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"The Honourable
Paolo Gentiloni
""Paolo Gentiloni 2017.jpg
57th "Prime Minister of Italy
Assumed office
12 December 2016
President "Sergio Mattarella
Preceded by "Matteo Renzi
"Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
31 October 2014 – 12 December 2016
Prime Minister "Matteo Renzi
Preceded by "Federica Mogherini
Succeeded by "Angelino Alfano
"Minister of Communications
In office
17 May 2006 – 8 May 2008
Prime Minister "Romano Prodi
Preceded by "Mario Landolfi
Succeeded by "Claudio Scajola ("Economic Development)
Member of the "Chamber of Deputies
Assumed office
30 May 2001
Constituency "Piedmont 2 (2001–2006)
"Lazio 1 (2006–2018)
"Rome (2018–present)
Personal details
Born Paolo Gentiloni Silveri
(1954-11-22) 22 November 1954 (age 63)
"Rome, "Italy
Political party "The Daisy (2002–2007)
"Democratic Party (2007–present)
Spouse(s) Emanuela Mauro (m. 1989)[1]
Residence "Palazzo Chigi
"Alma mater "Sapienza University
Signature ""

Paolo Gentiloni Silveri (Italian pronunciation: "[ˈpaːolo dʒentiˈloːni]; born 22 November 1954) is an Italian politician serving as the "57th and current "Prime Minister of Italy since 12 December 2016.[2][3] A member of the "Democratic Party, he served as "Minister of Foreign Affairs from 31 October 2014 until December 2016, when President "Sergio Mattarella asked him to form a new government.[4] Previously, he was "Minister of Communications from 2006 to 2008, during the second government of "Romano Prodi.

Contents

Early life and family[edit]

A descendant of "Count Gentiloni Silveri, Paolo Gentiloni is related to the Italian politician "Vincenzo Ottorino Gentiloni, who was the leader of the conservative "Catholic Electoral Union and a key ally of the long-time Prime Minister "Giovanni Giolitti.[5] Gentiloni has the titles of "Nobile of "Filottrano, Nobile of "Cingoli, and Nobile of "Macerata.[6]

Gentiloni was born in "Rome in 1954, during his childhood he attended a "Montessori institute, where he became a friend of Agnese Moro, the daughter of "Aldo Moro, a "Christian democratic leader and "Prime Minister. During early 1970s he attended the "Classical Lyceum "Torquato Tasso in Rome;[7] he graduated in "political sciences at the "La Sapienza University. Gentiloni was a professional "journalist before entering politics.[8]

In 1989 he married Emanuela Mauro, an "architect; they have no children. Gentiloni speaks fluently "English, "French and "German.[9]

Early political career[edit]

During 1970s, Paolo Gentiloni was a member of the Student Movement (Movimento Studentesco), an extreme left-wing youth organization led by "Mario Capanna;[10] when Capanna founded the "Proletarian Democracy party, Gentiloni did not follow him, and joined the Workers' Movement for "Socialism, a far-left "maoist group, of whom he became the regional secretary for "Lazio.[11]

During those years he became a close friend of "Chicco Testa who helped Gentiloni to become director of La Nuova Ecologia ("The New Ecology"), the official newspaper of "Legambiente. As director of this "ecological newspaper he met the young leader of "Federation of the Greens, "Francesco Rutelli and became, along with "Roberto Giachetti, Michele Anzaldi and Filippo Sensi, a member of the so-called "Rutelli boys", a group formed by Rutelli's closest advisors and supporters.[12]

Rome City Council[edit]

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Paolo Gentiloni with "Francesco Rutelli in 1993.

In 1993 he became Rutelli’s spokesman during his campaign to become "Mayor of Rome; after the election, which saw a strong victory by Rutelli against "Gianfranco Fini, leader of the neo-fascist "Italian Social Movement, Gentiloni was appointed Jubilee and Tourism Councillor in the "Rome City Council.[13] Gentiloni held this office until January 2001, when Rutelli resigned to become the centre-left candidate to the premiership in the "2001 general election. However Rutelli was soundly defeated by former Prime Minister "Silvio Berlusconi with 35.1% of votes against 49.6%.[14]

Member of Parliament and Minister[edit]

In the 2001 general election, Gentiloni was elected as a Member of Parliament and started his national political career. In 2002 he was a founding member of the Christian leftist "The Daisy party, being the party’s communications spokesman for five years.[15] From 2005 until 2006, he was Chairman of the Broadcasting Services Watchdog Committee; the committee oversees the activity of state broadcaster "RAI, which is publicly funded.[16] He was reelected in the "2006 election as a member of "The Olive Tree, the political coalition led by the Bolognese economist "Romano Prodi. After the centre-left's victory, Gentiloni served as Minister for Communications in "Prodi's second government from 2006 until 2008.[17]

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Paolo Gentiloni as a member of the "Chamber of Deputies in 2006.

As minister Gentiloni planned to reform the "Italian television system, with the overcome of the Gasparri Law, the previous reform proposed by the centre-right lawmaker "Maurizio Gasparri.[18] The reform provided, between other things, the reduction of "advertising.[19] However, in 2007, the government suffered a crisis and lost its majority, so the reform had never been approved.[20]

He was one of the 45 members of the national founding committee of the "Democratic Party in 2007, formed by the union of the democratic socialists "Democrats of the Left and the Christian leftist "The Daisy.[21] Gentiloni was re-elected in the "2008 general election, which saw the victory of the "conservative coalition led by "Silvio Berlusconi. In this legislature he was a member of the Committee regarding Transports and Telecommunications.

On 6 April 2013 he ran in the primary election to select the center-left candidate for "Mayor of Rome, placing third after "Ignazio Marino, who became Mayor, and the journalist David Sassoli.[22]

Gentiloni was elected again to the "Chamber of Deputies in the "2013 general election, as part of the centre-left coalition "Italy. Common Good led by "Pier Luigi Bersani, Secretary of the PD. In 2013, after Bersani's resignation as Secretary, Gentiloni supported the "Mayor of Florence, "Matteo Renzi, in the "Democratic Party leadership election.[23]

Minister of Foreign Affairs[edit]

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Gentiloni with "United States Secretary of State "John Kerry in "Rome in June 2016.

On 31 October 2014 Gentiloni was appointed "Minister of Foreign Affairs by "Prime Minister Matteo Renzi; Gentiloni succeeded "Federica Mogherini, who became "High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.[24] He took office two months before Italy's rotating "presidency of the Council of the European Union ended in December 2014.[16] At the time of his appointment, Gentiloni had not been mentioned in political circles as a candidate. Renzi had reportedly wanted to replace Mogherini with another woman, to preserve gender parity in his 16-member cabinet. Also, Gentiloni was not known as a specialist in international diplomacy.[16]

On 13 February 2015, during an interview on "Sky TG24, Gentiloni stated that "if needed, Italy will be ready to fight in "Libya against the "Islamic State, because the Italian government can not accept the idea that there is an active terrorist threat only a few hours from Italy by boat."[25] The following day Gentiloni was threatened by ISIL, which accused him of being a "crusader, minister of an enemy country.[26]

In March 2015 Gentiloni visited "Mexico and "Cuba and met Cuban President "Raúl Castro, ensuring the Italian support for the normalization of "relations between Cuba and the "United States.[27]

On 11 July 2015, a "car bomb exploded outside the Italian consulate in the "Egyptian capital "Cairo, resulting in at least one death and four people injured; the Islamic State claimed responsibility.[28][29][30] On the same day Gentiloni stated that "Italy will be not intimidated" and would continue the fight against terrorism.[31]

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Gentiloni with "Boris Johnson and "Federica Mogherini in September 2016.

In December 2015, Gentiloni hosted a peace conference in Rome with the representatives from both governments of Libya involved in the "civil war, but also from the "United Nations, the United States and "Russia.[32]

As Foreign Minister, Gentiloni had to confront various abductions of Italian citizens. In January 2015, he negotiated the release of Vanessa Marzullo and Greta Ramelli after they had been held hostage by Syrian terrorists for 168 days.[33] Another high-profile case was the "murder of Giulio Regeni, an Italian "Cambridge University graduate student killed in Cairo following his abduction on January 25, 2016;[34] Regeni was a Ph.D. student[35] researching Egypt's independent trade unions.[36]

In the "2016 United Nations Security Council election, Gentiloni and his Dutch counterpart "Bert Koenders agreed on splitting a two-year term on the "United Nations Security Council after the "United Nations General Assembly was deadlocked on whether to choose Italy or the Netherlands following five rounds of voting for the last remaining 2017–18 seat.[37]

Prime Minister of Italy[edit]

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Gentiloni with "Matteo Renzi during the swearing-in ceremony.

On 7 December 2016, Prime Minister "Matteo Renzi announced his resignation, following the rejection of his proposals to overhaul the "Italian Senate in the "2016 Italian constitutional referendum. A few days later, on 11 December 2016, Gentiloni was asked by President Mattarella to form a new government.[38] On the following day Gentiloni was officially sworn in as the new head of the government.[39]

He led a coalition government supported by his own Democratic Party and the Christian democratic "Popular Area, composed of the "New Centre-Right and the "Centrists for Italy. This was the same majority that had supported Renzi's government for almost three years.[40] Meanwhile, the centrist "Liberal Popular Alliance (ALA), led by "Denis Verdini, did not support the new cabinet because no member of the ALA was appointed as a minister.[41]

On 13 December his cabinet won a confidence vote in the "Chamber of Deputies, with 368 votes for and 105 against, while the deputies of the "Five Star Movement and the "Lega Nord left the chamber.[42] On the following day the government also won a confidence vote in the "Senate of the Republic, with 169 votes for and 99 against.[43]

On 29 December deputy ministers of the Democratic Party, New Centre-Right, as well as the "Italian Socialist Party and "Solidary Democracy, were appointed. After the split of the "Democrats and Progressives from the Democratic Party, that party was presented by one deputy minister in the government.

On 19 July 2017 Gentiloni became "Minister of Regional Affairs ad interim, after the resignation of "Enrico Costa, member of "Popular Alternative, who often criticized Gentiloni's views and ideas, especially regarding immigration and "birthright citizenship.[44]

On 24 March 2018, following the elections of the presidents of the two houses of the "Italian Parliament, "Roberto Fico ("M5S) and "Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati ("FI), Gentiloni resigned his post to President Mattarella; however he will remain in office until a new cabinet will be formed.[45][46]

Immigration[edit]

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Paolo Gentiloni with French President "Emmanuel Macron in May 2017.

A major problem faced by Gentiloni upon becoming Prime Minister in 2016 was the high levels of "illegal immigration to Italy. On 2 February 2017, Gentiloni reached a deal in "Rome with Libyan "Chairman of the Presidential Council "Fayez al-Sarraj on halting migration. Libya agreed to try to stop migrants from setting out to cross the "Mediterranean Sea.[47] On 9 February, Gentiloni signed a similar deal with President of Tunisia "Beji Caid Essebsi, to prevent the migration across the Mediterranean.[48]

In December 2017, the Gentiloni announced the "peacekeeping mission which consists in the sending of 450 soldiers in "Niger, to help the local forces in the fight against migrants' traffickers and "Islamic terrorism.[49] The deal was reached along with French President "Emmanuel Macron, who stated that French troops, which were already in the area, will cooperate with Italian ones.[50][51]

Labour policies[edit]

In March 2017 the government abolished the use of labour "vouchers, bonds of the redeemable transaction type which are worth a certain "monetary value and which may be spent only for specific reasons or on specific goods, commonly one-off labour services.[52] The government decided to promote this law after a "referendum that was called by Italy's main trade union "CGIL.[53] Gentiloni stated that he decided to abolish them, because he did not want to split the country in another referendum, after the "December 2016 constitutional one.[54]

Social policies[edit]

On 19 May 2017, the Council of Ministers, on the proposal of Prime Minishter Gentiloni and Health Minister "Beatrice Lorenzin, approved a decree law containing urgent "vaccine prevention measures that reintroduces the mandatory vaccination, bringing the number of mandatory vaccines from 4 to 12 and not allowing those who have not been vaccinated to attend school.[55][56]

On 14 December 2017, the Parliament officially approved a law concerning the "advance healthcare directive, better known as "living will", a legal document in which a person specifies what actions should be taken for their health if they are no longer able to make decisions for themselves because of illness or incapacity. With this law, living will has become legal in "Italy.[57] The law also provided the refusal of end-of-life cares.[58] The bill was harshly opposed by many Christian democratic and social conservative politicians of "Forza Italia, "Lega Nord, "Brothers of Italy and even PD's ally "Popular Alternative, while it was supported by PD, "Five Star Movement, "Democratic and Progressive Movement and "Italian Left.[59]

The "Catholic Church, led by "Pope Francis, did not put up major objections to the living will law, saying that a balance needed to be struck with the prevention of excessive treatment or therapeutic obstinacy.[60]

Electoral law[edit]

After the rejection of the constitutional reform, the Parliament had to change the "electoral law proposed by Renzi's government; in fact the so-called Italicum regulates only the election of the Chamber of Deputies, and not the one of the Senate, which, if the reform passed, would be "indirectly elected by citizens. The PD proposed a new electoral law called "Mattarellum bis, better known as Rosatellum,[61] from the name of his main proponent Ettore Rosato, Democratic leader in the "Chamber of Deputies.[62] This electoral law was similar to the one which was applied in Italy from 1993 to 2005.[63]

The Rosatellum used an "additional member system, which act as a mixed system, with 36% of seats allocated using a "first past the post electoral system and 64% using a proportional method, with one round of voting. The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies did not differ in the way they allocated the proportional seats, both using the "D'Hondt method of allocating seats.[64][65] The new electoral law was supported by PD and his government ally "Popular Alternative, but also by the opposition parties "Forza Italia and "Lega Nord.[66]

Despite many protests from the "Five Star Movement and the "Democratic and Progressive Movement, which accused Renzi and Gentiloni to have used the "confidence vote in order to approve the law,[67] on 12 September the electoral law was approved by the Chamber of Deputies with 375 votes in favor and 215 against.[68]

2018 election[edit]

On 28 December 2017 President "Sergio Mattarella, after a meeting with Gentiloni, dissolved the Parliament, calling for new elections, which was held on March 4, 2018.[69] Gentiloni remains in office, with all his powers, until a new cabinet is formed.[70] In the election the centre-right alliance, in which "Matteo Salvini's "League emerged as the main political force, won a "plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate, while the anti-establishment "Five Star Movement led by "Luigi Di Maio became the party with the largest number of votes and the centre-left coalition, led by Renzi, came third.[71][72] However, due to the largely proportional electoral law, no political group or party won an outright majority, resulting in a "hung parliament.

In his electoral constituency in the "city centre of Rome, Gentiloni won with 42.06% of votes against the centre-right candidate Luciano Ciocchetti (30.85%) and the Five Star, Agiolino Cirulli, who gained 16.73%.[73]

Foreign policies[edit]

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Paolo Gentiloni with "U.S. President "Donald Trump in April 2017.

Gentiloni strongly supports "European integration and a "multispeed Europe.[74] During his premiership, Gentiloni faced several challenging foreign policy situations, such as the "European debt crisis, the "civil war in "Libya, the "insurgency of the "Islamic State (IS) in the "Middle East.

Gentiloni set up good relations with "Canadian Prime Minister "Justin Trudeau, "UK Prime Minister "Theresa May, "German Chancellor "Angela Merkel and "French President "Emmanuel Macron.[75]

As Prime Minister, he hosted the "43rd G7 summit in "Taormina, Sicily. This summit was the first one for him and also for "U.S. President "Donald Trump, Prime Minister May, and President Macron.[76] It was the first time since 1987 that the "G7 summit in Italy was not hosted by "Silvio Berlusconi.

Public image[edit]

According to public opinion surveys in December 2017, after one year of government, Gentiloni's approval rating was 44%, the second highest rating after that of President "Sergio Mattarella, and far higher than the other prominent politicians; moreover his approval rating has increased since he came into office.[77][78]

Health[edit]

On 10 January 2017, after an official trip in "Paris to meet President "François Hollande, Gentiloni suffered an obstructed "coronary artery and received an emergency "angioplasty.[79] On the following day Gentiloni tweeted that he felt well and would be back at work soon.[80] On the same day he also received the wishes from President "Sergio Mattarella, former Prime Ministers "Matteo Renzi and "Silvio Berlusconi, and Canadian Prime Minister "Justin Trudeau.[81]

Electoral history[edit]

2018 general election ("C): "Rome — "Trionfale
Candidate Party Votes %
Paolo Gentiloni "Centre-left coalition 47,737 42.1
Luciano Ciocchetti "Centre-right coalition 35,014 30.9
Angiolino Cirulli "Five Star Movement 19,987 16.7
Others 11,741 10.3
Total 113,479 100.0

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External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
"Mario Landolfi
"Minister of Communications
2006–2008
Succeeded by
"Claudio Scajola
as "Minister of Economic Development
Preceded by
"Federica Mogherini
"Minister of Foreign Affairs
2014–2016
Succeeded by
"Angelino Alfano
Preceded by
"Matteo Renzi
"Prime Minister of Italy
2016–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
"Enrico Costa
"Minister of Regional Affairs and Autonomies
Acting

2017–present
Preceded by
"Maurizio Martina
"Minister of Agricultural, Food
and Forestry Policies

Acting

2018–present
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
"Shinzō Abe
Chair of the "Group of Seven
2017
Succeeded by
"Justin Trudeau
Order of precedence
Preceded by
"Roberto Fico
as "President of the Chamber of Deputies
"Order of precedence of Italy
as Prime Minister
Succeeded by
"Giorgio Lattanzi
as "President of the Constitutional Court
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