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Main article: "2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference

At the conclusion of COP 21 (the 21st meeting of the Conference of the Parties, which guides the Conference), on 12 December 2015, the final wording of the Paris Agreement was adopted by consensus by all of the 195 UNFCCC participating member states and the European Union[3] to reduce emissions as part of the method for reducing greenhouse gas. In the 12 page Agreement,[53] the members promised to reduce their carbon output "as soon as possible" and to do their best to keep global warming "to well below 2 degrees C" [3.6 degrees F].[54]

Signature and entry into force[edit]

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Signing by "John Kerry in "United Nations General Assembly Hall for the United States

The Paris Agreement is open for signature by States and regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the UNFCCC (the Convention) from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017 at the UN Headquarters in New York.[55]

The agreement stated that it would enter into force (and thus become fully effective) only if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of "the world's greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list produced in 2015)[56] ratify, accept, approve or accede to the agreement.[57][58] On 1 April 2016, the United States and China, which together represent almost 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that both countries would sign the Paris Climate Agreement.[59][60] 175 Parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the treaty on the first date it was open for signature.[5][61] On the same day, more than 20 countries issued a statement of their intent to join as soon as possible with a view to joining in 2016. With ratification by the European Union, the Agreement obtained enough parties to enter into effect as of 4 November 2016.

European Union and its member states[edit]

Both the EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. A strong preference was reported that the EU and its 28 member states deposit their instruments of ratification at the same time to ensure that neither the EU nor its member states engage themselves to fulfilling obligations that strictly belong to the other,[62] and there were fears that disagreement over each individual member state's share of the EU-wide reduction target, as well as Britain's "vote to leave the EU might delay the Paris pact.[63] However, the European Parliament approved ratification of the Paris Agreement on 4 October 2016,[6] and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016, along with several individual EU member states.[63]

Parties and signatories[edit]

As of December 2016, 192 states and the European Union have signed the Agreement. 137 of those parties have ratified or acceded to the Agreement, most notably China, the United States and India, the countries with three of the four largest "greenhouse gas emissions of the signatories' total (about 42% together).[1][64][65]

Party or signatory[1] Percentage of greenhouse
gases for ratification[56]
Date of signature Date of deposit of instruments
of ratification or accession
Date when agreement
enters into force
 "Afghanistan 0.05% 22 April 2016 15 February 2017 17 March 2017
 "Albania 0.02% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Algeria 0.30% 22 April 2016 20 October 2016 19 November 2016
 "Andorra 0.00% 22 April 2016
 "Angola 0.17% 22 April 2016
 "Antigua and Barbuda 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Argentina 0.89% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Armenia 0.02% 20 September 2016
 "Australia 1.46% 22 April 2016 9 November 2016 9 December 2016
 "Austria 0.21% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Azerbaijan 0.13% 22 April 2016 9 January 2017 8 February 2017
 "Bahamas, The 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 August 2016 4 November 2016
 "Bahrain 0.06% 22 April 2016 23 December 2016 22 January 2017
 "Bangladesh 0.27% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Barbados 0.01% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Belarus 0.24% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Belgium 0.32% 22 April 2016
 "Belize 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Benin 0.02% 22 April 2016 31 October 2016 30 November 2016
 "Bhutan 0.00% 22 April 2016
 "Bolivia 0.12% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.08% 22 April 2016 16 March 2017 15 April 2017
 "Botswana 0.02% 22 April 2016 11 November 2016 11 December 2016
 "Brazil 2.48% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Brunei [a] 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Bulgaria 0.15% 22 April 2016 29 November 2016 29 December 2016
 "Burkina Faso 0.06% 22 April 2016 11 November 2016 11 December 2016
 "Burundi 0.07% 22 April 2016
 "Cambodia 0.03% 22 April 2016 6 February 2017 8 March 2017
 "Cameroon 0.45% 22 April 2016 29 July 2016 4 November 2016
 "Canada 1.95% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Cape Verde 0.00% 22 April 2016
 "Central African Republic 0.01% 22 April 2016 11 October 2016 10 November 2016
 "Chad 0.06% 22 April 2016 12 January 2017 11 February 2017
 "Chile[66] 0.25% 20 September 2016 10 February 2017 12 March 2017
 "China 20.09% 22 April 2016 3 September 2016[64][67] 4 November 2016
 "Colombia 0.41% 22 April 2016
 "Comoros 0.00% 22 April 2016 23 November 2016 23 December 2016
 "Congo, Democratic Republic of the 0.06% 22 April 2016
 "Congo, Republic of the 0.01% 22 April 2016
 "Cook Islands 0.00% 24 June 2016 1 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Costa Rica 0.03% 22 April 2016 13 October 2016 12 November 2016
 "Côte d'Ivoire 0.73% 22 April 2016 25 October 2016 24 November 2016
 "Croatia 0.07% 22 April 2016
 "Cuba 0.10% 22 April 2016 28 December 2016 27 January 2017
 "Cyprus 0.02% 22 April 2016 4 January 2017 3 February 2017
 "Czech Republic 0.34% 22 April 2016
 "Denmark[68] 0.15% 22 April 2016 1 November 2016 1 December 2016
 "Djibouti 0.00% 22 April 2016 11 November 2016 11 December 2016
 "Dominica 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Dominican Republic 0.07% 22 April 2016
 "East Timor 0.00% 22 April 2016
 "Ecuador 0.67% 26 July 2016
 "Egypt 0.52% 22 April 2016
 "El Salvador 0.03% 22 April 2016
 "Equatorial Guinea [a] 22 April 2016
 "Eritrea 0.01% 22 April 2016
 "Estonia 0.06% 22 April 2016 4 November 2016 4 December 2016
 "Ethiopia 0.13% 22 April 2016 9 March 2017 8 April 2017
 "European Union [b] 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Fiji 0.01% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Finland 0.17% 22 April 2016 14 November 2016 14 December 2016
 "France 1.34% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Gabon 0.02% 22 April 2016 2 November 2016 2 December 2016
 "Gambia, The 0.05% 26 April 2016 7 November 2016 7 December 2016
 "Georgia 0.03% 22 April 2016
 "Germany 2.56% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Ghana 0.09% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Greece 0.28% 22 April 2016 14 October 2016 13 November 2016
 "Grenada 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Guatemala 0.04% 22 April 2016 25 January 2017 24 February 2017
 "Guinea 0.01% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Guinea-Bissau 0.02% 22 April 2016
 "Guyana 0.01% 22 April 2016 20 May 2016 4 November 2016
 "Haiti 0.02% 22 April 2016
 "Honduras 0.03% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Hungary 0.15% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Iceland 0.01% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "India 4.10% 22 April 2016 2 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Indonesia 1.49% 22 April 2016 31 October 2016 30 November 2016
 "Iran 1.30% 22 April 2016
 "Iraq 0.20% 8 December 2016
 "Ireland 0.16% 22 April 2016 4 November 2016 4 December 2016
 "Israel 0.20% 22 April 2016 22 November 2016 22 December 2016
 "Italy 1.18% 22 April 2016 11 November 2016 11 December 2016
 "Jamaica 0.04% 22 April 2016
 "Japan 3.79% 22 April 2016 8 November 2016 8 December 2016
 "Jordan 0.07% 22 April 2016 4 November 2016 4 December 2016
 "Kazakhstan 0.84% 2 August 2016 6 December 2016 5 January 2017
 "Kenya 0.06% 22 April 2016 28 December 2016 27 January 2017
 "Kiribati 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Korea, North 0.23% 22 April 2016 1 August 2016 4 November 2016
 "Korea, South 1.85% 22 April 2016 3 November 2016 3 December 2016
 "Kuwait 0.09% 22 April 2016
 "Kyrgyzstan 0.03% 21 September 2016
 "Laos 0.02% 22 April 2016 7 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Latvia 0.03% 22 April 2016 16 March 2017 15 April 2017
 "Lebanon 0.07% 22 April 2016
 "Lesotho 0.01% 22 April 2016 20 January 2017 19 February 2017
 "Liberia 0.02% 22 April 2016
 "Libya [a] 22 April 2016
 "Liechtenstein 0.00% 22 April 2016
 "Lithuania 0.05% 22 April 2016 2 February 2017 4 March 2017
 "Luxembourg 0.03% 22 April 2016 4 November 2016 4 December 2016
 "Macedonia, Republic of 0.03% 22 April 2016
 "Madagascar 0.08% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Malawi 0.07% 20 September 2016
 "Malaysia 0.52% 22 April 2016 16 November 2016 16 December 2016
 "Maldives 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Mali 0.03% 22 April 2016 23 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Malta 0.01% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Marshall Islands 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Mauritania 0.02% 22 April 2016 27 February 2017 29 March 2017
 "Mauritius 0.01% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Mexico 1.70% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Micronesia 0.00% 22 April 2016 15 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Moldova 0.04% 21 September 2016
 "Monaco 0.00% 22 April 2016 24 October 2016 23 November 2016
 "Mongolia 0.05% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Montenegro 0.01% 22 April 2016
 "Morocco 0.16% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Mozambique 0.02% 22 April 2016
 "Myanmar 0.10% 22 April 2016
 "Namibia 0.01% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Nauru 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
   "Nepal 0.07% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Netherlands 0.53% 22 April 2016
 "New Zealand[69] 0.22% 22 April 2016 4 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Niger 0.04% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Nigeria 0.57% 22 September 2016
 "Niue 0.01% 28 October 2016 28 October 2016 27 November 2016
 "Norway 0.14% 22 April 2016 20 June 2016 4 November 2016
 "Oman 0.06% 22 April 2016
 "Pakistan 0.43% 22 April 2016 10 November 2016 10 December 2016
 "Palau 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Palestine [c] 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Panama 0.03% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Papua New Guinea 0.01% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Paraguay 0.06% 22 April 2016 14 October 2016 13 November 2016
 "Peru 0.22% 22 April 2016 25 July 2016 4 November 2016
 "Philippines 0.34% 22 April 2016
 "Poland 1.06% 22 April 2016 7 October 2016 6 November 2016
 "Portugal 0.18% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Qatar 0.17% 22 April 2016
 "Romania 0.30% 22 April 2016
 "Russia 7.53% 22 April 2016
 "Rwanda 0.02% 22 April 2016 6 October 2016 5 November 2016
 "Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Saint Lucia 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.00% 22 April 2016 29 June 2016 4 November 2016
 "Samoa 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "San Marino 0.00% 22 April 2016
 "São Tomé and Príncipe 0.00% 22 April 2016 2 November 2016 2 December 2016
 "Saudi Arabia 0.80% 3 November 2016 3 November 2016 3 December 2016
 "Senegal 0.05% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Serbia 0.18% 22 April 2016
 "Seychelles 0.00% 25 April 2016 29 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Sierra Leone 0.98%† 22 September 2016 1 November 2016 1 December 2016
 "Singapore 0.13% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Slovakia 0.12% 22 April 2016 5 October 2016 4 November 2016
 "Slovenia 0.05% 22 April 2016 16 December 2016 15 January 2017
 "Solomon Islands 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Somalia [a] 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "South Africa 1.46% 22 April 2016 1 November 2016 1 December 2016
 "South Sudan [a] 22 April 2016
 "Spain 0.87% 22 April 2016 12 January 2017 11 February 2017
 "Sri Lanka 0.05% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Sudan 0.18% 22 April 2016
 "Suriname 0.01% 22 April 2016
 "Swaziland 0.05% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Sweden 0.15% 22 April 2016 13 October 2016 12 November 2016
  "Switzerland 0.14% 22 April 2016
 "Tajikistan 0.02% 22 April 2016 22 March 2017 21 April 2017
 "Tanzania 0.11% 22 April 2016
 "Thailand 0.64% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Togo 0.02% 19 September 2016
 "Tonga 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Trinidad and Tobago 0.04% 22 April 2016
 "Tunisia 0.11% 22 April 2016 10 February 2017 12 March 2017
 "Turkey 1.24% 22 April 2016
 "Turkmenistan 0.20% 23 September 2016 20 October 2016 19 November 2016
 "Tuvalu 0.00% 22 April 2016 22 April 2016 4 November 2016
 "Uganda 0.07% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Ukraine 1.04% 22 April 2016 19 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "United Arab Emirates 0.53% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "United Kingdom 1.55% 22 April 2016 18 November 2016 18 December 2016
 "United States 17.89% 22 April 2016 3 September 2016[64] 4 November 2016
 "Uruguay 0.05% 22 April 2016 19 October 2016 18 November 2016
 "Vanuatu 0.00% 22 April 2016 21 September 2016 4 November 2016
 "Venezuela 0.52% 22 April 2016
 "Vietnam 0.72% 22 April 2016 3 November 2016 3 December 2016
 "Yemen 0.07% 23 September 2016
 "Zambia 0.04% 20 September 2016 9 December 2016 8 January 2017
 "Zimbabwe 0.18% 22 April 2016
Total 99.21% 194 137[1] (82.16% of global emissions[56])

† Though corresponding with the source the provided number for Sierra Leone's emissions is incorrect. According to World Bank data, the correct 2000 emissions for Sierra Leone is 14,763 kt CO2-equivalents (not 365,107 kt), or 0.04% of the world total (not 0.98%).[71]

Non-signatories

The following "UNFCCC member states are entitled to sign the Paris Agreement but have not done so.

Critical reception[edit]

UNEP[edit]

According to "UNEP the emission cut targets in November 2016 will result in temperature rise by 3 °C above pre-industrial levels, far above the 2 °C of the Paris climate agreement.[72]

Perfectible accord[edit]

"Al Gore stated that "no agreement is perfect, and this one must be strengthened over time, but groups across every sector of society will now begin to reduce dangerous carbon pollution through the framework of this agreement."[73]

According to a study published in "Nature in June 2016, current country pledges are too low to lead to a temperature rise below the Paris Agreement temperature limit of "well below 2 °C".[74][75]

Lack of binding enforcement mechanism[edit]

Although the agreement was lauded by many, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon,[58] criticism has also surfaced. For example, "James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and a climate change expert, voiced anger that most of the agreement consists of "promises" or aims and not firm commitments.[76]

Institutional asset owners associations and think-tanks such as the "World Pensions Council (WPC) have also observed that the stated objectives of the Paris Agreement are implicitly "predicated upon an assumption – that member states of the United Nations, including high polluters such as China, the US, India, Brazil, Canada, Russia, Indonesia and Australia, which generate more than half the world’s greenhouse gas emissions, will somehow drive down their carbon pollution voluntarily and assiduously without any binding enforcement mechanism to measure and control CO2 emissions at any level from factory to state, and without any specific penalty gradation or fiscal pressure (for example a carbon tax) to discourage bad behaviour. A shining example of what Roman lawyers called circular logic: an agreement (or argument) presupposing in advance what it wants to achieve."[77]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Emissions of parties to the UNFCCC that had not yet submitted their first national communication to the UNFCCC secretariat with an emissions inventory at the time of adoption of the Paris Agreement were not included in the figure for entry into force of the Agreement.[56]
  2. ^ The emissions of the European Union are accounted for in the total of its individual member states.
  3. ^ Emissions of states that were not a party to the UNFCCC at the time of adoption of the Paris Agreement,[70] which were thus not permitted to sign the Agreement, were not included in the totals for entry into force for the Agreement.

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

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