC countries put together.

—"Thomson Reuters's Another BRIC in the Wall 2016 report[456]

As an aftermath of the "1971 war with India, the clandestine "crash program developed "atomic weapons partly motivated by fear and to prevent any "foreign intervention, while ushering in the "atomic age in the "post cold war era.[238] Competition with India and tensions eventually led to Pakistan's decision to "conduct underground "nuclear tests in 1998, thus becoming the "seventh country in the world to successfully develop "nuclear weapons.[457]

Pakistan is the first and only Muslim country that maintains an "active research presence in Antarctica.[458][459][460][461][462] Since 1991 Pakistan has maintained two summer research stations and one weather observatory on the continent and plans to open another full-fledged permanent base in Antarctica.[463]

Energy consumption by computers and usage has grown since the 1990s when "PCs were introduced; Pakistan has about 30 million Internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in Internet penetration as of 2013.[464] Key publications have been produced by Pakistan, and domestic software development has gained considerable international praise.[465]

Overall, it has the "20th-largest population of Internet users in the world. Since the 2000s Pakistan has made a significant amount of progress in "supercomputing, and various institutions offer research opportunities in "parallel computing. The "Pakistan government reportedly spends " 4.6 billion on "information technology projects, with emphasis on "e-government, human resources, and infrastructure development.[466]


"Government College University is one of the oldest universities in Pakistan as well as one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the Muslim world.
"National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) is Pakistan's top ranked university for engineering, sciences and technology.

The "constitution of Pakistan requires the state to provide "free primary and secondary education.[467][468]

At the time of the "establishment of Pakistan as a state, the country had only one university, "Punjab University in "Lahore.[469] Very soon the "Pakistan government established public universities in each of the "four provinces, including "Sindh University (1949), "Peshawar University (1950), "Karachi University (1953), and "Balochistan University (1970). Pakistan has a large network of both "public and "private universities, which includes collaboration between the "universities aimed at providing research and "higher education opportunities in the country, although there is concern about the low quality of teaching in many of the newer schools.[470] It is estimated that there are 3,193 "technical and vocational institutions in Pakistan,[471] and there are also "madrassahs that provide free Islamic education and offer free board and lodging to students, who come mainly from the poorer strata of society.[472] Strong public pressure and popular criticism over "extremists' usage of madrassahs for recruitment, the Pakistan government has made repeated efforts to "regulate and monitor the quality of education in the madrassahs.[473][474]

Literacy rate of over-15 Pakistan population (1980–2015) by "UNESCO Institute of Statistics

"Education in Pakistan is divided into six main levels: nursery (preparatory classes); primary (grades one through five); "middle (grades six through eight); "matriculation (grades nine and ten, leading to the "secondary certificate); "intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a "higher secondary certificate); and university programmes leading to graduate and postgraduate degrees.[471] There is a network of "private schools that constitutes a parallel secondary education system based on a curriculum set and administered by the "Cambridge International Examinations of the United Kingdom. Some students choose to take the "O-level and "A level exams conducted by the "British Council.[475] According to the International Schools Consultancy, Pakistan has 439 international schools.[476]

As a result of initiatives taken in 2007, the "English medium education has been made compulsory in all schools across the country.[477][478] Additional reforms enacted in 2013 required all educational institutions in Sindh to begin offering Chinese language courses, reflecting China's growing role as a superpower and its "increasing influence in Pakistan.[479] The literacy rate of the population is ~58 %. The rate of male literacy is ~70.2% while the rate of female literacy is 46.3%.[377] Literacy rates vary by region and particularly by sex; as one example, female literacy in tribal areas is 3.0%.[480] With the advent of computer literacy in 1995, the government launched a nationwide initiative in 1998 with the aim of eradicating "illiteracy and providing a basic education to all children.[481] Through various educational reforms, by 2015 the "Ministry of Education expected to attain 100.00% enrolment levels among children of primary school age and a literacy rate of ~86% among people aged over 10.[482] Pakistan is currently spending 2.2 percent of its GDP on education;[483] which according to the "Institute of Social and Policy Sciences is one of the lowest in South Asia.[484]


The "Kalash people maintain a unique identity and religion within Pakistan.

According to Provisional results of "2017 Census in Pakistan, the total population in Pakistan was 207.8 million, representing a 57% increase in 19 years.[485][486][487] which is equivalent to 2.57% of the "world population.[488] Pakistan's census provisional results exclude data from "Gilgit-Baltistan and "Azad Kashmir, which is likely to be included in the final report.[489][490] Noted as the sixth "most populated country in the world, its growth rate in 2016 was reported to be 1.45%, which is the highest of the "SAARC nations, though this growth rate has been decreasing in recent years.[491] The population is projected to reach 210.13 million by 2020.

At the time of the "partition in 1947, Pakistan had a population of 32.5 million;[383][492] the population increased by ~57.2% between the years "1990 and 2009.[493] By 2030 Pakistan is expected to surpass Indonesia as the largest Muslim-majority country in the world.[494][495] Pakistan is classified as a "young nation", with a median age of 23.4 in 2016;[491] about 104 million people were under the age of 30 in 2010. In 2016 Pakistan's fertility rate was estimated to be 2.68,[491] higher than its neighbour "India (2.45).[496] Around 35% of the people are under 15.[383] The vast majority of those residing in "southern Pakistan live along the "Indus River, with "Karachi being the most populous commercial city in the south.[497] In eastern, "western, and "northern Pakistan, most of the population lives in an arc formed by the cities of "Lahore, "Faisalabad, "Rawalpindi, "Sargodha, Islamabad, "Gujranwala, "Sialkot, "Gujrat, "Jhelum, "Sheikhupura, "Nowshera, "Mardan, and "Peshawar.[199] During "1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36% of Pakistan's population, making it the "most urbanised nation in South Asia, which increased to 38% by 2013.[199][383][498] Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis live in towns of 5,000 people or more.[499]

Expenditure on healthcare was ~2.8% of GDP in 2013. Life expectancy at birth was 67 years for females and 65 years for males in 2013.[498] The private sector accounts for about 80% of outpatient visits. Approximately 19% of the population and 30% of children under five are malnourished.[355] Mortality of the under-fives was 86 per 1,000 live births in 2012.[498]


First languages of Pakistan[500]

More than sixty languages are spoken in Pakistan, including a number of "provincial languages. "Urdu—the "lingua franca and a symbol of "Muslim identity and national unity—is the national language understood by over 75% of Pakistanis. It is the main medium of communication in the country but the primary language of only 8% of Pakistan's population.[12][11][501] "Urdu and English are the "official languages of Pakistan, with English primarily used in official business and government, and in legal contracts;[199] the local variety is known as "Pakistani English. The "Punjabi language, the most common in Pakistan and the "first language of 44.15% of Pakistan's population,[502] is mostly spoken in the Punjab. "Saraiki, mainly spoken in South Punjab and "Hindko, is predominant in the "Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. "Pashto is the provincial language of "Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and is well understood in Sindh and Balochistan.[10] The "Sindhi language is commonly spoken in Sindh while the "Balochi language is dominant in Balochistan. "Brahui, a Dravidian language, is spoken by the "Brahui people who live in Balochistan.[10][92][503][504] "Gujarati community leaders in Pakistan claim that there are 3 million "Gujarati speakers in Karachi.[505] "Marwari, a Rajasthani language, is also spoken in parts of Sindh. Various languages such as "Shina, "Balti, and "Burushaski are spoken in "Gilgit-Baltistan, whilst languages such as "Pahari, "Gojri, and "Kashmiri are spoken by many in "Azad Kashmir.


Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey.[506] An Afghan refugee girl near "Tarbela Dam

Even after partition in 1947, Indian Muslims continued to migrate to Pakistan throughout the 1950s and 1960s, and these migrants settled mainly in Karachi and other towns of Sindh province.[507] The wars in neighboring Afghanistan during the 1980s and 90s also forced millions of "Afghan refugees into Pakistan. The "Pakistan Census excludes the 1.41 million registered "refugees from Afghanistan,[508] who are found mainly in the "Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and "tribal belt, with small numbers residing in "Karachi and "Quetta. Pakistan is home to one of the world's largest "refugee populations.[509] In addition to Afghans, around 2 million "Bangladeshis and half a million other undocumented people live in Pakistan. They are claimed to be from other areas such as "Myanmar, Iran, Iraq, and Africa.[510]

Experts say that the migration of both Bengalis and Burmese ("Rohingya) to Pakistan started in the 1980s and continued until 1998. Shaikh Muhammad Feroze, the chairman of the Pakistani Bengali Action Committee, claims that there are 200 settlements of Bengali-speaking people in Pakistan, of which 132 are in Karachi. They are also found in various other areas of Pakistan such as Thatta, Badin, Hyderabad, Tando Adam, and Lahore.[511] Large-scale Rohingya migration to Karachi made that city one of the largest population centres of Rohingyas in the world after Myanmar.[512] The Burmese community of Karachi is spread out over 60 of the city's slums such as the Burmi Colony in Korangi, Arakanabad, Machchar colony, Bilal colony, Ziaul Haq Colony, and Godhra Camp.[513]

Thousands of "Uyghur Muslims have also migrated to the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, fleeing religious and cultural persecution in Xinjiang, China.[514] Since 1989 thousands of "Kashmiri Muslim refugees have sought refuge in Pakistan, complaining that many of the refugee women had been raped by Indian soldiers and that they were forced out of their homes by the soldiers.[515]

Social groups[edit]

Ethnic groups in Pakistan[13]

The population is dominated by "four main ethnic groups: "Punjabis, "Pashtuns (Pathans), "Sindhis, and "Balochs.[516] Rough accounts from 2009 indicate that the Punjabis dominate with 78.7 million (~45%) while the "Pashtuns are the second-largest group with ~29.3 million (15.42%).[516] The number of Sindhis is estimated at 24.8 million (14.1%), with the number of "Seraikis (a sub-group of Punjabis) estimated at 14.8 million (8.4%).[516] The number of "Urdu-speaking "Muhajirs (the "Indian emigrants) stands at ~13.3 million (7.57%) while the number of "Balochs is estimated at 6.3 million (3.57%)—the smallest group in terms of population.[516][517] The remaining 11.1 million (4.66%) consist of various ethnic minorities such as the "Brahuis,[503] the "Hindkowans, the various peoples of Gilgit-Baltistan, the "Kashmiris, the "Sheedis (who are of African descent),[518] and the "Hazaras.[516] There is also a large "Pakistani diaspora worldwide, numbering over seven million,[517] which has been recorded as the sixth largest diaspora in the world.[519]


Since "achieving independence as a result of the "partition of India, the "urbanisation has increased exponentially, with several different causes.[497] The majority of the population in the south resides along the "Indus River, with "Karachi the most populous commercial city.[497] In the east, west, and north, most of the population lives in an arc formed by the cities of "Lahore, "Faisalabad, "Rawalpindi, Islamabad, "Sargodha, "Gujranwala, "Sialkot, "Gujrat, "Jhelum, "Sheikhupura, "Nowshera, "Mardan, and "Peshawar. During the period 1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36.0% of Pakistan's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia. Furthermore, more than 50% of Pakistanis live in towns of 5,000 people or more.[499] "Immigration, from both within and outside the country, is regarded as one of the main factors contributing to urbanisation in Pakistan. One analysis of the "1998 national census highlighted the significance of the "partition of India in the 1940s as it relates to urban change in Pakistan.[520] During and after the independence period, "Urdu speaking Muslims from India migrated in large numbers to Pakistan, especially to the port city of "Karachi, which is today the largest metropolis in Pakistan.[520] "Migration from other countries, mainly from those nearby, has further accelerated the process of urbanisation in Pakistani cities. Inevitably, the rapid urbanisation caused by these large population movements has also created new political and socio-economic challenges.[520] In addition to immigration, economic trends such as the green revolution and political developments, among a host of other factors, are also important causes of urbanisation.[520]


Religions in Pakistan[522][523][524][525]
Religions Percent
Others/Non Religious
"Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect "Vedat Dalokay on behalf of "King "Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia


About 96.4% of "Pakistanis are Muslim. Pakistan has the second-largest number of "Muslims in the world after Indonesia.[528][529] The majority of them are "Sunni (estimated between 75 and 95%)[530][531][532][533][534] while "Shias represent between 5–20%.[530][531][535][536] Pakistan, like India, is said to have at least 16 million Shias.[536][532][537] A PEW survey in 2012 found that only 6% of Pakistani Muslims were Shia.[535]

The "Ahmadis, a small minority representing 0.22–2% of Pakistan's population,[538] are officially considered non-Muslims by virtue of the "constitutional amendment.[539] The "Ahmadis are particularly persecuted, especially since 1974 when they were "banned from calling themselves Muslims. In 1984, Ahmadiyya places of worship were banned from being called "mosques".[540] As of 2012, 12% of Pakistani Muslims self-identify as "non-denominational Muslims.[541] There are also several "Quraniyoon communities.[542][543]

"Sufism, a mystical Islamic tradition, has a long history and a large following among the Sunni Muslims in Pakistan, at both the academic and popular levels. Popular Sufi culture is centered around gatherings and celebrations at the shrines of saints and annual festivals that feature Sufi music and dance. Two Sufis whose shrines receive much national attention are "Ali Hajweri in "Lahore (c. 12th century)[544] and "Shahbaz Qalander in "Sehwan, Sindh (c. 12th century).[545]

There are two levels of Sufism in Pakistan. The first is the 'populist' Sufism of the rural population. This level of Sufism involves belief in intercession through saints, veneration of their shrines, and forming bonds with a pir (saint). Many rural Pakistani Muslims associate with "pirs and seek their intercession.[546] The second level of Sufism in Pakistan is 'intellectual Sufism', which is growing among the urban and educated population. They are influenced by the writings of Sufis such as the medieval theologian "al-Ghazali, the Sufi reformer "Shaykh Aḥmad Sirhindi, and "Shah Wali Allah.[547] Contemporary Islamic fundamentalists criticise Sufism's popular character, which in their view does not accurately reflect the teachings and practice of the "Prophet and his companions.[548]


A Hindu temple situated in the "Katasraj temple complex

"Hinduism is the second-largest religion in Pakistan after Islam, according to the 1998 census.[549] As of 2010, Pakistan had the fifth-largest Hindu population in the world.[550] In the 1998 census the Hindu (jati) population was found to be 2,111,271 while the Hindu (scheduled castes) numbered an additional 332,343.[549] Hindus are found in all provinces of Pakistan but are mostly concentrated in Sindh. They speak a variety of languages such as "Sindhi, "Seraiki, Aer, Dhatki, Gera, Goaria, Gurgula, Jandavra, Kabutra, Koli, Loarki, "Marwari, Sansi, Vaghri,[551] and "Gujarati.[505]

At the time of Pakistan's creation the 'hostage theory' gained currency. According to this theory, the Hindu minority in Pakistan was to be given a fair deal in Pakistan in order to ensure the protection of the Muslim minority in India.[552][553] However, Khawaja Nazimuddin, the "second "Prime Minister of Pakistan, stated:

I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be.[554]

Some Hindus in Pakistan feel that they are treated as second-class citizens and many have continued to migrate to India.[555] Pakistani Hindus faced riots after the "Babri Masjid demolition,[556] endured a massacre (in 2005) by security forces in Balochistan,[557] and have experienced other attacks, forced conversions, and abductions.[558][559][560]

Christianity and other religions[edit]

Christians formed the next largest religious minority, after Hindus, with a population of 2,092,902, according to the 1998 census.[561] They were followed by the "Bahá'í Faith, which had a following of 30,000, then "Sikhism, "Buddhism, and "Zoroastrianism, each back then claiming 20,000 adherents,[562] and a very small "community of Jains. There is a "Roman Catholic community in "Karachi that was established by "Goan and "Tamil migrants when Karachi's infrastructure was being developed by the British during the colonial administration between "World War I and "World War II. The influence of "atheism is very small, with 1.0% of the population identifying as atheist in 2005.[563] However, the figure rose to 2.0% in 2012 according to "Gallup.[563]

Culture and society[edit]

"Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.

"Civil society in Pakistan is largely hierarchical, emphasising "local cultural etiquette and traditional Islamic values that govern personal and political life. The basic family unit is the "extended family,[564] although for socio-economic reasons there has been a growing trend towards "nuclear families.[565] The traditional dress for both men and women is the "Shalwar Kameez; trousers, "jeans, and shirts are also popular among men.[66] In recent decades, the middle class has increased to around 35 million and the upper and upper-middle classes to around 17 million, and power is shifting from rural landowners to the urbanised elites.[566] Pakistani festivals, including "Eid-ul-Fitr, "Eid-ul-Azha, "Ramazan, Christmas, Easter, "Holi, and "Diwali, are mostly religious in origin.[564] Increasing globalisation has resulted in Pakistan ranking 56th on the "A.T. Kearney/FP "Globalization Index.[567]

Clothing, arts, and fashion[edit]

The "Shalwar Kameez is the "national dress of Pakistan and is worn by both men and women in all "four provinces: "Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and "Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa as well as in "FATA and "Azad Kashmir. Each province has its own style of Shalwar Kameez. Pakistanis wear clothes in a range of exquisite colours and designs and in type of fabric (silk, "chiffon, cotton, etc.).[568] Besides the national dress, domestically tailored "suits and neckties are often worn by men, and are customary in offices, schools, and social gatherings.[568]

The "fashion industry has flourished in the changing environment of the fashion world. Since Pakistan came into being, its fashion has evolved in different phases and developed a unique identity. Today, Pakistani fashion is a combination of traditional and modern dress and has become a mark of Pakistani culture. Despite modern trends, regional and traditional forms of dress have developed their own significance as a symbol of native tradition. This regional fashion continues to evolve into both more modern and purer forms. The Pakistan Fashion Design Council based in "Lahore organizes "PFDC Fashion Week and the Fashion Pakistan Council based in "Karachi organizes "Fashion Pakistan Week. Pakistan's first fashion week was held in November 2009.[569]

Media and entertainment[edit]

The private "print media, state-owned "Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), and "Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) for "radio were the dominant media outlets until the beginning of the 21st century. Pakistan now has a large network of domestic, privately owned 24-hour "news media and "television channels.[570] A 2016 report by the "Reporters Without Borders ranked Pakistan 147th on the "Press Freedom Index, while at the same time terming the Pakistani media "among the freest in Asia when it comes to covering the squabbling among politicians."[571] "BBC calls the Pakistani media "among the most outspoken in South Asia".[572] Pakistani media has also played a vital role in exposing corruption.[573]

The "Lollywood, "Kariwood, Punjabi, and "Pashto film industry is based in Karachi, Lahore, and Peshawar. While "Bollywood films were banned from public cinemas from 1965 until 2008, they have remained an important part of popular culture.[574][575] In contrast to the ailing Pakistani film industry, Urdu "televised dramas and theatrical performances continue to be popular, as many "entertainment media outlets air them regularly.[576] "Urdu dramas dominate the "television entertainment industry, which has launched critically acclaimed "miniseries and featured popular actors and actresses since the 1990s.[577] In the 1960s–1970s, "pop music and "disco (1970s) dominated the country's music industry. In the 1980s–1990s, "British influenced "rock music appeared and jolted the country's entertainment industry.[578] In the 2000s, "heavy metal music gained popular and critical acclaim.[579]

Pakistani music ranges from diverse forms of provincial folk music and traditional styles such as "Qawwali and "Ghazal Gayaki to modern musical forms that fuse traditional and western music.[580][581] Pakistan has many famous folk singers. The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has stimulated interest in Pashto music, although there has been intolerance of it in some places.[582]


"Nergis Mavalvala is a Professor of Physics at "MIT who is known for her role in the first observation of gravitational waves.

According to the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Pakistan has the sixth-largest diaspora in the world.[519] Statistics gathered by the Pakistani government show that there are around 7 million "Pakistanis residing abroad, with the vast majority living in the Middle East, Europe, and North America.[583] Pakistan ranks 10th in the world for remittances sent home.[584][585] The largest inflow of remittances, as of 2016, is from Saudi Arabia, amounting to $5.9 billion.[586] The term "Overseas Pakistani is officially recognised by the "Government of Pakistan. The "Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis was established in 2008 to deal exclusively with all matters of overseas Pakistanis such as attending to their needs and problems, developing projects for their welfare, and working for resolution of their problems and issues. Overseas Pakistanis are the second-largest source of foreign exchange remittances to Pakistan after exports. Over the last several years, home remittances have maintained a steadily rising trend, with a more than 100% increase from US$8.9 billion in 2009–10 to US$19.9 billion in 2015–16.[380][584][585]

The Overseas Pakistani Division (OPD) was created in September 2004 within the "Ministry of Labour (MoL). It has since recognised the importance of overseas Pakistanis and their contribution to the nation's economy. Together with Community Welfare Attaches (CWAs) and the Overseas Pakistanis Foundation (OPF), the OPD is making efforts to improve the welfare of Pakistanis who reside abroad. The division aims to provide better services through improved facilities at airports, and suitable schemes for housing, education, and health care. It also facilitates the reintegration into society of returning overseas Pakistanis. Notable members of the Pakistani diaspora include "London Mayor "Sadiq Khan, UK Cabinet Member "Sajid Javid, former "UK Conservative Party Chair "Baroness Warsi, singers "Zayn Malik and "Nadia Ali, "MIT Physics Professor "Dr. Nergis Mavalvala, actors "Riz Ahmed and "Kumail Nanjiani, businessmen "Shahid Khan and "Sir Anwar Pervez, Boston University professors "Adil Najam and "Hamid Nawab, "Texas A&M Professor "Muhammad Suhail Zubairy, "Yale Professor "Sara Suleri, "UC San Diego Professor "Farooq Azam, and historian "Ayesha Jalal.

Literature and philosophy[edit]

""Muhammad Iqbal
"Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the "idea of Pakistan

Pakistan has literature in "Urdu, "Sindhi, "Punjabi, "Pashto, "Baluchi, "Persian, "English, and many other languages.[587] The "Pakistan Academy of Letters is a large literary community that promotes literature and poetry in Pakistan and abroad.[588] The "National Library publishes and promotes literature in the country. Before the 19th century, Pakistani literature consisted mainly of "lyric and "religious poetry and mystical and "folkloric works. During the colonial period, native literary figures were influenced by western "literary realism and took up increasingly varied topics and narrative forms. Prose fiction is now very popular.[589][590]

The "Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is part of Pakistan's Sufi heritage.[591]

The "national poet of Pakistan, "Muhammad Iqbal, wrote poetry in Urdu and Persian. He was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilisation and encouraged Muslims all over the world to bring about a successful revolution.["clarification needed][592][593][594] Well-known figures in contemporary Pakistani Urdu literature include "Josh Malihabadi "Faiz Ahmed Faiz and "Saadat Hasan Manto. "Sadequain and "Gulgee are known for their calligraphy and paintings.[590] The Sufi poets "Shah Abdul Latif, "Bulleh Shah, "Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, and "Khawaja Farid enjoy considerable popularity in Pakistan.[595] "Mirza Kalich Beg has been termed the father of modern Sindhi prose.[596] Historically, philosophical development in the country was dominated by "Muhammad Iqbal, "Sir Syed, "Muhammad Asad, "Maududi, and "Mohammad Ali Johar.[597]

Ideas from "British and "American philosophy greatly shaped "philosophical development in Pakistan. Analysts such as "M. M. Sharif and "Zafar Hassan established the first major Pakistani philosophical movement in 1947.["clarification needed][598] After the "1971 war, philosophers such as "Jalaludin Abdur Rahim, "Gianchandani, and "Malik Khalid incorporated "Marxism into Pakistan's philosophical thinking.[599] Influential work by "Manzoor Ahmad, "Jon Elia, "Hasan Askari Rizvi, and "Abdul Khaliq brought mainstream "social, "political, and "analytical philosophy to the fore in academia.[599] Works by "Noam Chomsky have influenced philosophical ideas in various fields of social and political philosophy.[600][601]


"Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.

Four periods are recognised in Pakistani architecture: "pre-Islamic, "Islamic, "colonial, and "post-colonial. With the beginning of the "Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE,[602] an advanced urban culture developed for the first time in the region, with large buildings, some of which survive to this day.[603] "Mohenjo Daro, Harappa, and "Kot Diji are among the pre-Islamic settlements that are now tourist attractions.[205] The rise of "Buddhism and the influence of "Greek civilisation led to the development of a "Greco-Buddhist style,[604] starting from the 1st century CE. The high point of this era was the "Gandhara style. An example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the Buddhist monastery "Takht-i-Bahi in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.[605]

"Lahore Fort, a landmark built during the Mughal era, is a "UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The arrival of Islam in what is today Pakistan meant the sudden end of Buddhist architecture in the area and a smooth transition to the predominantly pictureless "Islamic architecture. The most important "Indo-Islamic-style building still standing is the "tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan. During the Mughal era, design elements of Persian-Islamic architecture were fused with and often produced playful forms of Hindustani art. Lahore, as the occasional residence of Mughal rulers, contains many important buildings from the empire. Most prominent among them are the "Badshahi Mosque, the "fortress of Lahore with the famous "Alamgiri Gate, the colourful, "Mughal-style "Wazir Khan Mosque,[606] the "Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, and the "Shahjahan Mosque in "Thatta. In the British colonial period, predominantly functional buildings of the Indo-European representative style developed from a mixture of European and Indian-Islamic components. Post-colonial national identity is expressed in modern structures such as the "Faisal Mosque, the "Minar-e-Pakistan, and the "Mazar-e-Quaid.[607] Several examples of architectural infrastructure demonstrating the influence of "British design can be found in "Lahore, "Peshawar, and "Karachi.[607]

Food and drink[edit]

A Pakistani dish prepared using the "tandoori method

Pakistani cuisine is similar to that of other regions of South Asia, since much of it originated from the royal kitchens of 16th-century Mughal emperors. Most of those dishes have their roots in "British, "Central Asian and "Middle Eastern cuisine. Unlike Middle Eastern cuisine, Pakistani cooking uses large quantities of spices, herbs, and seasoning. Garlic, "ginger, "turmeric, red "chili, and "garam masala are used in most dishes, and home cooking regularly includes curry, "roti, a thin flatbread made from wheat, is a staple food, usually served with curry, meat, vegetables, and lentils. Rice is also common; it is served plain, fried with spices, and in sweet dishes.[12][608][609]

"Lassi is a traditional drink in the "Punjab region. "Black tea with milk and sugar is popular throughout Pakistan and is consumed daily by most of the population.[66][610] "Sohan halwa is a popular sweet dish from the southern region of Punjab province and is enjoyed all over Pakistan.[611]


Most sports played in Pakistan originated and were substantially developed by athletes and sports fans from the United Kingdom who introduced them during the "British Raj. "Field hockey is the "national sport of Pakistan; it has won three gold medals in the "Olympic Games held in "1960, "1968, and "1984.[612] Pakistan has also won the "Hockey World Cup a record four times, held in "1971, "1978, "1982, and "1994.[613]

"Cricket, however, is the most popular game across the country.[614] The "cricket team (known as "Shaheen) won the "Cricket World Cup held in "1992; it was runner-up once, in "1999. Pakistan was runner-up in the inaugural "World Twenty20 (2007) in South Africa and won the "World Twenty20 in England in 2009. In March 2009, militants "attacked the touring "Sri Lankan cricket team,[615] after which no international cricket was played in Pakistan until May 2015, when the "Zimbabwean team agreed to a tour.

Pakistan has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the "1989 and "2004 South Asian Games; the "1984, "1993, "1996 and "2003 World Squash Championships; the "1987 and "1996 Cricket World Cup; and the "1990 Hockey World Cup.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Includes data for Pakistani territories of Kashmir; "Azad Kashmir (13,297 km2 or 5,134 sq mi) and "Gilgit–Baltistan (72,520 km2 or 28,000 sq mi).[16] Excluding these territories would produce an area figure of 796,095 km2 (307,374 sq mi)."
  2. ^ Pronounced variably as "/ˈpækɪstæn/ (""About this sound listen), "/ˈpɑːkɪstɑːn/ (""About this sound listen), "/ˌpækɪˈstæn/, and "/ˌpɑːkɪˈstɑːn/.


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  57. ^ Wright 2010:Quote: "The Indus civilization is one of three in the 'Ancient East' that, along with "Mesopotamia and "Pharonic Egypt, was a cradle of early civilization in the Old World (Childe 1950). Mesopotamia and Egypt were longer lived, but coexisted with Indus civilization during its florescence between 2600 and 1900 B.C. Of the three, the Indus was the most expansive, extending from today's northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and India."
  58. ^ Feuerstein, Georg; Subhash Kak; David Frawley (1995). In search of the cradle of civilization: new light on ancient India. Wheaton, Illinois: Quest Books. p. 147. "ISBN "978-0-8356-0720-9. 
  59. ^ Yasmeen Niaz Mohiuddin, Pakistan: a global studies handbook. ABC-CLIO publishers, 2006, "ISBN "1-85109-801-1
  60. ^ "Archaeologists confirm Indian civilization is 2000 years older than previously believed". globalpost.com. 16 November 2012. 
  61. ^ Jennings, Justin (15 April 2016). "Killing Civilization: A Reassessment of Early Urbanism and Its Consequences". UNM Press – via Google Books. 
  62. ^ Robert Arnett (15 July 2006). India Unveiled. Atman Press. pp. 180–. "ISBN "978-0-9652900-4-3. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  63. ^ Meghan A. Porter. "Mohenjo-Daro". Minnesota State University. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2010. 
  64. ^ Marian Rengel (2004). Pakistan: a primary source cultural guide. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group Inc. pp. 58–59,100–102. "ISBN "0-8239-4001-2. 
  65. ^ "Britannica Online – Rigveda". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 December 2011. 
  66. ^ a b c Sarina Singh; Lindsay Brow; Paul Clammer; Rodney Cocks; John Mock (2008). Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway. Lonely Planet. pp. 60,128,376. "ISBN "978-1-74104-542-0. 
  67. ^ Allchin & Allchin 1988, p. 314.
  68. ^ David W. del Testa, ed. (2001). Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists. Westport, Connecticut: The Oryx Press. p. 7. "ISBN "1-57356-153-3. 
  69. ^ Ahmad Hasan Dani. "Guide to Historic Taxila". The National Fund for Cultural Heritage. Retrieved 15 January 2010. 
  70. ^ "History of Education", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  71. ^ a b Scharfe, Hartmut; Bronkhorst, Johannes; Spuler, Bertold; Altenmüller, Hartwig (2002). Handbuch Der Orientalistik: India. Education in ancient India. p. 141. "ISBN "978-90-04-12556-8. 
  72. ^ Joseph Needham (1994). A selection from the writings of Joseph Needham. McFarland & Co. p. 24. "ISBN "978-0-89950-903-7. When the men of Alexander the Great came to Taxila in India in the fourth century BCE they found a university there the like of which had not been seen in Greece, a university which taught the three Vedas and the eighteen accomplishments and was still existing when the Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hsien went there about CE 400. 
  73. ^ Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 157. "ISBN "0-415-32919-1. In the early centuries the centre of Buddhist scholarship was the University of Taxila. 
  74. ^ Balakrishnan Muniapan; Junaid M. Shaikh (2007). "Lessons in corporate governance from Kautilya's Arthashastra in ancient India". World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development 2007. 3 (1): 50–61. "doi:10.1504/WREMSD.2007.012130. 
  75. ^ Radha Kumud Mookerji (1951) [reprint 1989]. Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (2nd ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 478–479. "ISBN "81-208-0423-6. 
  76. ^ Andre Wink (1996). Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 152. "ISBN "90-04-09249-8. 
  77. ^ a b "History in Chronological Order". Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2010. 
  78. ^ "Why some in Pakistan want to replace Jinnah as the founder of the country with an 8th-century Arab". 
  79. ^ "Figuring Qasim: How Pakistan was won". Dawn. Retrieved 19 February 2015. 
  80. ^ "The first Pakistani?". Dawn. Retrieved 19 February 2015. 
  81. ^ "Muhammad Bin Qasim: Predator or preacher?". Dawn. Retrieved 19 February 2015. 
  82. ^ Rubina Saigol (2014). "What is the most blatant lie taught through Pakistan textbooks?". Herald. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  83. ^ Shazia Rafi (2015). "A case for Gandhara". Dawn. Retrieved 19 February 2015. 
  84. ^ Ira Marvin Lapidus (2002). A history of Islamic societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 382–384. "ISBN "0-521-77933-2. 
  85. ^ Robert L. Canfield (2002). Turko-Persia in historical perspective. Cambridge University Press. pp. 4–21. "ISBN "978-0-521-52291-5. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  86. ^ Chandra, Satish (2005). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part – II. Har-Anand Publications. p. 365. "ISBN "978-81-241-1066-9. 
  87. ^ Malik, Iftikhar Haider (2008). The History of Pakistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 79. "ISBN "978-0-313-34137-3. 
  88. ^ a b c d e f Metcalf, B.; Metcalf, T. R. (9 October 2006), A Concise History of Modern India (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, "ISBN "978-0-521-68225-1
  89. ^ Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, "ISBN "978-0-521-51750-8
  90. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (1994). The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. Cambridge UK: Cambridge South Asian Studies.
  91. ^ Stephen Evans, "Macaulay's minute revisited: Colonial language policy in nineteenth-century India," Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2002) 23#4 pp. 260–281
  92. ^ a b c d e f "Country Profile: Pakistan" (PDF). Library of Congress. 2005. pp. 2, 3, 6, 8. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  93. ^ "Sepoy Rebellion: 1857". Thenagain.info. 12 September 2003. Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  94. ^ Markovits, Claude (2 November 2007). "India from 1900 to 1947". Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  95. ^ Ak̲h̲tar, Altāf Ḥusain Ḥālī ; Talk̲h̲īṣ, Salim (1993). Ḥayāt-i jāved. Lāhore: Sang-i Mīl Publications. "ISBN "969-35-0186-1. 
  96. ^ Coward, ed. by Harold G. (1987). Modern Indian responses to religious pluralism. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. "ISBN "0-88706-572-4. 
  97. ^ Sarkar, R.N. (2006). Islam related Naipual [sic] (1st ed.). New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. "ISBN "81-7625-693-5. 
  98. ^ Qureshi, M. Naeem (1999). Pan-Islam in British Indian politics : a study of the Khilafat movement, 1918 – 1924. Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. pp. 57, 245. "ISBN "978-90-04-11371-8. 
  99. ^ John Farndon (1 March 1999). Concise encyclopaedia. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 455. "ISBN "0-7513-5911-4. 
  100. ^ Daniel Lak (4 March 2008). India express: the future of a new superpower. Viking Canada. p. 113. "ISBN "978-0-670-06484-7. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  101. ^ a b c d Cohen, Stephen Philip (2004). The idea of Pakistan (1st pbk. ed.). Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. "ISBN "0-8157-9761-3. 
  102. ^ "The partition of South Asia or British Indian Empire and retributive genocide in the Punjab, 1946–47: means, methods, and purposes" (PDF). Retrieved 19 December 2006. 
  103. ^ "Sir Muhammad Iqbal's 1930 Presidential Address". Speeches, Writings, and Statements of Iqbal. Retrieved 19 December 2006. 
  104. ^ Editorial work, no author. (5 January 2009). "Understanding Jinnah's Position on World War I and II Lessons to be learned". United Kingdom: Politact. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  105. ^ a b Mohiuddin, Yasmin Niaz (2007). Pakistan: A Global Studies Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 70. "ISBN "978-1-85109-801-9. In the elections of 1946, the Muslim League won 90 percent of the legislative seats reserved for Muslims. It was the power of the big zamindars in Punjab and Sindh behind the Muslim League candidates that led to this massive landslide victory (Alavi 2002, 14). Even Congress, which had always denied the League's claim to be the only true representative of Indian Muslims had to concede the truth of that claim. The 1946 election was, in effect, a plebiscite among Muslims on Pakistan. 
  106. ^ Mohiuddin, Yasmin Niaz (2007). Pakistan: A Global Studies Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 71. "ISBN "978-1-85109-801-9. Despite the League's victory in the elections, the British did not want the partition of British India. As a last attempt to avoid it, Britain put forward the Cabinet Mission Plan, according to which India would become a federation of three large, self-governing provinces and the central government would be limited to power over foreign policy and defense, implying a weak center. 
  107. ^ Akram, Wasim. "Jinnah and cabinet Mission Plan". Academia Edu. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  108. ^ a b Stanley Wolpert (2002). Jinnah of Pakistan. Oxford University Press. pp. 306–332. "ISBN "0-19-577462-0. 
  109. ^ "Murder, rape and shattered families: 1947 Partition Archive effort underway". Dawn. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2017. There are no exact numbers of people killed and displaced, but estimates range from a few hundred thousand to two million killed and more than 10 million displaced. 
  110. ^ Basrur, Rajesh M. (2008). South Asia's Cold War: Nuclear Weapons and Conflict in Comparative Perspective. Routledge. "ISBN "978-1-134-16531-5. An estimated 12–15 million people were displaced, and some 2 million died. The legacy of Partition (never without a capital P) remains strong today ... 
  111. ^ {{Cite book |url=https://books.google.com/?id=0Kne87aU7D0C&pg=PA3&dq=2+000+000+killed+partition#v=onepage&q=2%20000%20000%20killed%20partition&f=false |title=Idols of the Tribe: Group Identity and Political Change |last=Isaacs |first=Harold Robert |publisher=Harvard University Press |year=1975 |"ISBN 978-0-674-44315-0|quote=2,000,000 killed in the Hindu-Muslim holocaust during the partition of British-India and the creation of India and Pakistan}
  112. ^ D'Costa, Bina (2011). Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia. Routledge. p. 53. "ISBN "978-0-415-56566-0. Estimates of the dead vary from 200,000 (the contemporary British figure) to 2 million (a subsequent Indian speculation). Today, however, it is widely accepted that nearly a million people died during Partition (Butalia, 1997). 
  113. ^ Butalia, Urvashi (2000). The Other Side of Silence: Voices From the Partition of British India. Duke University Press. 
  114. ^ Sikand, Yoginder (2004). Muslims in India Since 1947: Islamic Perspectives on Inter-Faith Relations. Routledge. p. 5. "ISBN "978-1-134-37825-8. 
  115. ^ "Brass, Paul R. (2003). "The partition of India and retributive genocide in the Punjab, 1946–47: means, methods, and purposes" (PDF). "Journal of Genocide Research. Carfax Publishing: Taylor and Francis Group. pp. 81–82 (5(1), 71–101). Retrieved 16 August 2014. In the event, largely but not exclusively as a consequence of their efforts, the entire Muslim population of the eastern Punjab districts migrated to West Punjab and the entire Sikh and Hindu populations moved to East Punjab in the midst of widespread intimidation, terror, violence, abduction, rape, and murder. 
  116. ^ "20th-century international relations (politics) :: South Asia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  117. ^ Daiya, Kavita (2011). Violent Belongings: Partition, Gender, and National Culture in Postcolonial India. Temple University Press. p. 75. "ISBN "978-1-59213-744-2. The official estimate of the number of abducted women during Partition was placed at 33,000 non-Muslim (Hindu or Sikh predominantly) women in Pakistan, and 50,000 Muslim women in India. 
  118. ^ Singh, Amritjit; Iyer, Nalini; Gairola, Rahul K. (2016). Revisiting India's Partition: New Essays on Memory, Culture, and Politics. Lexington Books. p. 14. "ISBN "978-1-4985-3105-4. The horrific statistics that surround women refugees-between 75,000–100,000 Hindu, Muslim and Sikh women who were abducted by men of the other communities, subjected to multiple rapes, mutilations, and, for some, forced marriages and conversions-is matched by the treatment of the abducted women in the hands of the nation-state. In the Constituent Assembly in 1949 it was recorded that of the 50,000 Muslim women abducted in India, 8,000 of then were recovered, and of the 33,000 Hindu and Sikh women abducted, 12,000 were recovered. 
  119. ^ Abraham, Taisha (2002). Women and the Politics of Violence. Har-Anand Publications. p. 131. "ISBN "978-81-241-0847-5. In addition thousands of women on both sides of the newly formed borders (estimated range from 29,000 to 50,000 Muslim women and 15,000 to 35,000 Hindu and Sikh women) were abducted, raped, forced to convert, forced into marriage, forced back into what the two States defined as 'their proper homes,' torn apart from their families once during partition by those who abducted them, and again, after partition, by the State which tried to 'recover' and 'rehabilitate' them. 
  120. ^ Perspectives on Modern South Asia: A Reader in Culture, History, and ... – Kamala Visweswara. nGoogle Books.in (16 May 2011).
  121. ^ Hasan, Arif; Raza, Mansoor (2009). Migration and Small Towns in Pakistan. IIED. p. 12. "ISBN "978-1-84369-734-3. When the British Indian Empire was partitioned in 1947, 4.7 million Sikhs and Hindus left what is today Pakistan for India, and 6.5 million Muslims migrated from India to Pakistan. 
  122. ^ Bates, Crispin (3 March 2011). "The Hidden Story of Partition and its Legacies". BBC. Retrieved 16 August 2014. Unfortunately, it was accompanied by the largest mass migration in human history of some 10 million. 
  123. ^ "Rupture in South Asia" (PDF). UNHCR. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  124. ^ Tanya Basu (15 August 2014). "The Fading Memory of South Asia's Partition". The Atlantic. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  125. ^ Subir Bhaumik (1996). Insurgent Crossfire: North-East India. Lancer Publishers. p. 6. "ISBN "978-1-897829-12-7. Retrieved 15 April 2012. 
  126. ^ "Resolution adopted by the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan". Mount Holyoke College. Retrieved 19 January 2010. 
  127. ^ "Muhammad Ali Jinnah's first Presidential Address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan (August 11, 1947)". JSpeech. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  128. ^ a b "Pakistan". worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  129. ^ "BBC – History – Historic Figures: Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)". BBC. Retrieved 20 December 2016. Jinnah became the first governor general of Pakistan, but died of tuberculosis on 11 September 1948. 
  130. ^ McGrath, Allen (1996). The Destruction of Pakistan's Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 38. "ISBN "978-0-19-577583-9. Undivided India, their magnificent imperial trophy, was besmirched by the creation of Pakistan, and the division of India was never emotionally accepted by many British leaders, Mountbatten among them. 
  131. ^ Ahmed, Akbar S. (1997). Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin. Psychology Press. p. 136. "ISBN "978-0-415-14966-2. Mountbatten's partiality was apparent in his own statements. He tilted openly and heavily towards Congress. While doing so he clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League and its Pakistan idea. 
  132. ^ Wolpert, Stanley (2009). Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India. Oxford University Press. p. 163. "ISBN "978-0-19-974504-3. Mountbatten tried to convince Jinnah of the value of accepting him, Mountbatten, as Pakistan's first governor-general, but Jinnah refused to be moved from his determination to take that job himself. 
  133. ^ Ahmed, Akbar (2005). Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin. Routledge. "ISBN "978-1-134-75022-1. When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged Pakistan if he had known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, his answer was instructive. There was no doubt in his mind about the legality or morality of his position on Pakistan. 'Most probably,' he said (1982:39). 
  134. ^ Hussain, Rizwan. Pakistan. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Mawlānā Shabbīr Ahmad Usmānī, a respected Deobandī ʿālim (scholar) who was appointed to the prestigious position of Shaykh al-Islām of Pakistan in 1949, was the first to demand that Pakistan become an Islamic state. But Mawdūdī and his Jamāʿat-i Islāmī played the central part in the demand for an Islamic constitution. Mawdūdī demanded that the Constituent Assembly make an unequivocal declaration affirming the "supreme sovereignty of God" and the supremacy of the sharīʿah as the basic law of Pakistan. 
  135. ^ a b Hussain, Rizwan. Pakistan. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. The first important result of the combined efforts of the Jamāʿat-i Islāmī and the ʿulamāʿ was the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March 1949, whose formulation reflected compromise between traditionalists and modernists. The resolution embodied "the main principles on which the constitution of Pakistan is to be based." It declared that "sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority which He has delegated to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust," that "the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam shall be fully observed," and that "the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accord with the teaching and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Qurʿan and Sunna." The Objectives Resolution has been reproduced as a preamble to the constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973. 
  136. ^ James Wynbrandt (2009). A brief history of Pakistan. Infobase Publishing. pp. 190–197. "ISBN "978-0-8160-6184-6. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  137. ^ a b Anis Chowdhury; Wahiduddin Mahmud (2008). Handbook on the South Asian economies. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 72–75. "ISBN "978-1-84376-988-0. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  138. ^ Mission with a Difference. Lancer Publishers. p. 17. GGKEY:KGWAHUGNPY9. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  139. ^ Adam Jones (2004). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. p. 420. "ISBN "978-0-415-35384-7. 
  140. ^ a b c R. Jahan (2004). Samuel Totten, ed. Teaching about genocide: issues, approaches, and resources. Information Age Publishing. pp. 147–148. "ISBN "978-1-59311-074-1. 
  141. ^ "1971 war summary". BBC. 2002. Retrieved 16 March 2009. 
  142. ^ Bose, Sarmila (2005). "Anatomy of Violence: Analysis of Civil War in East Pakistan in 1971". "Economic and Political Weekly. 40 (41): 4463–71. "ISSN 2349-8846. "JSTOR 4417267 – via "JSTOR. (Registration required (help)). 
  143. ^ "Bangladesh war: The article that changed history – BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  144. ^ Hiro, Dilip (2015). The Longest August: The Unflinching Rivalry Between India and Pakistan. Nation Books. p. 216. "ISBN "978-1-56858-503-1. 
  145. ^ "Statistics of Pakistan's Democide". Retrieved 10 February 2015. 
  146. ^ Beachler, Donald (2011). The Genocide Debate: Politicians, Academics, and Victims. Springer. p. 16. "ISBN "978-0-230-33763-3. 
  147. ^ M. Zafar. "How Pakistan Army moved into the Political Arena". Defence Journal. Retrieved 15 March 2009. 
  148. ^ "Bhutto was father of Pakistan's Atom Bomb Programme". International Institute for Strategic Studies. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2011. 
  149. ^ a b "Pervez Amerali Hoodbhoy (23 January 2011). "Pakistan's nuclear bayonet". "The Herald. Archived from the original on 18 February 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  150. ^ Sushil Khanna. "The Crisis in the Pakistan Economy". Revolutionary Democracy. Retrieved 16 November 2011. 
  151. ^ Michael Heng Siam-Heng; Ten Chin Liew (2010). State and Secularism: Perspectives from Asia. Singapore: World Scientific. p. 202. "ISBN "978-981-4282-37-6. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  152. ^ "Steve Coll. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (23 February 2004 ed.). Penguin Press HC. p. 720. "ISBN "978-1-59420-007-6. 
  153. ^ Odd Arne Westad (2005). The global Cold War: third world interventions and the making of our times. Cambridge University Press. pp. 348–358. "ISBN "978-0-521-85364-4. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  154. ^ Haroon, Sana (2008). "The Rise of Deobandi Islam in the North-West Frontier Province and Its Implications in Colonial India and Pakistan 1914–1996". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 18: 66–67. "JSTOR 27755911. 
  155. ^ Marie Chene. "Overview of corruption in Pakistan". Anti Corruption Resource Centre. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  156. ^ Ishrat Husain (2009). "Pakistan & Afghanistan: Domestic Pressures and Regional Threats : The Role of Politics in Pakistan's Economy". Journal of International Affairs. 63 (1): 1–18. 
  157. ^ a b Khan, Feroz Hassan (2012). Eating grass : the making of the Pakistani bomb. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-8047-7600-4. 
  158. ^ a b "India launches Kashmir air attack". BBC News. 26 May 1999. Retrieved 5 August 2008. 
  159. ^ "Pakistan after the coup: Special report". BBC. 12 October 2000. Retrieved 17 March 2009. 
  160. ^ "Pakistan Among Top 10 Reformers". World Bank. 12 September 2005. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  161. ^ "Performance of 12th NationalAssembly of Pakistan-" (PDF). Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development and Transperency. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  162. ^ "New Pakistan PM Gillani sworn in". BBC. 25 March 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2009. 
  163. ^ "Zardari wins Pakistan presidential election: officials". AFP. 5 September 2008. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2009. 
  164. ^ Candace Rondeaux (19 August 2008). "Musharraf Exits, but Uncertainty Remains". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 January 2010. 
  165. ^ "Pakistani President Musharraf Resigns Amid Impeachment Threats". Fox News. Associated Press. 18 August 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008. 
  166. ^ "Gilani disqualified as PM: SC". Daily The News International.com. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  167. ^ "'War on terror' has cost Pakistan $118bn: SBP". "Dawn. "Agence France Presse. 19 November 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  168. ^ "Pakistan IDP Figures Analysis". Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  169. ^ "Nawaz Sharif sworn in as Pakistani PM". ABC. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  170. ^ Dhulipala, Venkat (2015). Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India. Cambridge University Press. p. 496. "ISBN "978-1-316-25838-5. The idea of Pakistan may have had its share of ambiguities, but its dismissal as a vague emotive symbol hardly illuminates the reasons as to why it received such overwhelmingly popular support among Indian Muslims, especially those in the 'minority provinces' of British India such as U.P. 
  171. ^ Dhulipala, Venkat (2015). Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India. Cambridge University Press. p. 497. "ISBN "978-1-316-25838-5. As the book has demonstrated, local ML functionaries, (U.P.) ML leadership, Muslim modernists at Aligarh, the ulama and even Jinnah at times articulated their vision of Pakistan in terms of an Islamic state. 
  172. ^ Dhulipala, Venkat (2015). Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India. Cambridge University Press. p. 489. "ISBN "978-1-316-25838-5. But what is undeniable is the close association he developed with the ulama, for when he died a little over a year after Pakistan was born, Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, in his funeral oration, described Jinnah as the greatest Muslim after the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. 
  173. ^ Dhulipala, Venkat (2015). Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India. Cambridge University Press. p. 489. "ISBN "978-1-316-25838-5. Similarly, Usmani asked Pakistanis to remember the Qaid's ceaseless message of Unity, Faith and Discipline and work to fulfil his dream to create a solid bloc of all Muslim states from Karachi to Ankara, from Pakistan to Morocco. He [Jinnah] wanted to see the Muslims of the world united under the banner of Islam as an effective check against the aggressive designs of their enemies 
  174. ^ Haqqani, Hussain (2010). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Carnegie Endowment. p. 16. "ISBN "978-0-87003-285-1. The first formal step toward transforming Pakistan into an Islamic ideological state was taken in March 1949 when the country's first prime minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, presented the Objectives Resolution in the constituent assembly. 
  175. ^ Dhulipala, Venkat (2015). Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India. Cambridge University Press. p. 491. "ISBN "978-1-316-25838-5. Khaliq drew a sharp distinction between this Islamic state and a Muslim state. He claimed that as of now Pakistan was only a Muslim state in view of the majority of its population being Muslim, and indeed could never be an Islamic state by itself. It could certainly fulfill its promise and destiny by bringing together all the believers of Islam into one political unit and it is only then that an Islamic state would be achieved. 
  176. ^ Haqqani, Hussain (2010). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Carnegie Endowment. p. 18. "ISBN "978-0-87003-285-1. One of the earliest Western scholars of Pakistani politics, Keith Callard, observed that Pakistanis seemed to believe in the essential unity of purpose and outlook in the Muslim world: Pakistan was founded to advance the cause of Muslims. Other Muslims might have been expected to be sympathetic, even enthusiastic. But this assumed that other Muslim states would take the same view of the relation between religion and nationality. 
  177. ^ Haqqani, Hussain (2010). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Carnegie Endowment. p. 18. "ISBN "978-0-87003-285-1. Pakistan's pan-Islamic aspirations, however, were neither shared nor supported by the Muslim governments of the time. Nationalism in other parts of the Muslim world was based on ethnicity, language, or territory. 
  178. ^ Haqqqani, Hussain (2010). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Carnegie Endowment. p. 19. "ISBN "978-0-87003-285-1. Although Muslim governments were initially unsympathetic to Pakistan's pan-Islamic aspirations, Islamists from the world over were drawn to Pakistan. Controversial figures such as the pro-Nazi former grand mufti of Palestine, Al-Haj Amin al-Husseini, and leaders of Islamist political movements like the Arab Muslim Brotherhood became frequent visitors to the country. 
  179. ^ Husain Haqqani (10 March 2010). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Carnegie Endowment. pp. 19–. "ISBN "978-0-87003-285-1. 
  180. ^ Cochrane, Iain (2009). The Causes of the Bangladesh War. "ISBN "978-1-4452-4043-5. The social scientist, Nasim Ahmad Jawed has conducted a survey of nationalism in pre-divided Pakistan and identifies the links between religion, politics and nationalism in both wings of Pakistan. His findings are fascinating and go some way to explain the differing attitudes of West and East Pakistan to the relationship between Islam and Pakistani nationalism and how this affected the views of people in both wings, especially the views of the peoples of both wings towards each other. In 1969, Jawed conducted a survey on the type of national identity that was used by educated professional people. He found that just over 60% in the East wing professed to have a secular national identity. However, in the West wing, the same figure professed an Islamic and not a secular identity. Furthermore, the same figure in the East wing described their identity in terms of their ethnicity and not in terms of Islam. He found that the opposite was the case in the West wing where Islam was stated to be more important than ethnicity. 
  181. ^ LINTNER, BERTIL (2004). "Religious Extremism and Nationalism in Bangladesh" (PDF). p. 418. 
  182. ^ Diamantides, Marinos; Gearey, Adam (2011). Islam, Law and Identity. Routledge. p. 196. "ISBN "978-1-136-67565-2. The Constitution of 1973 was created by a parliament that was elected in the 1970 elections. In this first ever general elections ... 
  183. ^ Diamantides, Marinos; Gearey, Adam (2011). Islam, Law and Identity. Routledge. p. 198. "ISBN "978-1-136-67565-2. The 1973 constitution also created certain institutions to channel the application and interpretation of Islam: the Council of Islamic Ideology and the Shariat Court. 
  184. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 45–6. "ISBN "0-19-509695-9. 
  185. ^ a b Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam (2006 ed.). I.B.Tauris. pp. 100–101. "ISBN "9781845112578. Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  186. ^ Haqqani, Hussain (2010). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Carnegie Endowment. p. 132. "ISBN "978-0-87003-285-1. Most accounts of Zia ul-Haq's life confirm that he came from a religious family and that religion played an important part in molding his personality. 
  187. ^ Diamantides, Marinos; Gearey, Adam (2011). Islam, Law and Identity. Routledge. p. 198. "ISBN "978-1-136-67565-2. The Shariat judicial courts were not present in the original Constitution of 1973 and were later inserted in 1979 by General Zia-ul Haq ... 
  188. ^ Double Jeopardy: Police Abuse of Women in Pakistan. Human Rights Watch. 1992. p. 19. "ISBN "9781564320636. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  189. ^ Haqqani, Hussain (2005). Pakistan: between mosque and military. Washington D.C.: United Book Press. p. 400. "ISBN "978-0-87003-285-1. 
  190. ^ a b Wynbrandt, James (2009). A Brief History of Pakistan. Facts on File. pp. 216–7. "ISBN "978-0-8160-6184-6. Zia, however, tried to bolster the influence of Islamic parties and the ulama on government and society. 
  191. ^ Syed, Jawad; Pio, Edwina; Kamran, Tahir; Zaidi, Abbas (2016). Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. Springer. p. 379. "ISBN "978-1-349-94966-3. ... the military dictator Zia ul Haq (1977–1988) forged a strong alliance between the military and Deobani institutions and movements (e.g. the TJ). 
  192. ^ Cesari, Jocelyne (2014). The Awakening of Muslim Democracy: Religion, Modernity, and the State. Cambridge University Press. p. 135. "ISBN "978-1-107-51329-7. For example, the Barelvi ulama supported the formation of the state of Pakistan and thought that any alliance with Hindus (such as that between the Indian National Congress and the Jamiat ulama-I-Hind [JUH]) was counterproductive. 
  193. ^ Syed, Jawad; Pio, Edwina; Kamran, Tahir; Zaidi, Abbas (2016). Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. Springer. p. 379. "ISBN "978-1-349-94966-3. Ironically, Islamic state politics in Pakistan was mostly in favour of Deobandi, and more recently Ahl-e Hadith/Salafi, institutions. Only a few Deobandi clerics decided to support the Pakistan Movement, but they were highly influential. 
  194. ^ Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. Springer. 2016. p. 346. "ISBN "978-1-349-94966-3. The grave impact of that legacy was compunded by the Iranian Revolution, and Zia-ul Haq's anti-Shia policies, which added the violence and regimentation of the organization. 
  195. ^ Street (30 April 2013). "Chapter 1: Beliefs About Sharia". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
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  210. ^ Rhett Butler. "Pakistan Deforestation Rates and Related Forestry Figures". Mongabay.com. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  211. ^ a b c "Biodiversity". WWF. Archived from the original on 15 January 2005. Retrieved 10 January 2012. 
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  213. ^ "Naeem Ashraf Raja, P. Davidson; et al. (1999). "The birds of Palas, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan" (PDF). Forktail. Oriental Bird Club. 15: 77–85. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  214. ^ Richard Grimmett; Tom J. Roberts; Tim Inskipp (27 February 2009). Birds of Pakistan. A&C Black. pp. 6,38–41,132–136. "ISBN "978-0-7136-8800-9. Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
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  217. ^ David M. Shackleton; International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Species Survival Commission. Caprinae Specialist Group (January 1997). Wild sheep and goats and their relatives: status survey and conservation action plan for caprinae. IUCN. pp. 10–13, 352. "ISBN "978-2-8317-0353-4. Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
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  219. ^ "Pakistan". Wildlife Conservation Society. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  220. ^ Pete Heiden (1 September 2011). Pakistan. ABDO. pp. 33–44. "ISBN "978-1-61787-631-8. Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
  221. ^ Hussain, Rizwan. Pakistan. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Hence, Pakistan's political experience is integrally related to the struggle of Indian Muslims to find an autonomous political center after their loss of power to the British in the early nineteenth century. 
  222. ^ a b "World: South Asia Pakistan's army and its history of politics". BBC. 10 December 1999. Retrieved 16 March 2009. 
  223. ^ Colgrove, Rosemary (2010). Eye on the sparrow : the remarkable journey of Father Joseph Nisari, Pakistani priest. Minneapolis: Mill City Press. "ISBN "1-936400-87-1. 
  224. ^ Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict between India and Pakistan : an encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. "ISBN "1-57607-712-8. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  225. ^ Ahmad, Hafeez Ashfaq. "Determinants of Foreign Policy of Pakistan". Scrib, 19 November 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
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  231. ^ Shahi, Abdul Sattar ; foreword by Agha (2013). Pakistan's foreign policy, 1947–2012 : a concise history (Third ed.). Karachi: Oxford University Press, Shahi. "ISBN "0-19-906910-7. 
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  234. ^ a b Anwar, Muhammad (2006). Friends Near Home: Pakistan's Strategic Security Options. Islamabad, Pakistan: AuthorHouse. "ISBN "1-4670-1541-5. 
  235. ^ Chakma, Bhumitra (2009). Pakistan's nuclear weapons. London: Routledge, UK. "ISBN "0-415-40871-7. 
  236. ^ Officials reports (18 June 2010). "Pakistan a Responsible Nuclear Power, Official Asserts". NPT News Directorate. Retrieved 3 December 2012. 
  237. ^ "World: Monitoring Nawaz Sharif's speech". BBC. 28 May 1998. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  238. ^ a b Haqqani, Husain (2005). "§Chapter 3". Pakistan : between mosque and military (1. print. ed.). Washington, DC: United Book Press. "ISBN "978-0-87003-214-1. The trauma was extremely severe in Pakistan when the news of secession of East Pakistan as Bangladesh arrived—a psychological setback, complete and humiliating defeat that shattered the prestige of Pakistan Armed Forces. 
  239. ^ "N-deterrence to be pursued". Dawn. 15 July 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  240. ^ Shah, Mehtab Ali (1997). The foreign policy of Pakistan : ethnic impacts on diplomacy, 1971–1994. London [u.a.]: Tauris. "ISBN "1-86064-169-5. 
  241. ^ a b Hasan Askari Rizvi. "Pakistan's Foreign Policy:An Overview 1947–2004" (PDF). Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development and Transparency. pp. 10–12, 20. Retrieved 20 December 2011. 
  242. ^ "United Nations Member States". United Nations. 3 July 2006. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  243. ^ "Senate OIC Report" (PDF). Senate of Pakistan: Senate Foreign Relations Committee. September 2005. pp. 16–18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  244. ^ "A Plea for Enlightened Moderation". The Washington Post. 1 June 2004. Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
  245. ^ "Pakistan". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
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  247. ^ A.R.Kemal. "Exploring Pakistan's Regional Economic Cooperation Potential" (PDF). PIDE. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
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  249. ^ Robert Nolan. "Pakistan: The Most Allied Ally in Asia". Foreign Policy Association. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2009. 
  250. ^ staff writer (9 January 2015). "Accord to diversify ties with Russia". Dawn, 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  251. ^ Sabir Shah. "US military aid to Pakistan suspended six times since 1954". "The News International. Retrieved 26 October 2009. 
  252. ^ "2015 Joint Statement By President Barack Obama And Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  253. ^ D'Souza, Shanthie (2006). "US-Pakistan Counter-Terrorism Cooperation: Dynamics and Challenges" (PDF). Strategic Analysis. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  254. ^ Alain Gresh. "The United States' new backyard". Le Monde diplomatique. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  255. ^ C.J. Radin. "Analysis: The US-Pakistan relationship". Long War Journal. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 
  256. ^ Nazir Khaja. "Pakistan & USA – Allies in the war on Terrorism!". Defence Talk. Retrieved 15 February 2010. 
  257. ^ Karen DeYoung. "Pakistan backed attacks on American targets, U.S. says". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  258. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (3 December 2014). "The Pakistani origins of the Israeli state". Washington Post, Pakistan Bureau. Washington Post. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  259. ^ Khoury, Jack (28 February 2015). "Israeli lecturer takes part in Pakistan conference". Haaretz. Haaretz. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  260. ^ "Pakistan-Israel in landmark talks". BBC News. 1 September 2005. Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  261. ^ Staff work (5 February 2015). "Pakistan the only country not recognizing Armenia – envoy". Armenian Times. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  262. ^ "China opens 'largest' embassy in Pakistan, strengthens South Asia presence". asiancorrespondent.com. 
  263. ^ a b c Afridi, Jamal; Bajoria, Jayshree (6 July 2010). "China-Pakistan Relations". Council on Foreign Relations, China Pakistan. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  264. ^ "ISLAMABAD: Pakistan and China agreed to raise their trade volume up to $20 billion and pledged to continue their cooperation in civil nuclear technology". Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. 
  265. ^ Urvashi Aneja (June 2006). "Pakistan-China Relations" (PDF). Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  266. ^ "CHRONOLOGY-Main events in Chinese-Pakistani relations". Thomson Reuters. Reuters. 24 November 2006. Retrieved 24 November 2006. 
  267. ^ Jamal Afridi. "China-Pakistan Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 6 July 2010. 
  268. ^ Gillette, Maris Boyd (2000). Between Mecca and Beijing. California, [u.s]: Stanford University Press, California, [u.s]. "ISBN "0-8047-6434-4. 
  269. ^ Reuters (4 August 2016). "China joins Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan in security alliance". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 22 November 2016. 
  270. ^ Pasha, Sayed Abdul Muneem (2005). Islam in Pakistan's foreign policy. Global Media Publications. p. 225. "ISBN "978-81-88869-15-2. Pakistan's expression of solidarity was followed, after Independence, by a vigorous pursuit of bilateral relations with Muslim countries like Iran and Turkey. 
  271. ^ Pasha, Sayed Abdul Muneem (2005). Islam in Pakistan's foreign policy. Global Media Publications. p. 37. "ISBN "978-81-88869-15-2. Pakistan was making a wholehearted bid for the leadership of the Muslim world, or at least for the leadership in achieving its unity. 
  272. ^ Pasha, Sayed Abdul Muneem (2005). Islam in Pakistan's foreign policy. Global Media Publications. p. 226. "ISBN "978-81-88869-15-2. Following Khaliquzzaman, the Ali brothers had sought to project Pakistan, with its comparatively larger manpower and military strength, as the natural leader of the Islamic world. 
  273. ^ Dhulipala, Venkat (2015). Creating a New Medina. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. "ISBN "978-1-107-05212-3. As a top ranking ML leader Khaliquzzaman declared, 'Pakistan would bring all Muslim countries together into Islamistan – a pan-Islamic entity'. 
  274. ^ Haqqani, Husain (2013). Magnificent Delusions: Pakistan, the United States, and an Epic History of Misunderstanding. PublicAffairs. pp. 20–21. "ISBN "978-1-61039-317-1. Within a few years the president of the Muslim League, Chaudhry Khaliq-uz-Zaman, announced that Pakistan would bring all Muslim countries together into Islamistan – a pan-Islamic entity. None of these developments within the new country elicited approval among Americans for the idea of India's partition ... British Prime Minister Clement Attlee voiced the international consensus at the time when he told the House of Commons of his hope that 'this severance may not endure.' He hoped that the proposed dominions of India and Pakistan would in course of time, come together to form one great Member State of the British Commonwealth of Nations. 
  275. ^ Haqqani, Husain (2013). Magnificent Delusions: Pakistan, the United States, and an Epic History of Misunderstanding. PublicAffairs. p. 22. "ISBN "978-1-61039-317-1. During this time most of the Arab world was going through a nationalist awakening. Pan-Islamic dreams involving the unification of Muslim countries, possibly under Pakistani leadership, had little attraction. 
  276. ^ Roberts, Jeffery J. (2003). The Origins of Conflict in Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 134. "ISBN "978-0-275-97878-5. The following year, Choudhry Khaliquzzaman toured the Middle East, pleading for the formation of an alliance or confederation of Muslim states. The Arab states, often citing Pakistan's inability to solve its problems with Muslim neighbor Afghanistan, showed little enthusiasm ... Some saw the effort to form 'Islamistan' as a Pakistani attempt to dominate other Muslim states. 
  277. ^ Pande, Aparna (2011). Explaining Pakistan's Foreign Policy: Escaping India. Routledge. p. 178. "ISBN "978-1-136-81893-6. The belief that the creation of Pakistan made Pakistan the true leader of Muslim causes around the world led Pakistan's diplomats to vigorously champion the cause of self-determination for fellow Muslims at the United Nations. Pakistan's founders, including Jinnah, supported anti-colonial movements: "Our heart and soul go out in sympathy with those who are struggling for their freedom ... If subjugation and exploitation are carried on, there will be no peace and there will be no end to wars." Pakistani efforts on behalf of Indonesia (1948), Algeria (1948–1949), Tunisia (1948–1949), Morocco (1948–1956) and Eritrea (1960–1991) were significant and initially led to close ties between these countries and Pakistan. 
  278. ^ Nasir, Abbas (18 August 2015). "The legacy of Pakistan's loved and loathed Hamid Gul". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved 4 January 2017. His commitment to jihad—to an Islamic revolution transcending national boundaries, was such that he dreamed one day the "green Islamic flag" would flutter not just over Pakistan and Afghanistan, but also over territories represented by the (former Soviet Union) Central Asian republics. After the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, as the director-general of the Pakistan's intelligence organisation, Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) directorate, an impatient Gul wanted to establish a government of the so-called Mujahideen on Afghan soil. He then ordered an assault using non-state actors on Jalalabad, the first major urban centre across the Khyber Pass from Pakistan, with the aim capturing it and declaring it as the seat of the new administration. 
  279. ^ Hunter, Shireen (2010). Iran's Foreign Policy in the Post-Soviet Era: Resisting the New International Order. ABC-CLIO. p. 144. "ISBN "978-0-313-38194-2. Since then, Pakistan's sectarian tensions have been a major irritant in Iranian-Pakistan relations. 
  280. ^ Pande, Aparna (2011). Explaining Pakistan's Foreign Policy: Escaping India. Taylor & Francis. p. 159. "ISBN "978-1-136-81894-3. Both Saudi Arabia and Iran used Pakistan as a battleground for their proxy war for the 'hearts and minds' of Pakistani Sunnis and Shias with the resultant rise in sectarian tensions in Pakistan. The rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan in the 1990s further strained Pakistan-Iran relations. Pakistan's support of the Sunni Pashtun organization created problems for Shia Iran for whom a Taliban-controlled Afghanistan was a nightmare. 
  281. ^ Schmetzer, Uli (14 September 1998). "Iran Raises Anti-pakistan Outcry". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 5 January 2017. KARACHI, Pakistan – Iran, which has amassed 200,000 troops on the border with Afghanistan, accused Pakistan on Sunday of sending warplanes to strafe and bombard Afghanistan's last Shiite stronghold, which fell hours earlier to the Taliban, the Sunni militia now controlling the central Asian country. 
  282. ^ Constable, Pamela (16 September 1998). "Afghanistan: Arena For a New Rivalry". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 January 2017. Taliban officials accused Iran of providing military support to the opposition forces; Tehran radio accused Pakistan of sending its air force to bomb the city in support of the Taliban's advance and said Iran was holding Pakistan responsible for what it termed war crimes at Bamiyan. Pakistan has denied that accusation and previous allegations of direct involvement in the Afghan conflict. Also fueling the volatile situation are ethnic and religious rivalries between the Taliban, who are Sunni Muslims of Afghanistan's dominant Pashtun ethnic group, and the opposition factions, many of which represent other ethnic groups or include Shiite Muslims. Iran, a Shiite Muslim state, has a strong interest in promoting that sect; Pakistan, one of the Taliban's few international allies, is about 80 percent Sunni. 
  283. ^ Pande, Aparna (2006). Explaining Pakistan's Foreign Policy: Escaping India. Taylor & Francis. "ISBN "1-136-81894-4. 
  284. ^ Article 1(1)–2(d) of the Part I: Introductory in the "Constitution of Pakistan
  285. ^ "Highlights of Prime Minister's Press Talk on "Gilgit–Baltistan Empowerment and Self Governance Order −2009" at PM'S Secretariat on August 29, 2009". Press Information Department, Pakistan. 2009. Archived from the original (DOC) on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011. 
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  289. ^ "Map of Agencies and Regions in the FATA". fata.gov.pk. Archived from the original (PNG) on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2011. 
  290. ^ a b Asad Jamal (2010). Police Organisations in Pakistan. CHRI and HRCP. pp. 9–15. "ISBN "81-88205-79-6. 
  291. ^ Manoj Shrivastava (1 April 2013). Re-Energising Indian Intelligence. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 89. "ISBN "978-93-82573-55-5. 
  292. ^ Aditya Rangroo (2 December 2011). "Top Intelligence Agencies of the World". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 20 February 2016. The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan tops the list of intelligence agencies in the world in 2011, followed by the United States of America's CIA and United Kingdom's MI6. Russia's FSB, France's DGSE and Germany's BND are also on the list, followed by Israel's Mossad, India's RAW, Australia's ASIS and Canada's CSIS. 
  293. ^ "Top 10 Best Intelligence Agencies in The World 2016". ABC News Point. 15 December 2014. Archived from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2016. 
  294. ^ "Top 10 – World's powerful intelligence agencies". Zee News. Retrieved 27 December 2016. 
  295. ^ Faqir Hussain (2009). "The Judicial System Of Pakistan" (PDF). Supreme Court of Pakistan. pp. 10–21. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  296. ^ Raza, Maroof (1996). "§Implications of 1971 war and India's nuclear explosion". Wars and no peace over Kashmir. New Delhi: Lancer Publishers. p. 170. "ISBN "1-897829-16-7. In December 1971, Pakistan lost half its country, and with over ~90,000 troops of its military becoming "POWs, all its earlier myth could not survive this no longer ... 
  297. ^ Sean Anderson (2009). Historical dictionary of terrorism. Scarecrow Press. pp. 347–348. "ISBN "978-0-8108-4101-7. 
  298. ^ Paul Bowers (30 March 2004). "Kashmir (House of Commons Research Paper 04/28)" (PDF). House of Commons Library. p. 46. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  299. ^ Amita Shastri (2001). The Post-Colonial States of South Asia: Democracy, Development and Identity. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 289. "ISBN "978-0-312-23852-0. 
  300. ^ Joseph J. Hobbs (2008). World Regional Geography. Brooks Cole. p. 314. "ISBN "978-0-495-38950-7. 
  301. ^ Auckland (24 September 2001). "A brief history of the Kashmir conflict". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 23 January 2012. 
  302. ^ International Court of Justice (2012). "Advisory Opinion on the Legal Status of Kashmir". IMUNA. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012. 
  303. ^ Endrst, Jeff (8 September 1965). "Kashmir Old Headache For U.N." The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved 15 January 2017. Former Indian Defense Minister Krishna Menon who for years influenced the decisions of late Prime Minister Nehru himself a Kashmiri-put it bluntly last March in an interview with an American newsman when he said India could never agree to a U.N. sponsored plebiscite because 'Kashmir would vote to join Pakistan, and no Indian government responsible for agreeing to the plebiscite could survive.' 
  304. ^ Talat Masood (2006). "Pakistan's Kashmir Policy" (PDF). Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2011. 
  305. ^ "Freedom in the World 2009 – Kashmir (India)". "UNHCR. 16 July 2009. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  306. ^ a b "Our Partners". National Police Bureau, Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2008. 
  307. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies; Hackett, James (ed.) (2010). The Military Balance 2010. London: "Routledge. pp. 367–370. "ISBN "1-85743-557-5. 
  308. ^ a b c Blood, Peter R. (1995). Pakistan: A Country Study. Washington D.C.: Diane Publishing Co. p. 287. "ISBN "0-7881-3631-3. 
  309. ^ Singh, R.S.N. (2008). The military factor in Pakistan. New Delhi: Lancer Publishers. p. 409. "ISBN "0-9815378-9-8. 
  310. ^ "General Qamar Bajwa COAS, General Zubair Hayat CJCSC". "The News International. 27 November 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  311. ^ "Chief of Naval Staff". ISPR (Navy Division). Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  312. ^ OAF. "Chief of Air Staff". ISPR (Air Force). Retrieved 26 April 2015. 
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  314. ^ "Importer/Exporter TIV Tables". Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 
  315. ^ "Pakistan and China participate in drill". Dawn. 26 November 2011. Archived from the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  316. ^ Kamran Yousaf (15 November 2011). "Joint military exercise: Pakistan, China begin war games near Jhelum". Tribune. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  317. ^ "Child Soldiers Global Report 2008 – Pakistan". "UNHCR. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2010. 
  318. ^ "War History". Pakistan Army. Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
  319. ^ "Daoud as Prime Minister, 1953–63". 1997. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  320. ^ Ian Talbot (1999). The Armed Forces of Pakistan. Macmillan publishers. p. 99. "ISBN "0-312-21606-8. 
  321. ^ a b "HISTORY OF PAF". Pakistan Air Force. Retrieved 20 December 2011. 
  322. ^ a b "Pakistan Armed Forces". Scramble Magazine. Archived from the original on 17 December 2001. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  323. ^ "Pakistan Army". Pakistan Defense. Archived from the original on 22 August 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  324. ^ "UN Peace Keeping Missions". Pakistan Army. Retrieved 29 December 2011. 
  325. ^ "Contributors to United Nations peacekeeping operations" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 10 February 2017. 
  326. ^ "Pakistan's peacekeeping role highlighted". Dawn. 24 October 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2016. Pakistan has contributed more than 160,000 troops to-date in 41 missions spread over 23 countries in almost all continents, it said. The country has remained one of the largest troop contributing countries consistently for many years. 
  327. ^ Anthony H. Cordesman (December 1986). Western Strategic Interests in Saudi Arabia. Croom Helm. pp. 139–140. "ISBN "978-0-7099-4823-0. 
  328. ^ Bidanda M. Chengappa (2005). Pakistan Islamisation. APH Publishing Corporation. p. 42. "ISBN "978-81-7648-548-7. 
  329. ^ Bidanda M. Chengappa (1 January 2004). Pakistan: Islamisation Army And Foreign Policy. APH Publishing. p. 42. "ISBN "978-81-7648-548-7. 
  330. ^ Simon Dunstan (20 April 2003). The Yom Kippur War 1973 (2): The Sinai. Osprey Publishing. p. 39. "ISBN "978-1-84176-221-0. 
  331. ^ P.R. Kumaraswamy (11 January 2013). Revisiting the Yom Kippur War. Routledge. p. 75. "ISBN "978-1-136-32895-4. 
  332. ^ Miller, Flagg (2015). The Audacious Ascetic: What the Bin Laden Tapes Reveal About Al-Qa'ida. Oxford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-19-061339-6. Not since the tenth century had such a maverick crew occupied Islam's holiest sanctuary, and for nearly two weeks Saudi Special Forces assisted by Pakistani and French commandos fought pitched battles to reclaim the compound. 
  333. ^ Valentine, Simon Ross (2015). Force and Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond. Oxford University Press. p. 219. "ISBN "978-1-84904-616-9. 
  334. ^ Irfan Husain (2012