See more Philadelphia articles on AOD.

Powered by
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia

( => ( => ( => Philadelphia [pageid] => 50585 ) =>
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
"Consolidated city-county
City of Philadelphia
""Liberty Bell and Independence Hall ""City Hall
""Museum of Art ""Elfreth's Alley
""College Hall, University of Pennsylvania ""paifang in Chinatown
""SS United States ""Ben Franklin Bridge
""Flag of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
""Official seal of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Etymology: "Greek: philos (love) and adelphos (brother)
Nickname(s): "Philly", "City of Brotherly Love", "The "Athens of America"[1] "more...
Motto(s): "Philadelphia maneto" ("Let brotherly love endure" or "... continue")[2][3]
""Location of Philadelphia in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania.
Location of Philadelphia in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania.
""Philadelphia is located in Pennsylvania
Location in the United States
""Philadelphia is located in the US
Philadelphia (the US)
Coordinates: 40°00′34″N 75°08′00″W / 40.009376°N 75.133346°W / 40.009376; -75.133346"Coordinates: 40°00′34″N 75°08′00″W / 40.009376°N 75.133346°W / 40.009376; -75.133346
"Country  "United States
"Commonwealth  "Pennsylvania
"County "Philadelphia
Historic countries  "Kingdom of England
 "Kingdom of Great Britain
"Historic colony "Province of Pennsylvania
Founded October 27, 1682
"Incorporated October 25, 1701
Founded by "William Penn
 • Type "Mayor–Council
 • Body "Philadelphia City Council
 • "Mayor "Jim Kenney ("D)
 • "Consolidated city-county "142.71 sq mi (369.62 km2)
 • Land 134.18 sq mi (347.52 km2)
 • Water 8.53 sq mi (22.09 km2)
Elevation 39 ft (12 m)
Population (2016)[7]
 • "Consolidated city-county 1,567,872
 • Estimate (2016)[8] 1,567,872
 • Rank US: "6th
 • Density 11,685.02/sq mi (4,511.61/km2)
 • "Metro 6,069,875 (US: "7th)[5]
 • "CSA 7,183,479 (US: "8th)[6]
 • "Demonym Philadelphian
"Time zone "EST ("UTC-5)
 • Summer ("DST) "EDT ("UTC-4)
"ZIP code 19092-19093, 19099, 191xx
"Area code(s) "215, 267, 445
"FIPS code 42-60000
"GNIS feature ID 1215531[9]

Philadelphia ("/ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə/) is the largest city in the "Commonwealth of "Pennsylvania and the "sixth-most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 1,567,872[7] and more than 6 million in the "seventh-largest metropolitan statistical area, as of 2016.[5] Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the "Delaware Valley, located along the lower "Delaware and "Schuylkill Rivers, within both the "Mid-Atlantic region and the "Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the "eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.[6]

"William Penn, an English "Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the "Pennsylvania Colony.[10] Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the "American Revolution as a meeting place for the "Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the "Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the "Second Continental Congress, and the "Constitution at the "Philadelphia Convention of 1787. Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the "Revolutionary War including the "First Continental Congress, the preservation of the "Liberty Bell, the "Battle of Germantown, and the "Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's "capitals during the revolution, and served as temporary U.S. capital while "Washington, D.C., was under construction. In the "19th century, Philadelphia became a major industrial center and a railroad hub. The city grew from an influx of European "immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland, Italy and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015.[11] In the early "20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for "African Americans during the "Great Migration after the "Civil War,[12] as well as "Puerto Ricans.[13] The city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950.

The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub.[14][15] According to the "Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a "gross domestic product of US$431 billion in 2016, the "eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.[16] Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five "Fortune 1000 companies. The "Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016,[17] including several nationally prominent "skyscrapers.[18] Philadelphia has more outdoor "sculptures and "murals than any other American city.[19][20] "Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent "Wissahickon Valley Park in the same "watershed, is one of the largest contiguous "urban park areas in the United States.[21] The city is known for its arts, culture, and "colonial history which attracted 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent $6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania.[22] Philadelphia has also emerged as a "biotechnology hub.[23]

Philadelphia is the birthplace of the "United States Marine Corps,[24][25] and is also the home of many U.S. "firsts, including the first "library (1731),[26] "hospital (1751),[26] "medical school (1765),[27] "national capital (1774),[28] "stock exchange (1790),[26] "zoo (1874),[29] and "business school (1881).[30] Philadelphia contains 67 "National Historic Landmarks and is the only "World Heritage City in the United States.[31]


An 18th-century map of Philadelphia, circa 1752

Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the "Lenape (Delaware) "Indians in the village of "Shackamaxon. The Lenape are a Native American tribe and "First Nations "band government.[32] They are also called Delaware Indians,[33] and their historical territory was along the "Delaware River "watershed, western "Long Island, and the "Lower Hudson Valley.[a] Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts.[33] Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly "smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. "Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper "Ohio River basin. The "American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the "eastern United States to the "Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma and surrounding territory) under the "Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in "Oklahoma, with some communities living also in "Wisconsin, "Ontario (Canada) and their traditional homelands.

Europeans came to the "Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built "Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the "Schuylkill River in what is now "Brooklawn, New Jersey. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their "New Netherland colony. In 1638, "Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of "New Sweden at "Fort Christina (present-day Wilmington, Delaware) and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the "Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built "Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day "Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area. The Swedes responded by building "Fort Nya Korsholm, or New "Korsholm, after a town in "Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a Dutch military campaign led by New Netherland Director-General "Peter Stuyvesant took control of the Swedish colony, ending its claim to independence. The Swedish and Finnish settlers continued to have their own militia, religion, and court, and to enjoy substantial autonomy under the Dutch. The English conquered the New Netherland colony in 1664, though the situation did not change substantially until 1682 when the area was included in "William Penn's charter for Pennsylvania.

In 1681, in partial repayment of a debt, "Charles II of England granted Penn a "charter for what would become the "Pennsylvania colony. Despite the royal charter, Penn bought the land from the local Lenape to be on good terms with the Native Americans and ensure peace for his colony.[34] Penn made a treaty of friendship with Lenape chief "Tammany under an elm tree at "Shackamaxon, in what is now the city's "Fishtown neighborhood.[35] Penn named the city Philadelphia, which is "Greek for brotherly love (from philos, "love" or "friendship", and adelphos, "brother"). As a "Quaker, Penn had experienced religious persecution and wanted his colony to be a place where anyone could worship freely. This tolerance, far more than afforded by most other colonies, led to better relations with the local native tribes and fostered Philadelphia's rapid growth into America's most important city.[36]


Penn planned a city on the Delaware River to serve as a port and place for government. Hoping that Philadelphia would become more like an English rural town instead of a city, Penn laid out roads on a "grid plan to keep houses and businesses spread far apart, with areas for gardens and orchards. The city's inhabitants did not follow Penn's plans, however, as they crowded by the Delaware River port, and subdivided and resold their lots.[37] Before Penn left Philadelphia for the last time, he issued the Charter of 1701 establishing it as a city. Though poor at first, the city became an important trading center with tolerable living conditions by the 1750s. "Benjamin Franklin, a leading citizen, helped improve city services and founded new ones, such as fire protection, a library, and one of the American colonies' first hospitals.

A number of philosophical societies were formed, which were centers of the city's intellectual life: the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture (1785), the Pennsylvania Society for the Encouragement of Manufactures and the Useful Arts (1787), the "Academy of Natural Sciences (1812), and the "Franklin Institute (1824).[38] These societies developed and financed new industries, attracting skilled and knowledgeable immigrants from Europe.

Philadelphia's importance and central location in the colonies made it a natural center for "America's revolutionaries. By the 1750s, Philadelphia had surpassed "Boston to become the largest city and busiest port in "British America, and second in the British Empire after "London.[39][40] The city hosted the "First Continental Congress (1774) before the Revolutionary War; the "Second Continental Congress (1775–76),[41] which signed the "United States Declaration of Independence, during the war; and the "Constitutional Convention (1787) after the war. "Several battles were fought in and near Philadelphia as well.

"President's House – the presidential mansion of George Washington and John Adams, 1790–1800

Philadelphia served as the temporary capital of the United States while the new capital was under construction in the "District of Columbia from 1790 to 1800.[42] In 1793, the largest "yellow fever epidemic in U.S. history killed approximately 4,000 to 5,000 people in Philadelphia, or about 10% of the city's population.[43][44]

The state capital was moved to "Lancaster in 1799, then "Harrisburg in 1812, while the federal government was moved to Washington, D.C. in 1800 upon completion of the "White House and "U.S. Capitol building. The city remained the young nation's largest until the late "18th century, being both a financial and a cultural center for America. In 1816, the city's free black community founded the "African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), the first independent black denomination in the country, and the first black Episcopal Church. The free black community also established many schools for its children, with the help of Quakers. "New York City surpassed Philadelphia in population by 1790. Large-scale construction projects for new roads, "canals, and "railroads made Philadelphia the first major "industrial city in the United States.

Throughout the "19th century, Philadelphia hosted a variety of industries and businesses, the largest being "textiles. Major corporations in the 19th and early "20th centuries included the "Baldwin Locomotive Works, "William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company, and the "Pennsylvania Railroad.[45] Industry, along with the U.S. Centennial, was celebrated in 1876 with the "Centennial Exposition, the first official "World's Fair in the United States.

Immigrants, mostly from "Ireland and "Germany, settled in Philadelphia and the surrounding districts. These immigrants were largely responsible for the "first general strike in North America in 1835, in which workers in the city won the ten-hour workday. The city was a destination for thousands of Irish immigrants fleeing the "Great Famine in the 1840s; housing for them was developed south of "South Street and later occupied by succeeding immigrants. They established a network of "Catholic churches and schools and dominated the Catholic clergy for decades. Anti-Irish, anti-Catholic "nativist "riots erupted in Philadelphia in 1844. The rise in population of the surrounding districts helped lead to the "Act of Consolidation of 1854, which extended the city limits from the 2 square miles (5.2 km2) of "Center City to the roughly 134 square miles (350 km2) of "Philadelphia County.[46][47] In the latter half of the century, immigrants from "Russia, "Eastern Europe and "Italy, and "African Americans from the "southern U.S. settled in the city.[48]

Philadelphia was represented by the "Washington Grays in the "American Civil War. The African-American population of Philadelphia increased from 31,699 to 219,559 between 1880 and 1930.[49][50] Twentieth-century black newcomers were part of the "Great Migration out of the rural south to northern and midwestern industrial cities.

By the 20th century, Philadelphia had become known as "corrupt and contented", with an entrenched "Republican "political machine and a complacent population.[52] The first major reform came in 1917 when outrage over the election-year murder of a police officer led to the shrinking of the "City Council from two houses to just one.[53] In July 1919, Philadelphia was one of more than 36 industrial cities nationally to suffer a race riot of ethnic whites against blacks during "Red Summer, in post-World War I unrest, as recent immigrants competed with blacks for jobs. In the 1920s, the public flouting of "Prohibition laws, "organized crime, mob violence, and police involvement in illegal activities led to the appointment of "Brig. Gen. "Smedley Butler of the "U.S. Marine Corps as director of public safety, but political pressure prevented any long-term success in fighting crime and corruption.[54]

In 1940, "non-Hispanic whites constituted 86.8% of the city's population.[55] The population peaked at more than two million residents in 1950, then began to decline with the restructuring of industry, which led to the loss of many middle-class union jobs. In addition, "suburbanization had enticed many of the more affluent residents to outlying railroad commuting towns and newer housing. The resulting reduction in Philadelphia's tax base and the resources of local government caused the city to struggle through a long period of adjustment, with it approaching bankruptcy by the late 1980s.[56][57] Revitalization and "gentrification of neighborhoods began in the late 1970s and continues into the 21st century, with much of the development occurring in the "Center City and "University City neighborhoods. After many of the old manufacturers and businesses left Philadelphia or shut down, the city started attracting service businesses and began to market itself more aggressively as a tourist destination. Glass-and-granite skyscrapers were built in Center City beginning in the 1980s. Historic areas such as "Old City and "Society Hill were renovated during the reformist mayoral era of the 1950s through the 1980s, making those areas among the most desirable neighborhoods in Center City. These developments have begun a reversal of the city's population decline between 1950 and 2000 during which it lost about one-quarter of its residents.[58][59] The city eventually began experiencing a growth in its population in 2007, which has continued with gradual yearly increases to the present.[60][7]


"Landsat simulated-color image of Philadelphia and the Delaware River


The geographic center of Philadelphia is located approximately at 40° 0′ 34″ north latitude and 75° 8′ 0″ west longitude. The "40th parallel north passes through neighborhoods in "Northeast Philadelphia, "North Philadelphia, and "West Philadelphia including "Fairmount Park. The city encompasses 142.71 square miles (369.62 km2), of which 134.18 square miles (347.52 km2) is land and 8.53 square miles (22.09 km2), or 6%, is water.[4] Natural bodies of water include the "Delaware and "Schuylkill rivers, the lakes in "Franklin Delano Roosevelt Park, and "Cobbs, "Wissahickon, and "Pennypack creeks. The largest artificial body of water is the East Park Reservoir in Fairmount Park.

The lowest point is 10 feet (3 m) above sea level, while the highest point is in "Chestnut Hill, about 445 feet (136 m) above "sea level near the intersection of "Germantown Avenue and "Bethlehem Pike.[61]

Philadelphia is situated on the "Fall Line that separates the "Atlantic coastal plain from the "Piedmont.[62] The rapids on the Schuylkill River at "East Falls were inundated by the completion of the dam at the "Fairmount Water Works.[63]

The city is the seat of "its own county. The adjacent counties are "Montgomery to the northwest; "Bucks to the north and northeast; "Burlington County, New Jersey, to the east; "Camden County, New Jersey, to the southeast; "Gloucester County, New Jersey, to the south; and "Delaware County to the southwest.


Panoramic view of the "Center City skyline, viewed across the "Delaware River from the east in "Camden, "New Jersey with the "Comcast Center and the "spired "One Liberty Place, the two tallest "skyscrapers in 2008
Skyline at twilight from the southwest on the "South Street Bridge, 2016 (annotated version)
Skyline at night from the northwest on the "Spring Garden Street Bridge with "Comcast Technology Center toward left with crane on roof, 2017 (annotated version)

City planning[edit]

A Portraiture of the City of Philadelphia, by "Thomas Holme – the first map of Philadelphia, ca. 1683

Philadelphia's central city was created in the 17th century following the plan by "William Penn's surveyor "Thomas Holme. "Center City is structured with long straight streets running nearly due east-west and north-south, forming a grid pattern between the "Delaware and "Schuylkill rivers that is aligned with their courses. The original city plan was designed to allow for easy travel and to keep residences separated by open space that would help prevent the spread of fire.[64] Penn planned the creation of five public parks in the city which were renamed in 1824[64] (new names in parenthesis): Centre Square (Penn Square),[65] Northeast Square ("Franklin Square), Southeast Square ("Washington Square), Southwest Square ("Rittenhouse Square), and Northwest Square ("Logan Circle/Square).[66] Center City had an estimated 183,240 residents as of 2015, making it the second-most populated downtown area in the United States, after "Midtown Manhattan in New York City.[67]

Philadelphia's neighborhoods are divided into large sections—"North, "Northeast, "South, "Southwest Philadelphia, "West, and "Northwest—surrounding Center City, which corresponds closely with the city's limits before consolidation in 1854. Each of these large areas contains numerous neighborhoods, some of whose boundaries derive from the boroughs, townships, and other communities that constituted Philadelphia County before their inclusion within the city.[68]

The "City Planning Commission, tasked with guiding growth and development of the city, has divided the city into 18 planning districts as part of the Philadelphia2035 physical development plan.[69][70] Much of the city's 1980 zoning code was overhauled from 2007 to 2012 as part of a joint effort between former mayors "John F. Street and "Michael Nutter. The zoning changes were intended to rectify incorrect zoning maps in order to facilitate future community development, as the city forecasts an additional 100,000 residents and 40,000 jobs will be added by 2035.

The "Philadelphia Housing Authority is the largest landlord in Pennsylvania. Established in 1937, it is the nation's fourth-largest housing authority, housing about 84,000 people and employing 1,250. In 2013, its budget was $371 million.[71] The "Philadelphia Parking Authority works to ensure adequate parking for city residents, businesses and visitors.[72]



Philadelphia's architectural history dates back to "colonial times and includes a wide range of styles. The earliest structures were constructed with "logs, but brick structures were common by 1700. During the 18th century, the "cityscape was dominated by "Georgian architecture, including "Independence Hall and "Christ Church.

In the first decades of the 19th century, "Federal and "Greek Revival architecture were the dominant styles produced by Philadelphia architects such as "Benjamin Latrobe, "William Strickland, "John Haviland, "John Notman, "Thomas Walter, and "Samuel Sloan.[74] "Frank Furness is considered Philadelphia's greatest architect of the second half of the 19th century. His contemporaries included "John McArthur Jr., "Addison Hutton, "Wilson Eyre, the "Wilson Brothers, and "Horace Trumbauer. In 1871, construction began on the "Second Empire-style "Philadelphia City Hall. The "Philadelphia Historical Commission was created in 1955 to preserve the cultural and architectural history of the city. The commission maintains the "Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, adding historic buildings, structures, sites, objects and districts as it sees fit.[75]

In 1932, Philadelphia became home to the first modern "International Style skyscraper in the United States, the "PSFS Building, designed by "George Howe and "William Lescaze. The 548 ft (167 m) City Hall remained the tallest building in the city until 1987 when "One Liberty Place was completed. Numerous glass and granite skyscrapers were built in Center City beginning in the late 1980s. In 2007, the "Comcast Center surpassed One Liberty Place to become the city's tallest building. The "Comcast Technology Center is under construction in Center City with an expected completion in 2018. The new tower will reach a height of 1,121 ft (342 m), and will be the "tallest building in the United States outside of Manhattan and Chicago.[18]

For much of Philadelphia's history, the typical home has been the "row house. The row house was introduced to the United States via Philadelphia in the early 19th century and, for a time, row houses built elsewhere in the United States were known as "Philadelphia rows".[74] A variety of row houses are found throughout the city, from Federal-style continuous blocks in "Old City and "Society Hill to Victorian-style homes in "North Philadelphia to twin row houses in "West Philadelphia. While newer homes have been built recently, much of the housing dates to the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, which has created problems such as "urban decay and vacant lots. Some neighborhoods, including "Northern Liberties and "Society Hill, have been rehabilitated through "gentrification.[76][77]


Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Climate chart ("explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

According to the "Köppen climate classification, Philadelphia falls under the northern periphery of the "humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen Cfa),[79] whereas according to the "Trewartha climate classification, the city has a "temperate "maritime climate (Do).[80] Summers are typically hot and muggy, fall and spring are generally mild, and winter is moderately cold. The "plant life "hardiness zones are 7a and 7b, representing an average annual extreme minimum temperature between 0 °F (−18 °C) and 10 °F (−12 °C).[81]

Snowfall is highly variable with some winters having only light snow while others include major snowstorms. The normal seasonal snowfall averages 22.4 in (57 cm), with rare snowfalls in November or April, and rarely any sustained snow cover.[82] Seasonal snowfall accumulation has ranged from trace amounts in 1972–73 to 78.7 inches (200 cm) in the winter of 2009–10.[82][b] The city's "heaviest single-storm snowfall was 30.7 in (78 cm) which occurred in January 1996.[83]

Precipitation is generally spread throughout the year, with eight to eleven wet days per month,[84] at an average annual rate of 41.5 inches (1,050 mm), but historically ranging from 29.31 in (744 mm) in 1922 to 64.33 in (1,634 mm) in 2011.[82] The most rain recorded in one day occurred on July 28, 2013 when 8.02 in (204 mm) fell at "Philadelphia International Airport.[82] Philadelphia has a moderately sunny climate with an average of 2,500 "hours of sunshine annually, and a percentage of sunshine ranging from 47% in December to 61% in June, July, and August.[85]

The January daily average temperature is 33.0 °F (0.6 °C),[86] though the temperature frequently rises to 50 °F (10 °C) during thaws and dips to 10 °F (−12 °C) for 2 or 3 nights in a normal winter.[86] July averages 78.1 °F (25.6 °C),[86] although heat waves accompanied by high humidity and "heat indices are frequent, with highs reaching or exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) on 27 days of the year. The average window for freezing temperatures is November 6 thru April 2,[82] allowing a growing season of 217 days. Early fall and late winter are generally dry with February having the lowest average precipitation at 2.64 inches (67 mm). The dewpoint in the summer averages between 59.1 °F (15 °C) and 64.5 °F (18 °C).[82]

The highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on August 7, 1918, but temperatures at or above 100 °F (38 °C) are not common.[87][c] The lowest officially recorded temperature was −11 °F (−24 °C) on February 9, 1934.[87] Temperatures at or below 0 °F (−18 °C) are rare with the last such occurrence being "January 19, 1994.[82] The record low maximum is 5 °F (−15 °C) on February 10, 1899, and December 30, 1880, while the record high minimum is 83 °F (28 °C) on July 23, 2011, and July 24, 2010.

Air quality[edit]

Philadelphia County received an "ozone grade of F and a 24-hour "particle pollution rating of D in the "American Lung Association's 2017 State of the Air report, which analyzed data from 2013–15.[90][91] The city was ranked 22nd for ozone, 20th for short-term particle pollution, and 11th for year-round particle pollution.[92] According to the same report, the city experienced a significant reduction in high ozone days since 2001—from nearly 50 days per year to fewer than 10—along with fewer days of high particle pollution since 2000—from about 19 days per year to about 3—and an approximate 30% reduction in annual levels of particle pollution since 2000.[91] Five of the ten largest "combined statistical areas (CSAs) were ranked higher for ozone: "Los Angeles (1st), "New York City (9th), "Houston (12th), "Dallas (13th), and "San Jose (18th). Many smaller CSAs were also ranked higher for ozone including "Sacramento (8th), "Las Vegas (10th), "Denver (11th), "El Paso (16th), and "Salt Lake City (20th); however, only two of those same ten CSAs—San Jose and Los Angeles—were ranked higher than Philadelphia for both year-round and short-term particle pollution.[92]


Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1683 600 —    
1731 12,000 +1900.0%
"1790 28,522 +137.7%
"1800 41,220 +44.5%
"1810 53,722 +30.3%
"1820 63,802 +18.8%
"1830 80,462 +26.1%
"1840 93,665 +16.4%
"1850 121,376 +29.6%
"1860 565,529 +365.9%
"1870 674,022 +19.2%
"1880 847,170 +25.7%
"1890 1,046,964 +23.6%
"1900 1,293,697 +23.6%
"1910 1,549,008 +19.7%
"1920 1,823,779 +17.7%
"1930 1,950,961 +7.0%
"1940 1,931,334 −1.0%
"1950 2,071,605 +7.3%
"1960 2,002,512 −3.3%
"1970 1,948,609 −2.7%
"1980 1,688,210 −13.4%
"1990 1,585,577 −6.1%
"2000 1,517,550 −4.3%
"2010 1,526,006 +0.6%
2016 1,567,872 +2.7%
Populations for City of Philadelphia, not for Philadelphia County. Population for Philadelphia County was 54,388 (including 42,520 urban) in 1790; 81,009 (including 69,403 urban) in 1800; 111,210 (including 91,874 urban) in 1810; 137,097 (including 112,772 urban) in 1820; 188,797 (including 161,410 urban) in 1830; 258,037 (including 220,423 urban) in 1840; and 408,762 (including 340,045 urban) in 1850. Under "Act of Consolidation, 1854, City of Philadelphia absorbed the various districts, boroughs, townships, other suburbs, and remaining rural area in Philadelphia County as the consolidated City and County of Philadelphia.
Source: [7][93][94][95][96][97]

According to the 2016 "United States Census Bureau estimate, there were 1,567,872 people residing in Philadelphia, representing a 2.7% increase from the 2010 census.[7] After the "1950 Census, when a record high of 2,071,605 was recorded, the city's population began a long decline. The population dropped to a low of 1,488,710 residents in 2006 before beginning to rise again. From 2006 to 2016, Philadelphia added 79,162 residents. In 2015, the Census Bureau estimated that the racial composition of the city was 41.5% Black (non-Hispanic), 35.8% White (non-Hispanic), 13.4% Hispanic or Latino, 6.8% Asian, 0.2% Native Americans, 0.03% Pacific Islanders, and 2.0% multiracial.[98]

Census racial composition 2015*[98] 2010[99] 2000 1990[100] 1980[100] 1970[100]
"Black (includes "Black Hispanics) 42.8% 43.4% 43.2% 39.9% 37.8% 33.6%
—non-Hispanic Black 41.5% 42.2% 42.6% 39.3% 37.5% 33.3%[f]
"White (includes "White Hispanics) 41.7% 41.0% 45.0% 53.5% 58.2% 65.6%
—non-Hispanic White 35.8% 36.9% 42.5% 52.1% 57.1% 63.8[f]
"Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 13.4% 12.3% 8.5% 5.6% 3.8% 2.4%[f]
"Asian 6.8% 6.3% 4.5% 2.7% 1.1% 0.3%
"Pacific Islanders 0.03% 0.05% 0.0% 0.0%
"Native Americans 0.2% 0.5% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1%
"Two or more races 2.0% 2.8% 2.2% n/a[101] n/a n/a

* 2015 figures are estimates

Map of racial distribution in Philadelphia, 2010 Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other.

The "2010 Census redistricting data indicated that the racial makeup of the city was 644,287 (42.2%) "Black (non-Hispanic), 562,585 (36.9%) "White (non-Hispanic), 96,405 (6.3%) "Asian (2.0% "Chinese, 1.2% "Indian, 0.9% "Vietnamese, 0.4% "Korean, 0.3% "Filipino, 0.1% "Japanese, and 1.4% other), 6,996 (0.5%) "Native Americans, 744 (0.05%) "Pacific Islanders, and 43,070 (2.8%) from two or more races. "Hispanic or "Latino of any race were 187,611 persons (12.3%); 8.0% of Philadelphia is "Puerto Rican, 1.0% "Mexican, 0.3% "Cuban, and 3.0% other. The racial breakdown of Philadelphia's Hispanic/Latino population was 63,636 (33.9%) White, 17,552 (9.4%) Black, 3,498 (1.9%) Native American, 884 (0.47%) Asian, 287 (0.15%) Pacific Islander, 86,626 (46.2%) from other races, and 15,128 (8.1%) from two or more races.[99] The five largest European ancestries reported in the 2010 Census included "Irish (13.0%), "Italian (8.3%), "German (8.2%), "Polish (3.9%), and "English (3.1%).[102]

The average population density was 11,457 people per square mile (4,405.4/km²). The Census Bureau reported that 1,468,623 people (96.2% of the population) lived in households, 38,007 (2.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 19,376 (1.3%) were institutionalized.[99] In 2013, the city reported having 668,247 total housing units, down slightly from 670,171 housing units in 2010. As of 2013, 87 percent of housing units were occupied, while 13 percent were vacant, a slight change from 2010 where 89.5 percent of units were occupied, or 599,736 and 10.5 percent were vacant, or 70,435.[99][103] Of the city's residents, 32 percent reported having no vehicles available while 23 percent had two or more vehicles available, as of 2013.[103]

In 2010, 24.9 percent of households reported having children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.3 percent were married couples living together and 22.5 percent had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0 percent had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.2 percent were non-families. The city reported 34.1 percent of all households were made up of individuals while 10.5 percent had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.20.[99] In 2013, the percentage of women who gave birth in the previous 12 months who were unmarried was 56 percent. Of Philadelphia's adults, 31 percent were married or lived as a couple, 55 percent were not married, 11 percent were divorced or separated, and 3 percent were widowed.[103]

According to the Census Bureau, the median household income in 2013 was $36,836, down 7.9 percent from 2008 when the median household income was $40,008 (in 2013 dollars). For comparison, the median household income among metropolitan areas was $60,482, down 8.2 percent in the same period, and the national median household income was $55,250, down 7.0 percent from 2008.[103] The city's wealth disparity is evident when neighborhoods are compared. Residents in "Society Hill had a median household income of $93,720 while residents in one of "North Philadelphia's districts reported the lowest median household income, $14,185.[103]

During the last decade, Philadelphia experienced a large shift in its age profile. In 2000, the city's "population pyramid had a largely stationary shape. In 2013, the city took on an expansive pyramid shape, with an increase in the three "millennial age groups, 20 to 24, 25 to 29, and 30 to 34. The city's 25- to 29-year-old age group was the city's largest age cohort.[103] According to the 2010 Census, 343,837 (22.5%) were under the age of 18; 203,697 (13.3%) from 18 to 24; 434,385 (28.5%) from 25 to 44; 358,778 (23.5%) from 45 to 64; and 185,309 (12.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.5 years. For every 100 females there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.7 males.[99] The city had 22,018 births in 2013, down from a peak 23,689 births in 2008. Philadelphia's death rate was at its lowest in at least a half-century, 13,691 deaths in 2013.[103] Another factor attributing to the population increase is Philadelphia's immigration rate. In 2013, 12.7 percent of residents were foreign-born, just shy of the national average, 13.1 percent.[103]

"Leacht Quimhneachain Na Gael", an "Irish famine memorial at "Penn's Landing honors the large "Irish community (14.2% of the city's population).[104]

Irish, Italian, German, Polish, English, Russian, Ukrainian and French are the largest ethnic European groups in the city.[102] Philadelphia has the second-largest Irish and Italian populations in the United States, after New York City. "South Philadelphia remains one of the largest Italian neighborhoods in the country and is home to the "Italian Market. The "Pennsport neighborhood and "Gray's Ferry section of South Philadelphia, home to many "Mummer clubs, are well known as Irish neighborhoods. The "Kensington, "Port Richmond, and "Fishtown neighborhoods have historically been heavily Irish and Polish. Port Richmond is well known in particular as the center of the Polish immigrant and Polish-American community in Philadelphia, and it remains a common destination for Polish immigrants. "Northeast Philadelphia, although known for its Irish and Irish-American population, is also home to a large Jewish and Russian population. "Mount Airy in "Northwest Philadelphia also contains a large Jewish community, while nearby "Chestnut Hill is historically known as an "Anglo-Saxon Protestant community.

Philadelphia is also home to a significant "gay and "lesbian population. Philadelphia's "Gayborhood, which is located near "Washington Square, is home to a large concentration of gay and lesbian friendly businesses, restaurants, and bars.[105][106]

The "Black American population in Philadelphia is the third-largest in the country, after New York City and Chicago. Historically, "West Philadelphia and North Philadelphia were largely black neighborhoods, but many are leaving those areas in favor of the Northeast and Southwest sections of Philadelphia. There is a higher proportion of Muslims in the Black American population than most cities in America. West Philadelphia also has significant Caribbean and African immigrant populations.[107]

The "Puerto Rican population in Philadelphia is the second-largest after New York City, and the second fastest-growing after Orlando.[108] There are large Puerto Rican and "Dominican populations in "North Philadelphia and the Northeast, as well as a significant Mexican population in South Philadelphia.[109]

Philadelphia's "Asian American population originated mainly from "China, "India, "Vietnam, "South Korea and the "Philippines. "Chinatown and the Northeast have the largest Asian populations, with a large Korean community in the North Philadelphia neighborhood of "Olney. South Philadelphia is also home to large "Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Chinese communities. Philadelphia has the fifth largest "Muslim population among American cities.[110]


According to a 2014 study by the "Pew Research Center, 68% of the population of the city identified themselves as "Christian, with 41% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered "Protestant, 26% professing "Catholic beliefs, and less than 1% are "Mormons, while the remaining 24% claim "no religious affiliation. The same study says that other religions collectively compose about 8% of the population, including "Judaism, "Buddhism, "Islam, and "Hinduism.[111][112]

The Philadelphia "metropolitan area's "Jewish population was estimated at 206,000 in 2001, which was the sixth largest in the United States at that time.[113]

Other religious groups in Philadelphia include "Buddhism in "Chinatown, and "Caribbean and "traditional African religions in North and West Philadelphia. Historically, the city has strong connections to the "Quakers, "Unitarian Universalism, and the "Ethical Culture movement, all of which continue to be represented in the city. The Quaker "Friends General Conference is based in Philadelphia.

"African diasporic religions are practiced in some Hispanic and Caribbean communities in North and West Philadelphia.[114][115]



As of 2010, 79.12% (1,112,441) of Philadelphia residents age 5 and older spoke "English at home as a "primary language, while 9.72% (136,688) spoke "Spanish, 1.64% (23,075) "Chinese, 0.89% (12,499) "Vietnamese, 0.77% (10,885) "Russian, 0.66% (9,240) "French, 0.61% (8,639) "other Asian languages, 0.58% (8,217) "African languages, 0.56% (7,933) "Cambodian ("Mon-Khmer), and "Italian was spoken as a "main language by 0.55% (7,773) of the population over the age of five. In total, 20.88% (293,544) of Philadelphia's population age 5 and older spoke a "mother language other than English.[117]


The Philadelphia accent is considered by some to be the most distinctive accent in North America.[118] The dialect, which is spread throughout the "Delaware Valley and "South Jersey, is part of "Mid-Atlantic American English, and as such it is similar in many ways to the "Baltimore dialect. Unlike the Baltimore dialect, however, the Philadelphia accent also shares many similarities with the "New York accent. Thanks to over a century of linguistic data collected by researchers at the "University of Pennsylvania under sociolinguist "William Labov, the Philadelphia dialect has been one of the best-studied forms of "American English.[119][120][g] The accent is traditionally found within the "Irish American and "Italian American working-class neighborhoods.[121] Philadelphia also has its own unique collection of "neologisms and slang terms.[122]


Top publicly traded companies
headquartered in Philadelphia
Corporation Rank Revenue
"Comcast 31 80.4
"Aramark 192 14.4
"Crown Holdings 333 8.3
"Urban Outfitters 645 3.5
"FMC 681 3.3
Revenue in billions for "FY 2016
Source: "Fortune[123]

Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in "Pennsylvania with the headquarters of five "Fortune 1000 companies located within city limits. According to the "Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a total gross domestic product of $431 billion in 2016, the "eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.[16] Philadelphia was rated by the "GaWC as a 'Beta' city in its 2016 ranking of "world cities.[124]

Philadelphia's economic sectors include "financial services, "health care, "biotechnology, "information technology, "manufacturing, "oil refining, "food processing, and "tourism. Financial activities account for the largest economic sector of the metropolitan area, which is also one of the largest "health education and research centers in the United States.

"Philadelphia Stock Exchange, the oldest "stock exchange in the United States

The city is home to the "Philadelphia Stock Exchange and some of the area's largest companies including cable television and internet provider "Comcast, insurance companies "Cigna, "Colonial Penn, and "Independence Blue Cross, energy company "Sunoco, food services company "Aramark, packaging company "Crown Holdings, chemical makers "FMC and "Rohm and Haas, pharmaceutical company "GlaxoSmithKline, "Boeing Rotorcraft Systems, apparel retailer "Urban Outfitters, and automotive parts retailer "Pep Boys.

Philadelphia's annualized unemployment rate was 7.8% in 2014, down from 10% the previous year.[103] This is higher than the national average of 6.2%. Similarly, the rate of new jobs added to the city's economy lagged behind the national job growth. In 2014, about 8,800 jobs were added to the city's economy. Sectors with the largest number of jobs added were in education and health care, "leisure and "hospitality, and professional and business services. Declines were seen in the city's manufacturing and government sectors.[103]

About 31.9% of the city's population was not in the labor force in 2015, the second highest percentage after "Detroit. The city's two largest employers are the federal and city governments. Philadelphia's largest private employer is the "University of Pennsylvania followed by the "Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.[103] A study commissioned by the city's government in 2011 projected 40,000 jobs would be added to the city within 25 years, raising the number of jobs from 675,000 in 2010 to an estimated 715,000 by 2035.[125]

Philadelphia's history attracts many tourists, with the "Independence National Historical Park (which includes the "Liberty Bell, "Independence Hall, and other historic sites) receiving over 5 million visitors in 2016.[126] The city welcomed 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent $6.8 billion—mostly on lodging and food—generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania.[22]


"Independence Hall, where the "Declaration of Independence and the "Constitution were adopted.

Philadelphia is home to many "national historical sites that relate to the founding of the United States. "Independence National Historical Park is the center of these historical landmarks being one of the country's 22 "UNESCO "World Heritage Sites. "Independence Hall, where the "Declaration of Independence was signed, and the "Liberty Bell are the city's most famous attractions. Other historic sites include the homes of "Edgar Allan Poe, "Betsy Ross, and "Thaddeus Kosciuszko, early government buildings like the "First and "Second Banks of the United States, "Fort Mifflin, and the "Gloria Dei (Old Swedes') Church.[127] Philadelphia alone has 67 "National Historic Landmarks, the third most of any city in the country.[127] Philadelphia's major science museums include the "Franklin Institute, which contains the "Benjamin Franklin National Memorial; the "Academy of Natural Sciences; the "Mütter Museum; and the "University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. History museums include the "National Constitution Center, the "Museum of the American Revolution, the "Atwater Kent Museum of Philadelphia History, the "National Museum of American Jewish History, the "African American Museum in Philadelphia, the "Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons in the state of Pennsylvania and The Masonic Library and Museum of Pennsylvania, and the "Eastern State Penitentiary. Philadelphia is home to the United States' first "zoo[128] and "hospital,[129] as well as "Fairmount Park, one of America's oldest and largest urban parks.[130]

The city is home to important archival repositories, including the "Library Company of Philadelphia, established in 1731, and the "Athenaeum of Philadelphia, founded in 1814. The "Presbyterian Historical Society, the country's oldest continuous denominational historical society, is also located in the city.


The city contains many art museums, such as the "Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the "Rodin Museum, which holds the largest collection of work by "Auguste Rodin outside France. The city's major art museum, the "Philadelphia Museum of Art, is one of the largest art museums in the United States. Its long flight of "steps to the main entrance became famous after the film "Rocky (1976).[131]

The city is home to the "Philadelphia Sketch Club, one of the country's oldest artists' clubs, and "The Plastic Club, started by women excluded from the Sketch Club. Many "Old City art galleries stay open late on the "First Friday event of each month. Annual events include film festivals and parades, the most famous being the "Thanksgiving Day Parade and the "Mummers Parade on New Year's Day.

"Academy of Music, home of the "Philadelphia Orchestra, 1900–2001

Areas such as South Street and "Old City have a vibrant night life. The "Avenue of the Arts in Center City contains many restaurants and theaters, such as the "Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, which is home to the "Philadelphia Orchestra, generally considered one of the "top five orchestras in the United States, and the "Academy of Music, the nation's oldest continually operating opera house, home to the "Opera Company of Philadelphia and the "Pennsylvania Ballet.[131] The "Wilma Theatre and the "Philadelphia Theatre Company at the "Suzanne Roberts Theatre produce a variety of new plays. Several blocks to the east are the "Walnut Street Theatre, America's oldest theatre and the largest subscription theater in the world, and the "Lantern Theater Company at "St. Stephens Church, one of a number of smaller venues.

Philadelphia has more "public art than any other American city.[132] In 1872, the "Association for Public Art (formerly the Fairmount Park Art Association) was created as the first private association in the United States dedicated to integrating public art and "urban planning.[133] In 1959, lobbying by the Artists Equity Association helped create the "Percent for Art "ordinance, the first for a U.S. city.[134] The program, which has funded more than 200 pieces of public art, is administered by the Philadelphia Office of Arts and Culture, the city's art agency.[135]

Philadelphia has more murals than any other U.S. city, thanks in part to the 1984 creation of the Department of Recreation's "Mural Arts Program, which seeks to beautify neighborhoods and provide an outlet for "graffiti artists. The program has funded more than 2,800 "murals by professional, staff and volunteer artists and educated more than 20,000 youth in underserved neighborhoods throughout Philadelphia.[136]

Philadelphia artists have had a prominent national role in popular music. In the 1970s, "Philadelphia soul influenced the music of that and later eras. On July 13, 1985, "John F. Kennedy Stadium was the American venue for the "Live Aid concert. The city also hosted the "Live 8 concert, which attracted about 700,000 people to the "Ben Franklin Parkway on July 2, 2005.[137] Philadelphia is home to the world-renowned "Philadelphia Boys Choir & Chorale, which has performed its music all over the world. Dr. Robert G. Hamilton, founder of the choir, is a notable native Philadelphian. The "Philly Pops plays orchestral versions of popular "jazz, "swing, "Broadway, and "blues songs. The city has played a major role in the development and support of American "rock music and "rap music. Famous rock acts in the area such as "Bill Haley & His Comets, "Todd Rundgren and "Nazz, "Hall & Oates, "The Hooters, "Ween, and "Cinderella call Philadelphia home. "Hip-hop artists such as "The Roots, "DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince, "The Goats, "Schoolly D, and "Lisa "Left Eye" Lopes hail from the city.


The city is known for its "hoagies, "scrapple, "soft pretzels, "water ice, "Irish potato candy, "Tastykakes, and the "cheesesteak sandwich which was developed by German and Italian immigrants. Philadelphia boasts a number of cheesesteak establishments, however two locations in "South Philadelphia are perhaps the most famous among tourists: "Pat's King of Steaks and its across the street rival "Geno's Steaks.

"McGillin's Olde Ale House, located on Drury Street in Center City, is the oldest continuously operated "tavern in the city.[141]

The "Reading Terminal Market is a historic "food market founded in 1892. The enclosed market hosts over a hundred merchants offering "Pennsylvania Dutch specialties, "artisan cheese and meat, locally grown groceries, and specialty and ethnic foods.[142]


"Citizens Bank Park, home of the "Phillies

Philadelphia's professional sports teams date at least to the 1860 founding of baseball's "Athletics. The city is one of 12 U.S. cities to have "all four major sports: the "Philadelphia Phillies in the "National League of "Major League Baseball, the "Philadelphia Eagles of the "National Football League, the "Philadelphia Flyers of the "National Hockey League, and the "Philadelphia 76ers of the "National Basketball Association.

The Philadelphia metro area is also home of the "Philadelphia Union of "Major League Soccer. The Union play their home games at "Talen Energy Stadium, a "soccer-specific stadium in Chester, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia began play in MLS in 2010, after beating several other cities in competition for the rights to an MLS expansion franchise.

The city's professional teams went without a championship from 1983, when the 76ers won the "NBA Championship, until 2008, when the Phillies won the "World Series. There would be a 10 year period before Philadelphia would win another major championship with the "Philadelphia Eagles winning their first "Super Bowl during the 2017 season. In 2004, "ESPN ranked Philadelphia second on its list of The Fifteen Most Tortured Sports Cities.[143] The failure was sometimes attributed in jest to the ""Curse of Billy Penn." The sports fans of Philadelphia are known for being referred to as the "Meanest Fans in America".[144]

The "Flyers play at the "Wells Fargo Center

Major-sport professional sports teams that originated in Philadelphia but which then moved to other cities include the "Golden State Warriors basketball team and the "Oakland Athletics baseball team.

Philadelphia is also the home city of the "Philadelphia Spinners, a professional ultimate team that is part of the "Major League Ultimate. They are one of the original eight teams of the "American Ultimate Disc League that began in April 2012. They played at "Franklin Field and won the inaugural AUDL championship. As of 2013, the Spinners play in the newer MLU at various stadiums through the city and surrounding southern suburbs.

Historic "Boathouse Row at night on the "Schuylkill, a symbol of the city's rich rowing history

Rowing has been popular in Philadelphia since the 18th century.[145] "Boathouse Row is a symbol of Philadelphia's rich rowing history, and each "Big Five member has its own boathouse.[146] Philadelphia hosts numerous local and collegiate rowing clubs and competitions, including the annual "Dad Vail Regatta, the largest "intercollegiate rowing event in the U.S, the "Stotesbury Cup Regatta, and the "Head of the Schuylkill Regatta, all of which are held on the "Schuylkill River.[147][148][149] The regattas are hosted and organized by the "Schuylkill Navy, an association of area rowing clubs that has produced numerous "Olympic rowers.[150]

Philadelphia is home to professional, semi-professional and elite amateur teams in cricket, rugby league ("Philadelphia Fight), rugby union and other sports. Major sporting events in the city include the "Penn Relays, "Philadelphia Marathon, "Broad Street Run, and the "Philadelphia International Championship "bicycle race. The "Collegiate Rugby Championship is played every June at "Talen Energy Stadium; the CRC is broadcast live on NBC and regularly draws attendances of 18,000.

Philadelphia is home to the "Philadelphia Big 5, a group of five Division I college basketball programs. The Big 5 are "Saint Joseph's University, "University of Pennsylvania, "La Salle University, "Temple University, and "Villanova University. The sixth NCAA Division I school in Philadelphia is "Drexel University. At least one of the teams is competitive nearly every year["vague] and at least one team has made the NCAA tournament for the past four decades.["which?] Villanova won the "2016 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament championship.

Team League Sport Venue Capacity Founded Championships
"Philadelphia Phillies "MLB Baseball "Citizens Bank Park 46,528 1883 "1980, "2008
"Philadelphia Eagles "NFL American football "Lincoln Financial Field 69,176 1933 "1948, "1949, "1960, "2017
"Philadelphia 76ers "NBA Basketball "Wells Fargo Center 21,600 1963 "1966–67, "1982–83
"Philadelphia Flyers "NHL Ice hockey "Wells Fargo Center 19,786 1967 "1973–74, "1974–75
"Philadelphia Soul "AFL Arena football "Wells Fargo Center 17,597 2004 "2008, "2016
"Philadelphia Union "MLS Soccer "Talen Energy Stadium 18,500 2010 none

Olympic bidding[edit]

The city of Philadelphia has placed four "bids for the Olympics in 1920, 1948, 1952 and 1956, losing all their bids and having also pulled their bids another three times for the 2004, 2016 and 2024 games.

On April 22, 2013, Mayor "Michael Nutter's office declared Philadelphia's interest in bidding for the 2024 Games. The city had expressed interest in hosting the 2016 Games, but lost out to Chicago as the USOC's bid city.[151] The City of Philadelphia withdrew from consideration on May 28, 2014, in a letter to the USOC, citing "timing" as a major factor in the decision. The city reiterated a continued interest in pursuing the games in the future. On May 28, 2014, Mayor Michael Nutter announced that he had written to the USOC earlier that month, informing it of the city's decision not to pursue a bid to host the "2024 Summer Olympic Games.[152]


Fairmount Park, ca. 1900

As of 2014, the total city parkland, including municipal, state and federal parks within the city limits, amounts to 11,211 acres (17.5 sq mi).[21] Philadelphia's largest park is "Fairmount Park which includes the "Philadelphia Zoo and encompasses 2,052 acres (3.2 sq mi) of the total parkland, while the adjacent "Wissahickon Valley Park contains 2,042 acres (3.2 sq mi).[153] Fairmount Park, when combined with Wissahickon Valley Park, is one of the largest contiguous "urban park areas in the United States.[21] The two parks, along with the "Colonial Revival, "Georgian and "Federal-style "mansions contained in them, have been listed as one entity on the "National Register of Historic Places since 1972.[154]

Law and government[edit]

"Old City Hall served as Philadelphia's town hall from 1800 to 1854.

From a governmental perspective, Philadelphia County is a "legal nullity, as all county functions were assumed by the city in 1952.[155] The city has been coterminous with the county since 1854.[47]

Philadelphia's 1952 "Home Rule "Charter was written by the City Charter Commission, which was created by the "Pennsylvania General Assembly in an act of April 21, 1949, and a city ordinance of June 15, 1949. The existing "city council received a proposed draft on February 14, 1951, and the electors approved it in an election held April 17, 1951.[156] The first elections under the new Home Rule Charter were held in November 1951, and the newly elected officials took office in January 1952.[155]

The city uses the "strong-mayor version of the mayor–council form of government, which is led by one "mayor in whom executive authority is vested. The mayor has the authority to appoint and dismiss members of all boards and commissions without the approval of the city council. Elected "at-large, the mayor is limited to two consecutive four-year terms, but can run for the position again after an intervening term.[156]


The Philadelphia County "Court of Common Pleas (the First Judicial District of Pennsylvania) is the "trial court of general jurisdiction for the city, hearing "felony-level criminal cases and civil suits above the minimum jurisdictional limit of $10,000. The court also has "appellate jurisdiction over rulings from the "Municipal and Traffic Courts, and some administrative agencies and boards. The trial division has 70 commissioned judges elected by the voters, along with about one thousand other employees.[159] The court also has a family division with 25 judges[160] and an orphans' court with three judges.[161]

As of 2018, the city's "District Attorney is "Larry Krasner, a Democrat.[162] The last Republican to hold the office is "Ronald D. Castille, who left in 1991 and later served as the Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court from 2008 to 2014.[163]

The "Philadelphia Municipal Court handles misdemeanor and felony criminal cases with maximum incarceration of five years, and civil cases involving $12,000 or less ($15,000 in real estate and school tax cases), and all landlord-tenant disputes. The municipal court has 27 judges elected by the voters.[164]

Philadelphia "Traffic Court is a court of special jurisdiction that hears violations of traffic laws.[165] As with magisterial district judges, the judges need not be lawyers, but must complete the certifying course and pass the qualifying examination administered by the Minor Judiciary Education Board.[166][167]

Pennsylvania's three "appellate courts also have sittings in Philadelphia. The "Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, the court of last resort in the state, regularly hears arguments in "Philadelphia City Hall.[168] The "Superior Court of Pennsylvania and the "Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania also sit in Philadelphia several times a year.[169][170] Judges for these courts are elected at large.[171] The state Supreme Court and Superior Court have deputy "prothonotary offices in Philadelphia.[172][173]

Additionally, Philadelphia is home to the federal "United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania and the "Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, both of which are housed in the "James A. Byrne United States Courthouse.[174][175]


"Jim Kenney, the current and "99th Mayor of Philadelphia

The mayor is "Jim Kenney, who replaced "Michael Nutter after he had served two terms from 2009 to January 2016. Kenney is a member of the "Democratic Party as all Philadelphia mayors have been since 1952. Democrats tend to dominate local politics so thoroughly that the Democratic mayoral primary is often more widely covered than the general election. The legislative branch, the "Philadelphia City Council, consists of ten council members representing individual districts and seven members elected at large. Democrats currently hold 14 seats, with Republicans representing two allotted at-large seats for the minority party, as well as the "Northeast-based Tenth District. The current council president is "Darrell Clarke.

As of December 31, 2016, there were 1,102,620 registered voters in Philadelphia.[176] Registered voters constitute 70.3% of the total population.[h]

Presidential Elections Results[177]
Year "Republican "Democratic "Third Parties
"2016 15.3% 108,748 82.3% 584,025 2.4% 16,845
"2012 14.0% 96,467 85.2% 588,806 0.8% 5,503
"2008 16.3% 117,221 83.0% 595,980 0.7% 4,824
"2004 19.3% 130,099 80.4% 542,205 0.3% 1,765
"2000 18.0% 100,959 80.0% 449,182 2.0% 11,039
"1936 36.9% 329,881 60.5% 539,757 2.6% 23,310
"1932 54.5% 331,092 42.9% 260,276 2.6% 15,651
"1892 57.5% 116,685 41.6% 84,470 1.0% 1,947
"1888 54.2% 111,358 45.2% 92,786 0.6% 1,300

Philadelphia was a bastion of the "Republican Party from the "American Civil War until the mid-1930s. The Republican Party arose from the staunch pro-northern views of Philadelphia residents during and after the war, with the city hosting the first "Republican National Convention in "1856. Democratic registrations increased after the "Great Depression; however, the city was not carried by Democrat "Franklin D. Roosevelt in his landslide victory of "1932 as Pennsylvania was one of the few states won by Republican "Herbert Hoover. Four years later, voter turnout surged and the city finally flipped to the Democrats. Roosevelt carried Philadelphia with over 60% of the vote in "1936. The city has remained loyally Democratic in every presidential election since. It is now one of the most Democratic in the country; in 2008, Democrat "Barack Obama drew 83% of the city's vote. Obama's win was even greater in 2012, capturing 85% of the vote. In 2016, Democrat "Hillary Clinton won 82% of the vote, a small but noticeable dropoff.

Philadelphia once comprised six "congressional districts. However, as a result of the city's declining population, it now has only three: "the 1st district, represented by "Bob Brady; "the 2nd, represented by "Dwight Evans; and "the 13th, represented by "Brendan Boyle. All three are Democrats. Although they are usually swamped by Democrats in city, state and national elections, Republicans still have some support in the area, primarily in "the northeast. A Republican represented a significant portion of Philadelphia in the House as late as 1983, and "Sam Katz ran competitive mayoral races as the Republican nominee in both "1999 and "2003.

Pennsylvania's longest-serving "Senator,[178] "Arlen Specter, was from Philadelphia; he served as a Republican from 1981 and as a Democrat from 2009, losing that party's primary in "2010 and leaving office in January 2011. He was also the city's District Attorney from 1966 to 1974.

Philadelphia has hosted various "national conventions, including in "1848 (Whig), "1856 (Republican), "1872 (Republican), "1900 (Republican), "1936 (Democratic), "1940 (Republican), "1948 (Republican), "1948 (Progressive), "2000 (Republican), and "2016 (Democratic).[179] Philadelphia has been home to one "Vice President, "George M. Dallas, and one Civil War general who won his party's nomination for president but lost in the general election: "George B. McClellan.


Police Administration Building (the Roundhouse) in Center City east of "Chinatown

Like many American cities, Philadelphia saw a gradual yet pronounced rise in crime in the years following World War II. There were 525 murders in 1990, a rate of 31.5 per 100,000. There were an average of about 600 murders a year for most of the 1990s. The murder count dropped in 2002 to 288, then rose four years later to 406 in 2006 and 392 in 2007.[180] A few years later, Philadelphia began to see a rapid drop in homicides and violent crime. In 2013, there were 246 murders, which is a decrease of over 25% from the previous year, and a decrease of over 44% since 2007.[181] And in 2014, there were 248 homicides, up by one since 2013.[103] In 2015, according to annual homicide statistics and crime maps provided on the Philadelphia Police Department's website, there were 280 murders in the city.[182] The same departmental site documents that the number of homicides fell slightly (1.07%) the following year, with 277 murders in Philadelphia in 2016.[182]

In 2006, Philadelphia's homicide rate of 27.7 per 100,000 people was the highest of the country's 10 most populous cities.[183] In 2012, Philadelphia had the fourth-highest homicide rate among the country's most populous cities. And in 2014, the rate dropped to 16.0 homicides per 100,000 residents placing Philadelphia as the sixth-highest city in the country.[103]

"Mounted police officer in Center City, 1973

In 2004, there were 7,513.5 crimes per 200,000 people in Philadelphia.[184] Among its neighboring mid-Atlantic cities in the same population group, "Baltimore and Washington, D.C. were ranked second- and third-most dangerous cities in the United States, respectively.[185] "Camden, New Jersey, a city directly across the Delaware River from Center City, was ranked as the most dangerous city in the United States.[185]

The number of shootings in the city has declined significantly in the last 10 years. Shooting incidents peaked in 2006 when 1,857 shootings were recorded. That number has dropped 44 percent to 1,047 shootings in 2014.[103] Similarly, major crimes in the city have decreased gradually in the last ten years since a peak in 2006 when 85,498 major crimes were reported. In the past three years, the number of reported major crimes fell 11 percent to a total of 68,815. "Violent crimes, which include homicide, rape, aggravated assault, and robbery, decreased 14 percent in the past three years with a reported 15,771 occurrences in 2014.[103] Based on the rate of violent crimes per 1,000 residents in American cities with 25,000 people or more, Philadelphia was ranked as the 54th most dangerous city in 2015.[186]

In 2014, Philadelphia decriminalized small amounts of marijuana, reducing penalties for possession and public use to minor fines and community service. The move makes Philadelphia the largest city in the United States to decriminalize pot.[187]


Primary and secondary education[edit]

"William Penn Charter School, established in 1689, is the oldest "Quaker school in the nation

Education in Philadelphia is provided by many private and public institutions. The "School District of Philadelphia runs the city's "public schools. The Philadelphia School District is the eighth largest "school district in the United States[188] with 142,266 students in 218 public schools and 86 "charter schools as of 2014.[189]

The city's K-12 enrollment in district run schools has dropped in the last five years from 156,211 students in 2010 to 130,104 students in 2015. During the same time period, the enrollment in charter schools has increased from 33,995 students in 2010 to 62,358 students in 2015.[103] This consistent drop in enrollment has led the city to close 24 of its public schools in 2013.[190] During the 2014 school year, the city spent an average of $12,570 per pupil, below the average among comparable urban school districts.[103]

Graduation rates among district-run schools, meanwhile, have steadily increased in the last ten years. In 2005, Philadelphia had a district graduation rate of 52%. This number has increased to 65% in 2014, still below the national and state averages. Scores on the state's standardized test, the "Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) have trended upward from 2005 to 2011 but have decreased since. In 2005, the district-run schools scored an average of 37.4% on math and 35.5% on reading. The city's schools reached its peak scores in 2011 with 59.0% on math and 52.3% on reading. In 2014, the scores dropped significantly to 45.2% on math and 42.0% on reading.[103]

Of the city's public high schools, including charter schools, only four performed above the national average on the "SAT (1497 out of 2400[191]) in 2014: "Masterman, "Central, "Girard, and "MaST Community Charter School. All other district-run schools were below average.[103]

Higher education[edit]

Quadrangle at the "University of Pennsylvania, one of the highest ranked universities in the world
"Perelman School of Medicine, the oldest medical school in the United States

Philadelphia has the third-largest student concentration on the "East Coast, with over 120,000 college and university students enrolled within the city and nearly 300,000 in the metropolitan area.[192] There are over 80 colleges, universities, trade, and specialty schools in the Philadelphia region. One of the founding members of the "Association of American Universities is in the city, the "University of Pennsylvania, an "Ivy League institution with claims to being the oldest university in the country.[193]

The city's largest private school by number of students is "Temple University, followed by "Drexel University.[194] The University of Pennsylvania, Temple University and Drexel University comprise the city's major research universities. Philadelphia is also home to five schools of medicine: "Drexel University College of Medicine, "Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, "Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, "Temple University School of Medicine, and the "Thomas Jefferson University. Hospitals, universities, and higher education research institutions in Philadelphia's four congressional districts received more than $252 million in "National Institutes of Health grants in 2015.[195]

Other institutions of higher learning within the city's borders include:



"Inquirer Building - the newspaper's home until 2012

Philadelphia's two major "daily newspapers are "The Philadelphia Inquirer, first published in 1829—the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the country—and the "Philadelphia Daily News, first published in 1925.[196] The Daily News has been published as an edition of the Inquirer since 2009.[197] Recent owners of the Inquirer and Daily News have included "Knight Ridder, "The McClatchy Company, and "Philadelphia Media Holdings, with the latter organization declaring bankruptcy in 2010.[198] After two years of financial struggle, the newspapers were sold to "Interstate General Media in 2012.[198] The two newspapers had a combined daily circulation of 306,831 and a Sunday circulation of 477,313 in 2013—the eighteenth largest circulation in the country—while the website of the newspapers,,[199] was ranked thirteenth in popularity among online U.S. newspapers by "Alexa Internet for the same year.[200]

Smaller publications include the "Philadelphia Tribune published five days each week for the "African-American community;[201] "Philadelphia magazine, a monthly regional magazine;[202] "Philadelphia Weekly, a weekly alternative newspaper;[203] "Philadelphia Gay News, a weekly newspaper for the "LGBT community;[204] "The Jewish Exponent, a weekly newspaper for the "Jewish community;[205] "Al Día, a weekly newspaper for the "Latino community;[206] and "Philadelphia Metro, a free daily newspaper.[207]

Student-run newspapers include the "University of Pennsylvania's "The Daily Pennsylvanian,[208] "Temple University's "The Temple News,[209] and "Drexel University's "The Triangle.[210]


The first experimental radio license was issued in Philadelphia in August 1912 to "St. Joseph's College. The first "commercial "AM radio stations began broadcasting in 1922: first "WIP, then owned by "Gimbels department store, followed by "WFIL, then owned by "Strawbridge & Clothier department store, and WOO, a defunct station owned by "Wanamaker's department store, as well as "WCAU and "WDAS.[211]

As of 2018, the "FCC lists 28 "FM and 11 AM stations for Philadelphia.[212][213] As of December 2017, the ten highest-rated stations in Philadelphia were "adult contemporary "WBEB-FM (101.1), "sports talk "WIP-FM (94.1), "classic rock "WMGK-FM (102.9), "urban adult contemporary "WDAS-FM (105.3), "classic hits "WOGL-FM (98.1), "album-oriented rock "WMMR-FM (93.3), "country music "WXTU-FM (92.5), "all-news "KYW-AM (1060), "talk radio "WHYY-FM (90.9), and urban adult contemporary "WRNB-FM (100.3).[214][215] Philadelphia is served by three non-commercial "public radio stations: WHYY-FM ("NPR),[216] "WRTI-FM (classical and jazz),[217] and "WXPN-FM (adult alternative music).[218]


Original "WCAU studio at 1622 Chestnut Street

In the 1930s, the experimental station "W3XE, owned by "Philco, became the first television station in Philadelphia. The station became "NBC's first affiliate in 1939, and later became "KYW-TV (currently a "CBS affiliate). "WCAU-TV, WFIL-TV, and "WHYY-TV were all founded by the 1960s.[211] In 1952, WFIL (renamed "WPVI) premiered the television show Bandstand, which later became the nationally broadcast "American Bandstand hosted by "Dick Clark.[219]

Each commercial network has an affiliate, and call letters have been replaced by corporate branding for promotional purposes: "CBS3, "6ABC, "NBC10, "PHL17, "Fox29, "The CW Philly 57, "UniMás Philadelphia, "Telemundo62, and "Univision65. The region is served also by "public broadcasting stations "WYBE-TV (Philadelphia), "WHYY-TV (Wilmington, Delaware and Philadelphia), "WLVT-TV (Lehigh Valley), and "NJTV (New Jersey).[220]

Philadelphia has "owned-and-operated stations for all five major English-language broadcast networks: "NBC – "WCAU-TV, "CBS – "KYW-TV, "ABC – "WPVI-TV, "Fox – "WTXF-TV, and "The CW – "WPSG-TV. The major Spanish-language networks are "Univision – "WUVP-DT, "UniMás – "WFPA-CD, and "Telemundo – "WWSI-TV.[220]

As of 2018, the city is the nation's fourth-largest consumer in "media market, as ranked by the "Nielsen Media Research firm, with nearly 2.9 million TV households.[221]



"30th Street Station in 2016.

Philadelphia is served by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority ("SEPTA) which operates buses, trains, "rapid transit (subway and "elevated trains), "trolleys, and "trackless trolleys (electric buses) throughout Philadelphia, the four Pennsylvania suburban counties of "Bucks, "Chester, "Delaware, and "Montgomery, in addition to service to "Mercer County, New Jersey ("Trenton) and "New Castle County, Delaware ("Wilmington and "Newark, Delaware).[222] The city's subway system consists of two routes: the subway section of the "Market–Frankford Line running east–west under "Market Street which opened in 1905 to the west and 1908 to the east of City Hall,[223] and the "Broad Street Line running north–south beneath "Broad Street which opened in stages from 1928 to 1938.[224]

"Market–Frankford Line train departing "52nd Street station.

Beginning in the 1980s, large sections of the "SEPTA Regional Rail service to the far suburbs of Philadelphia were discontinued due to a lack of funding for equipment and infrastructure maintenance.[225][226][227]

Philadelphia's "30th Street Station is a major railroad station on Amtrak's "Northeast Corridor with 4.4 million passengers in 2017 making it the "third-busiest station in the country after "New York City's Pennsylvania Station and "Washington's Union Station.[228] 30th Street Station offers access to Amtrak,[229] SEPTA,[230] and "NJ Transit lines.[231] Over 12 million SEPTA and NJ Transit rail commuters use the station each year, and more than 100,000 people on an average weekday.[228]

The "PATCO Speedline provides rapid transit service to "Camden, "Collingswood, "Westmont, "Haddonfield, "Woodcrest (Cherry Hill), "Ashland (Voorhees), and "Lindenwold, New Jersey, from stations on Locust Street between 16th and 15th, 13th and 12th, and 10th and 9th Streets, and on Market Street at 8th Street.[232]



Two airports serve Philadelphia: the "Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) is located 7 mi (11 km) south-southwest of "Center City on the boundary with "Delaware County, providing scheduled domestic and international air service,[233] while "Northeast Philadelphia Airport (PNE) is a "general aviation "relief airport in "Northeast Philadelphia serving general and corporate aviation.[234] Philadelphia International Airport is among the busiest airports in the world "measured by traffic movements (i.e., takeoffs and landings).[235] More than 30 million passengers pass through the airport annually on 25 airlines, including all major domestic carriers. The airport has nearly 500 daily departures to more than 120 destinations worldwide.[233] SEPTA's "Airport Regional Rail Line provides direct service between Center City railroad stations and Philadelphia International Airport.[236]


"William Penn planned Philadelphia with "numbered streets traversing north and south, and streets named for trees, such as "Chestnut, "Walnut, and "Mulberry, traversing east and west. The two main streets were named "Broad Street (the north-south "artery, since designated "Pennsylvania Route 611) and High Street (the east-west artery, since renamed "Market Street) converging at Centre Square which later became the site of "City Hall.[237]

Traffic heading into Philadelphia on "Interstate 95 during the morning rush hour.

"Interstate 95 (the Delaware Expressway) traverses the southern and eastern edges of the city along the "Delaware River as the main north-south "controlled-access highway. The city is also served by "Interstate 76 (the "Schuylkill Expressway) which runs along the "Schuylkill River, intersecting the "Pennsylvania Turnpike at "King of Prussia and providing access to "Harrisburg and points west. "Interstate 676 (the Vine Street Expressway) links I-95 and I-76 through Center City by running below street level between the eastbound and westbound lanes of "Vine Street. Entrance and exit ramps for the "Benjamin Franklin Bridge are near the eastern end of the expressway, just west of the I-95 interchange.[238]

The "Roosevelt Boulevard and Expressway ("U.S. 1) connect "Northeast Philadelphia with Center City via I-76 through "Fairmount Park. Woodhaven Road ("Route 63) and Cottman Avenue ("Route 73) serve the neighborhoods of Northeast Philadelphia, running between I-95 and the Roosevelt Boulevard. The Fort Washington Expressway ("Route 309) extends north from the city's northern border, serving "Montgomery County and "Bucks County. "U.S. Route 30 ("Lancaster Avenue) extends westward from "West Philadelphia to "Lancaster.[238]

"Ben Franklin Bridge at sunrise

"Interstate 476 (locally referred to as the Blue Route[239]) traverses "Delaware County, bypassing the city to the west and serving the city's western suburbs, as well as providing a link to "Allentown and points north. "Interstate 276 (the "Pennsylvania Turnpike's "Delaware River extension) acts as a bypass and commuter route to the north of the city as well as a link to the "New Jersey Turnpike and "New York City.[238]

The "Delaware River Port Authority operates four bridges in the Philadelphia area across the Delaware River to "New Jersey: the "Walt Whitman Bridge (I-76), the "Benjamin Franklin Bridge (I-676 and U.S. 30), the "Betsy Ross Bridge ("New Jersey Route 90), and the "Commodore Barry Bridge ("U.S. 322 in Delaware County, south of the city).[240] The "Burlington County Bridge Commission maintains two bridges across the Delaware River: the "Tacony–Palmyra Bridge which connects "PA Route 73 in the "Tacony section of Northeast Philadelphia with "New Jersey Route 73 in "Palmyra, "Camden County, and the "Burlington–Bristol Bridge which connects "NJ Route 413/"U.S. Route 130 in "Burlington, New Jersey with "PA Route 413/"U.S. 13 in "Bristol Township, north of Philadelphia.[241]

Bus service[edit]

Philadelphia is a hub for "Greyhound Lines. The "Greyhound terminal is located at 1001 Filbert Street (at 10th Street) in Center City, southeast of the "Pennsylvania Convention Center and south of "Chinatown.[242] Several other bus operators provide service at the Greyhound terminal including "Bieber Transportation Group,[243] "Fullington Trailways,[244] "Martz Trailways,[245] "Peter Pan Bus Lines,[246] and "New Jersey Transit buses.[247]

Other intercity bus services include "Megabus with stops at "30th Street Station and the visitor center for "Independence Hall,[248] and "BoltBus (operated by Greyhound) at 30th Street Station.[249]


"Suburban Station with "Art Deco architecture

Since the early days of "rail transportation in the United States, Philadelphia has served as a hub for several major rail companies, particularly the "Pennsylvania Railroad and the "Reading Railroad. The Pennsylvania Railroad first operated "Broad Street Station, then "30th Street Station and "Suburban Station, and the Reading Railroad operated "Reading Terminal, now part of the "Pennsylvania Convention Center. The two companies also operated competing commuter rail systems in the area. The two systems now operate as a single system under the control of "SEPTA, the regional transit authority. Additionally, the "PATCO Speedline subway system and "NJ Transit's "Atlantic City Line operate successor services to southern "New Jersey.[250]

In 1911, Philadelphia had nearly 4,000 electric "trolleys running on 86 lines.[251] In 2005, SEPTA reintroduced trolley service to the "Girard Avenue Line, Route 15.[252] SEPTA operates six "subway-surface" trolleys that run on street-level tracks in "West Philadelphia and subway tunnels in "Center City, along with two surface trolleys in adjacent suburbs.[253]

Philadelphia is a regional hub of the "federally owned "Amtrak system, with 30th Street Station being a primary stop on the Washington-Boston "Northeast Corridor and the "Keystone Corridor to "Harrisburg and "Pittsburgh. 30th Street also serves as a major station for services via the Pennsylvania Railroad's former "Pennsylvania Main Line to Chicago. As of 2017, 30th Street is Amtrak's third-busiest station in the country, after New York City and Washington.[228]

Walk Score ranks[edit]

A 2017 study by "Walk Score ranked Philadelphia the fifth most walkable major city in the United States with a score of 79 out of 100, in the middle of the "very walkable" range. The city was just edged out by fourth place Miami (79.2), with the top three cities being New York, San Francisco, and Boston. Philadelphia placed fifth in the public transit friendly category, behind Washington, D.C., with the same three cities for walkability topping this category. The city ranked tenth in the bike friendly cities category, with the top three cities being Minneapolis, San Francisco and Portland.[254]

The readers of "USA Today newspaper voted the "Schuylkill River Trail the best urban trail in the nation in 2015.[255]


"Fairmount Water Works, Philadelphia's second municipal waterworks

In 1815, Philadelphia began sourcing its water via the "Fairmount Water Works located on the "Schuylkill River, the nation's first major urban water supply system. In 1909, the Water Works was decommissioned as the city transitioned to modern "sand filtration methods.[256] Today, the "Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) provides "drinking water, "wastewater collection, and "stormwater services for Philadelphia, as well as surrounding counties. PWD draws about 57 percent of its drinking water from the "Delaware River and the balance from the Schuylkill River.[257] The city has two filtration plants on the Schuylkill River and one on the Delaware River. The three plants can treat up to 546 million gallons of water per day, while the total storage capacity of the combined plant and distribution system exceeds one billion gallons. The wastewater system consists of three water pollution control plants, 21 pumping stations, and about 3,657 miles (5,885 km) of sewers.[257]

"Exelon subsidiary "PECO Energy Company, founded as the Brush Electric Light Company of Philadelphia in 1881 and renamed Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) in 1902, provides electricity to about 1.6 million customers and more than 500,000 "natural gas customers in the southeastern Pennsylvania area including the city of Philadelphia and most of its suburbs.[258] PECO is the largest electric and natural gas utility in the state with 472 power substations and nearly 23,000 miles (37,000 km) of electric transmission and distribution lines, along with 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of natural gas transmission, distribution & service lines.[259]

"Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW), overseen by the "Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, is the nation's largest municipally-owned natural gas utility. PGW serves over 500,000 homes and businesses in the Philadelphia area.[260] Founded in 1836, the company came under city ownership in 1987 and has been providing the majority of gas distributed within city limits. In 2014, the "City Council refused to conduct hearings on a $1.86 billion sale of PGW, part of a two-year effort that was proposed by the mayor. The refusal led to the prospective buyer terminating its offer.[261][262]

Southeastern Pennsylvania was assigned the "215 "area code in 1947 when the "North American Numbering Plan of the "Bell System went into effect. The geographic area covered by the code was split nearly in half in 1994 when "area code 610 was created, with the city and its northern suburbs retaining 215. "Overlay area code 267 was added to the 215 service area in 1997, and 484 was added to the 610 area in 1999. A plan in 2001 to introduce a third overlay code to both service areas ("area code 445 to 215, "area code 835 to 610) was delayed and later rescinded.[263]

In 2005, a low-cost, citywide "Wi-Fi service was approved for installation in the city. Wireless Philadelphia would have been the first municipal internet utility in a large U.S. city, but the plan was abandoned in 2008 as "EarthLink pushed back the completion date several times. Mayor Nutter's administration closed the project in 2009 after an attempt to revitalize it failed.[264]

Notable people[edit]

Sister Cities[edit]

"Chinatown Gate at 10th and Arch (2013), a symbol of Philadelphia's friendship with "Tianjin

Philadelphia has eight official "sister cities designated by the Citizen Diplomacy International of Philadelphia:[265]

City Country Date
"Florence[266]  Italy 1964
"Tel Aviv[267]  Israel 1966
"Toruń[268]  Poland 1976
"Tianjin[269]  China 1979
"Incheon[270]  South Korea 1984
"Douala[271]  Cameroon 1986
"Nizhny Novgorod[272]  Russia 1992
"Frankfurt[273]  Germany 2015

Philadelphia also has three partnership cities or regions:[265]

City Country Date
"Kobe[274]  Japan 1986
"Abruzzo[275]  Italy 1997
"Aix-en-Provence[276]  France 1999

Philadelphia has dedicated landmarks to its sister cities. The Sister Cities Park, a site of 0.5 acres (2,400 sq yd) located at 18th and "Benjamin Franklin Parkway within "Logan Square, was dedicated in June 1976. The park was built to commemorate Philadelphia's first two sister city relationships, with "Tel Aviv and "Florence. The Toruń Triangle, honoring the sister city relationship with "Toruń, Poland, was constructed in 1976, west of the "United Way building at 18th Street and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway. Sister Cities Park was redesigned and reopened in 2012, featuring an interactive fountain honoring Philadelphia's sister and partnership cities, a café and visitor's center, children's play area, outdoor garden, and boat pond, as well as a pavilion built to "environmentally friendly standards.[277][278]

The Chinatown Gate, erected in 1984 and crafted by artisans of "Tianjin, stands astride 10th Street, on the north side of its intersection with "Arch Street, as a symbol of the sister city relationship. The CDI of Philadelphia has participated in the "U.S. Department of State's "Partners for Peace" project with "Mosul, Iraq,[279] as well as accepting visiting delegations from dozens of other countries.[280]


See additional "" Media related to Philadelphia at Wikimedia Commons.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Description of the Lenape peoples (Delaware nations) historic territories inside the "divides of the frequently mountainous "landforms flanking the "Delaware River's "drainage basin. These terrains encompass from South to North and then counter-clockwise:
    • the shores from the east-shore mouth of the river and the sea coast to Western Long Island (all of both colonial "New Amsterdam and "New Sweden), and
    • portions of Western Connecticut up to the latitude of the Massachusetts corner of today's boundaries—making the eastern bounds of their influence, thence their region extended:
    • westerly past the region around "Albany, NY to the "Susquehanna River side of the "Catskills, then
    • southerly through the eastern "Poconos outside the rival "Susquehannock lands past "Eastern Pennsylvania then southerly past the site of "Colonial Philadelphia past the west bank mouth of the Delaware and extending south from that point along a stretch of sea coast in northern colonial "Delaware.

    The Susquehanna-Delaware watershed divides bound the frequently contested 'hunting grounds' between the rival "Susquehannock peoples and the Lenape peoples, whilst the Catskills and Berkshires played a similar boundary role in the northern regions of their original colonial era range.

  2. ^ See "North American blizzard of 2009#Snowfall (December 19–20, 2009), "February 5–6, 2010 North American blizzard#Snowfall (February 5–6, 2010), and "February 9–10, 2010 North American blizzard#Impact (February 9–10, 2010). The February 2010 storms contributed to a single month record accumulation of 51.5 in (131 cm). If no snow fell outside of February that season, 2009–10 would still rank as 5th-snowiest. See the Franklin Institute for a visual representation of seasonal snowfall.
  3. ^ The last occurrence of such a temperature was July 18, 2012.
  4. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  5. ^ Official temperature and precipitation measurements for Philadelphia were taken at the Weather Bureau Office in downtown from January 1872 to 19 June 1940, and at Philadelphia Int'l from 20 June 1940 to the present.[88] Snowfall and snow depth records date to 1 January 1884 and 1 October 1948, respectively.[82] In 2006, snowfall measurements were moved to "National Park, New Jersey directly across the Delaware River from the airport.[89]
  6. ^ a b c From 15% sample
  7. ^ E.g., in the opening chapter of The Handbook of Language Variation and Change (ed. Chambers et al., Blackwell 2002), J.K. Chambers writes that "variationist sociolinguistics had its effective beginnings only in 1963, the year in which William Labov presented the first sociolinguistic research report"; the dedication page of the Handbook says that Labov's "ideas imbue every page".
  8. ^ 1,102,620 / 1,567,872 = 70.3% (registered voters divided by 2016 population estimate)


  1. ^ "Art & Artifacts: Discover the Library Company's Art and Artifact Collection - Athens of America". The Library Company of Philadelphia. Retrieved June 12, 2010. 
  2. ^ Robinson, Sam (November 5, 2013). "Behind Philadelphia Maneto: Dissecting The City Seal". Hidden City Philadelphia. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  3. ^ McDevitt, John (May 5, 2015). "Plaque Dedication Marks 120th Anniversary of Creation of Philadelphia’s Flag". CBS Broadcasting Inc. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  4. ^ a b "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 4, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b "Estimates of Resident Population Change and Rankings: July 1, 2014 to July 1, 2015 – United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 9, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "Estimates of Resident Population Change and Rankings: July 1, 2014 to July 1, 2015 – United States – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 8, 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2015 Population". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 9, 2017. 
  8. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  9. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". "United States Geological Survey. February 2, 2015. Retrieved January 31, 2008. 
  10. ^ Brookes, Karin (2005). Zoë Ross, ed. Insight Guides: Philadelphia and Surroundings (Second Edition (Updated) ed.). APA Publications. pp. 21–22. "ISBN "1-58573-026-2. 
  11. ^ "American FactFinder – People Reporting Ancestry". U.S. Census Bureau. 2015. Retrieved April 26, 2017. Click on 'Add/Remove Geographies', enter 'Philadelphia', select city or county (same result either way), click on 'Show Table'. 
  12. ^ Great Migration - Black History -, ", retrieved April 9, 2017 
  13. ^ The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives, by Carmen Whalen and Víctor Vázquez-Hernández, Temple University Press, 2008, p. 90.
  14. ^ Tucker, Laura (November 25, 2014). "Philadelphia". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved October 11, 2015. 
  15. ^ Sisak, Michael A. (November 6, 2015). "Philadelphia Becomes First World Heritage City in US". ABC News Internet Ventures. Retrieved November 6, 2015. 
  16. ^ a b "Gross Metropolitan Product". U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. September 20, 2017. Retrieved November 26, 2017. 
  17. ^ "Philadelphia PA". CrediFi. Retrieved October 16, 2016. 
  18. ^ a b "Philadelphia's Newest Skyscraper: The Comcast Innovation and Technology Center". Visit Philadelphia. Retrieved April 3, 2015. 
  19. ^ "Gateway to Public Art in Philadelphia". "Fairmount Park Art Association. August 10, 2011. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2017. according to the Smithsonian Institution, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculpture than any other city in the country ['"Save Outdoor Sculpture! program]. 
  20. ^ "Mural Arts Philadelphia – Press kit" (PDF). "Mural Arts Philadelphia. Retrieved December 6, 2017. Mural Arts Philadelphia is the nation’s largest public art program...creating nearly 4,000 artworks that have transformed public spaces. 
  21. ^ a b c "2014 City Park Facts" (PDF). The Trust for Public Land. pp. 9, 25, 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 20, 2016. Retrieved January 6, 2017. 
  22. ^ a b "Visit Philadelphia 2017 Annual Report" (PDF). "Visit Philadelphia. p. 6. Retrieved December 5, 2017. 
  23. ^ Amy He (June 17, 2017). "Chinese company helps boost Philadelphia as biotech sector". "China Daily. Retrieved December 10, 2017. 
  24. ^ "U.S. Marine Corps Decade Timeline". 
  25. ^ "Marine Corps marks its founding in Philly in 1775". Philadelphia Media Network. 
  26. ^ a b c "Philadelphia Firsts 1681–1899". USHistory. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  27. ^ "John Morgan (1735–1789)". Penn in the 18th Century. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. 
  28. ^ "The Nine Capitals of the United States". "United States Senate. Retrieved December 5, 2017. 
  29. ^ "About the Philadelphia Zoo". Philadelphia Zoo. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  30. ^ "About Wharton". The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  31. ^ "Philadelphia selected as World Heritage City". Philadelphia Media Network (Digital), LLC. 
  32. ^ Pritzker 422
  33. ^ a b Josephy 188–189
  34. ^ Brookes, Karin; John Gattuso, Lou Harry, Edward Jardim, Donald Kraybill, Susan Lewis, Dave Nelson and Carol Turkington (2005). Zoë Ross, ed. Insight Guides: Philadelphia and Surroundings (Second Edition (Updated) ed.). APA Publications. p. 21. "ISBN "1-58573-026-2. 
  35. ^ Weigley RF (eds); et al. (1982). Philadelphia: A 300-Year History. New York and London: "W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 4–5. "ISBN "0-393-01610-2. 
  36. ^ Avery, Ron (1999). A Concise History of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Otis Books. p. 19. "ISBN "0-9658825-1-9. 
  37. ^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 7, 14 – 16
  38. ^ "Explore PA History website". Retrieved December 23, 2010. 
  39. ^ Lew, Alan A. (2004). "Chapter 4 – The Mid-Atlantic and Megalopolis". Geography: USA. Northern Arizona University. Archived from the original on February 2, 2015. 
  40. ^ "Rappleye, Charles (2010). Robert Morris: Financier of the American Revolution. New York City: Simon and Schuster. p. 13. "ISBN "1-4165-7091-8. 
  41. ^ "View of Philadelphia, Circa 1770". "Library of Congress. "World Digital Library. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  42. ^ Insight Guides: Philadelphia and Surroundings, pages 30–33
  43. ^ "Part 3: Philadelphia/The Yellow Fever Epidemic". Africans in America. PBS Online. 1998. 
  44. ^ Arnebeck, Bob (January 30, 2008). "A Short History of Yellow Fever in the US". Benjamin Rush, Yellow Fever and the Birth of Modern Medicine. Archived from the original on October 28, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2008. 
  45. ^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 214, 218, 428 – 429
  46. ^ "A Brief History of Philadelphia". Philadelphia History. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2006. 
  47. ^ a b "Consolidation Act of 1854". Retrieved September 17, 2014. 
  48. ^ Insight Guides: Philadelphia and Surroundings, pages 38–39
  49. ^ "Notes on the historical development of population in West Philadelphia", University of Pennsylvania.
  50. ^ "Detroit and the Great Migration, 1916–1929 by Elizabeth Anne Martin". Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan. July 5, 2007. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008. 
  51. ^ John Hazelton, The Historical Value of Trumbull's - Declaration of Independence, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography - Volume 31, (Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1907), 38.
  52. ^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 535, 537
  53. ^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 563 – 564
  54. ^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 578 – 581
  55. ^ "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. 
  56. ^ "Continuing Economic Decline: A Foreboding Future for Philadelphia" (PDF). White Paper. October 15, 1996. Retrieved September 29, 2015. 
  57. ^ "Philadelphia's Changing Middle Class: After Decades of Decline, Prospects for Growth". Retrieved September 29, 2015. 
  58. ^ Insight Guides: Philadelphia and Surroundings, pages 44–45
  59. ^ A Concise History of Philadelphia, page 78
  60. ^ "Census: Phila. keeps on growing" (archive). by Dylan Purcell and Karie Simmons. March 14, 2013. Interstate General Media, LLC. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
  61. ^ "USGS Geography: The National Map". Retrieved December 17, 2007.  (Example coordinates of high point: Latitude: 40° 04′ 37″, Longitude: −75° 12′ 29″.)
  62. ^ Railsback, Bruce. "The Fall Line." GEOL 1122: Earth's History of Global Change. "University of Georgia Department of Geology.
  63. ^ "Philadelphia Neighborhoods and Place Names, A–K". Philadelphia Information Locator System.
  64. ^ a b Daly, Molly (February 4, 2011). "A Guide To Philadelphia's 'Squares'". CBS Philly. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  65. ^ "Philadelphia City Hall location". The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
  66. ^ "Franklin Square History". Historic Philadelphia. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  67. ^ Maria Panaritis (April 22, 2015). "(Greater) Center City's population second only to Midtown Manhattan's". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved July 15, 2015. 
  68. ^ Insight Guides: Philadelphia and Surroundings. p. 58. 
  69. ^ "About Philadelphia2035". Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  70. ^ "Philadelphia 2035: The Comprehensive Plan". Philadelphia City Planning Commission. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  71. ^ "Philadelphia Housing Authority". Retrieved December 24, 2013. 
  72. ^ "Philadelphia Parking Authority: History". Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2013. 
  73. ^ "Christ Church". AIA Philadelphia. Archived from the original on September 18, 2015. Retrieved September 9, 2015. 
  74. ^ a b Philadelphia: A 300-Year History. pp. 11, 41, 174–175, 251–253. 
  75. ^ "Philadelphia Historical Commission". Retrieved April 11, 2009. 
  76. ^ Aitken, Joanne (June 3–19, 2004). "Breaking Ground". Philadelphia City Paper. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. 
  77. ^ Mark Alan Hughes (June 1, 2000). "Dirt Into Dollars; Converting Vacant Land Into Valuable Development". Retrieved December 24, 2013. 
  78. ^ Historical marker on Elfreth's Alley
  79. ^ "Climate Summary for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania". Weatherbase. Retrieved September 17, 2014. 
  80. ^ Trewartha GT, Horn LH (1980) Introduction to climate, 5th edn. McGraw Hill, New York, NY
  81. ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". "United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved December 6, 2017. Note: high resolution map, may be slow to download.
  82. ^ a b c d e f g h i "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". "National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 14, 2011. 
  83. ^ Lipman, Don (2013-01-07). "One wild storm: A look back at the 'Blizzard of '96'". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-12-19. 
  84. ^ "Average Days of Precipitation, .01 Inches or more". Archived from the original on June 20, 2006. Retrieved July 28, 2006. 
  85. ^ a b "WMO Climate Normals for PHILADELPHIA/INT'L ARPT PA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  86. ^ a b c d "Station Name: PA PHILADELPHIA INTL AP". "National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13. 
  87. ^ a b "Philadelphia Record Highs and Lows". Retrieved April 3, 2007. 
  88. ^ ThreadEx; search for location= "PA - Philadelphia", variable= "Station thread"
  89. ^ Wood, Anthony R. "Snow total at airport gets a boost A new measuring station and technique likely contributed to two 8-inch-plus readings". The Inquirer. Archived from the original on 2014-07-28. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  90. ^ "State of the Air 2017 – Methodology and Acknowledgements". American Lung Association. Retrieved December 8, 2017. 
  91. ^ a b "Philadelphia County – State of the Air 2017". American Lung Association. Retrieved December 7, 2017. 
  92. ^ a b "Most Polluted Cities". American Lung Association. Retrieved December 8, 2017. 
  93. ^ "Census" (PDF). United States Census. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2010.  page 36
  94. ^ Campbell Gibson. "Population of the 100 largest cities and other urban places in the United States: 1790 to 1990". United States Bureau of the Census. 
  95. ^ "Historical, demographic, economic, and social data: the United States, 1790–1970". Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
  96. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Pennsylvania's 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting". Archived from the original on March 12, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2017. 
  97. ^ "Census: Phila. keeps on growing". Interstate General Media, LLC. March 14, 2013. Archived from the original on March 19, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2013. 
  98. ^ a b "2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 5, 2017. 
  99. ^ a b c d e f American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 2010 Demographic Profile Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File". U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census. Archived from the original on March 5, 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2011. 
  100. ^ a b c "Pennsylvania – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". 
  101. ^ United States Census Bureau. "How Does the Census 2000 Question on Race Differ from the 1990 Question?". Archived from the original on November 27, 2001. Retrieved January 31, 2011. 
  102. ^ a b "People Reporting Ancestry: 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 5, 2017. 
  103. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Philadelphia 2015: The State of the City" (PDF). The Pew Charitable Trusts. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  104. ^ Trulia (March 15, 2013). "America's Most Irish Towns". "Forbes. Retrieved February 7, 2014. 
  105. ^ "Exploring Gay Philadelphia". Visit Philadelphia. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
  106. ^ "Guide to Philadelphia's Gayborhood". CBS Local Media. June 5, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
  107. ^ "Philadelphia immigration". Philadelphia immigration. August 5, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2016. 
  108. ^ Laura Sanchez Ubanell (January 3, 2014). "Puerto Rico's population continues to decline as the economic plague persists". Voxxi. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2014. 
  109. ^ "Latino Philadelphia at a Glance" (PDF). Latino Philadelphia. Retrieved October 4, 2017. 
  110. ^ Overcoming the World Missions Crisis: Thinking Strategically to Reach the World, Russell Penney, page 110, 2001
  111. ^ Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research Center
  112. ^ "America's Changing Religious Landscape". "Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015. 
  113. ^ "Philadelphia". "Jewish Virtual Library. 
  114. ^ Levitt, Ross (December 30, 2009). "Group: Remains of more than 500 animals found at Philadelphia home". CNN. 
  115. ^ Joseph A. Slobodzian (January 15, 2012). "Man gets life sentence in killing over Santeria". The Philadelphia Inquirer – via 
  116. ^ "The Italian Market; A South Philadelphia mainstay since the 19th Century". Visit Philadelphia. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
  117. ^ "Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania". "Modern Language Association. Archived from the original on August 15, 2013. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  118. ^ New York Times Sunday Review, Loose Ends "The Sound of Philadelphia Fades Out" Daniel Nester March 1, 2014
  119. ^ Gordon, Matthew J. (2006). "Interview with William Labov". Journal of English Linguistics. 34 (4): 332–51. "doi:10.1177/0075424206294308. 
  120. ^ Tom Avril (October 22, 2012). "Penn linguist Labov wins Franklin Institute award". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
  121. ^ Rocca, Mo (July 26, 2016). "An earful and accent that's distinctly Philly". "CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved February 14, 2017. 
  122. ^ "Philly Slang". Retrieved February 15, 2017. 
  123. ^ "Fortune 500 2017". Fortune. Retrieved November 25, 2017. 
  124. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2016". "Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved November 26, 2017. 
  125. ^ "Citywide Vision Philadelphia2035" (PDF). City of Philadelphia Planning Committee. June 2011. p. 34 (38 in the PDF file). Retrieved November 26, 2017. 
  126. ^ "Park Statistics". Retrieved February 10, 2015. 
  127. ^ a b "Listing of National Historic Landmarks by State – Pennsylvania (169)" (PDF). National Park Service. January 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2017. 
  128. ^ "Philadelphia Zoo: About". Philadelphia Zoo. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  129. ^ "Pennsylvania Hospital: About Us". Penn Medicine. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  130. ^ "Philadelphia Park System History". City of Philadelphia. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  131. ^ a b Weeks, Jerome (August 2006). "Philly goes the distance". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on August 20, 2006. 
  132. ^ "Public Art". Greater Philadelphia Tourism Marketing Corporation. Retrieved May 31, 2010. 
  133. ^ Aitken, Joanne (September 2, 2004). "Forget Paris". City paper. Archived from the original on December 3, 2007. 
  134. ^ Wetenhall, John. "About A Brief History of Percent-For-Art in America" (PDF). Public Art Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 1, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2006. 
  135. ^ "Office of Art and Culture". Retrieved December 24, 2013. 
  136. ^ "Mural Arts Program About page". Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved November 27, 2007. 
  137. ^ Rodney Kim (July 2, 2005). "Live 8 Philadelphia Review". Archived from the original on December 14, 2006. Retrieved April 24, 2007. 
  138. ^ Ehrlich, Eugene and Gorton Carruth. The Oxford Illustrated Literary Guide to the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982: 209. "ISBN "0-19-503186-5
  139. ^ Haas, Irvin. Historic Homes of American Authors. Washington, DC: The Preservation Press, 1991: 183. "ISBN "0-89133-180-8
  140. ^ "Windfall". "Time. January 15, 1940. Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  141. ^ "McGillin's History". McGillin's Olde Ale House. Retrieved June 26, 2015. 
  142. ^ "Reading Terminal Merchants". Reading Terminal. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  143. ^ "Baichwal, Ravi (June 10, 2010). "Philly reels from loss to Blackhawks". WLS. Retrieved February 25, 2011. 
  144. ^ "Eagles, Phillies top GQ list of 'Worst Fans in America'". March 17, 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
  145. ^ Westcott, Rich. "The Early Years of Philadelphia Baseball". SABR. Retrieved November 7, 2014. 
  146. ^ "Boathouse Row". A View on Cities. Retrieved June 26, 2015. 
  147. ^ "About the Dad Vail Regatta". Dad Vail Regatta Organizing Committee. Retrieved January 24, 2017. 
  148. ^ "About The Stotesbury Cup Regatta". Retrieved June 26, 2015. 
  149. ^ "Head of the Schuylkill Regatta History and Growth". Head of the Schuylkill Regatta®. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013. 
  150. ^ "Boathouse Row Clubs". Schuylkill Navy & Boathouse Row. Retrieved June 26, 2015. 
  151. ^ Warner, Bob. "Philadelphia voices interest in the 2024 Olympics". Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  152. ^ Claudia Vargas (May 29, 2014). "Phila. won't bid to host 2024 Summer Olympics". Retrieved October 4, 2017. 
  153. ^ "The City of Philadelphia, Emerald Ash Borer Management Plan" (PDF). The City of Philadelphia. 2012. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 19, 2016. Retrieved January 6, 2017. The City contains approximately 6,781 acres of watershed parks including East/West Fairmount Parks (2052 ac.), Wissahickon Valley Park (2042 ac.) 
  154. ^ "National Register of Historic Places – Fairmount Park – #72001151". National Park Service. February 7, 1972. Archived from the original on December 30, 2016. Retrieved January 6, 2017. Locations: Philadelphia ; Both banks of Schuylkill River and Wissahickon Creek, from Spring Garden St. to Northwestern Ave. 
  155. ^ a b "City Charter Commission". Agency History. City of Philadelphia, Department of Records. November 8, 2000. Retrieved April 18, 2009. 
  156. ^ a b Charter Commission (1967) [1951]. "Philadelphia Home Rule Charter, Annotated" (PDF). City of Philadelphia. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 25, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2010. 
  157. ^ "Third Judicial Circuit". Retrieved June 2, 2012. 
  158. ^ "U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania". Retrieved June 2, 2012. 
  159. ^ "Trial Division". First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  160. ^ "Family Division". First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  161. ^ "Orphans' Court". First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  162. ^ Chris Brennan & Aubrey Whelan (November 7, 2017). "Larry Krasner wins race for Philly DA". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  163. ^ Peter Hall (January 10, 2015). "Retiring Chief Justice Castille says he kept faith in fellow jurists". The Morning Call. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  164. ^ "MunicipalCourt". The Philadelphia Courts, First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. February 11, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2010. 
  165. ^ "Traffic Court". The Philadelphia Courts, First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. February 11, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2010. 
  166. ^ "Philadelphia Traffic Court". Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System. Retrieved January 8, 2011. 
  167. ^ "Membership requirements for the Minor Judiciary Education Board". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  168. ^ "Courts>Supreme Court>Calendar". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  169. ^ "Courts>Superior Court>Calendar". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  170. ^ "Courts>Commonwealth Court>Calendar". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  171. ^ "How Judges Are Elected". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  172. ^ "Supreme Court Prothonotary's Addresses". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  173. ^ "Superior Court Prothonotary's Addresses". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  174. ^ "Court Info » Court Locations - Philadelphia". United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  175. ^ "About the Court » Court Location - Philadelphia". United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  176. ^ a b "The Administration of Voter Registration in Pennsylvania-2016 Report to the General Assembly" (PDF). PA Department of State. June 2017. Retrieved July 27, 2017. 
  177. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". 
  178. ^ "Senator Arlen Specter to Teach At Penn Law". News and Stories. The University of Pennsylvania School of Law. Archived from the original on July 2, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2012. 
  179. ^ Madonna, G. Terry (February 13, 2015). "Politically Uncorrected: Presidential nominees and Philadelphia conventions". Daily Local News. Retrieved March 30, 2016. 
  180. ^ Bewley, Joel; Jan Hefler (December 11, 2006). "Four killings put 2006 total over '05 top". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 9, 2007. 
  181. ^ "The Year in Murder: 2013 Marks a Historic Low for Many Cities". Retrieved February 25, 2014. 
  182. ^ a b "Crime Maps & Stats – Philadelphia Police Department". Retrieved January 24, 2017. 
  183. ^ "Philadelphia Homicides in 2007". Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. 
  184. ^ "Philadelphia PA Crime Statistics (2005 Crime Data)". AreaConnect LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2006. 
  185. ^ a b "Rankings by Population Group (Top 10/Bottom 10)". Morgan Quitno Awards. Archived from the original on December 11, 2006. Retrieved December 11, 2006. 
  186. ^ "Top 100 most dangerous places to live in the USA". 
  187. ^ "Philadelphia becomes largest US city to decriminalize marijuana". Retrieved January 24, 2017. 
  188. ^ "About Us – The School District of Philadelphia". Philadelphia School District. Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  189. ^ "About Us – Schools – The School District of Philadelphia". Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  190. ^ Hurdle, Jon (March 7, 2013). "Philadelphia Officials Vote to Close 23 Schools". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  191. ^ Jacobs, Peter (October 7, 2014). "The Average SAT Score Last Year Was Just Under 1500". Business Insider. Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  192. ^ Florida, Richard (August 27, 2012). "America's Leading College Towns". The Atlantic: City Lab. Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  193. ^ Brownlee, David B.; Thomas, George E. (2000). Building America's First University: An Historical and Architectural Guide to the University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. "ISBN "0812235150. 
  194. ^ Oliver, Sharon (October 21, 2011). "The Phila. area's biggest colleges". Philadelphia Business Journal. Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  195. ^ "NIH Awards by Location & Organization". April 20, 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  196. ^ Wilkinson, Gerry. "The History of the Philadelphia Inquirer". Philadelphia Press Association. Retrieved May 27, 2006. 
  197. ^ Davies, Dave (March 2, 2009). "Daily News to be labeled edition of Inquirer; no change to content, staff". 
  198. ^ a b Launder, William (April 2, 2012). "Philadelphia Newspapers Sold Yet Again". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  199. ^ Philadelphia Media Network (Digital), LLC. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  200. ^ "2013 Top Media Outlets: Newspapers, Blogs, Consumer Magazines, Social Networks, Websites, and Broadcast Media" (PDF). BurrellesLuce. June 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  201. ^ Philadelphia Tribune. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  202. ^ Philadelphia magazine. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  203. ^ Philadelphia Weekly. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  204. ^ Philadelphia Gay News. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  205. ^ The Jewish Exponent. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  206. ^ Al Día. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  207. ^ Philadelphia Metro. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  208. ^ The Daily Pennsylvanian. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  209. ^ The Temple News. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  210. ^ The Triangle. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  211. ^ a b Bishop, Todd (January 7, 2000). "The Media: One revolution after another". Philadelphia Business Journal. 
  212. ^ "FM Query Results" (archive). "FCC. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  213. ^ "AM Query Results" (archive). "FCC. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  214. ^ "#9 Philadelphia PA" (archive). Radio Online. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
  215. ^ Venta, Lance (October 6, 2016). "WRNB Drops Old School 100.3 Branding ". RadioBB Networks. Retrieved January 15, 2018. "...the station’s playlist had shifted back towards Urban AC."
  216. ^ "WHYY Radio & Podcasts" WHYY Inc. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  217. ^ "WRTI 90.1 Your Classical and Jazz Source" WRTI-FM / Temple University. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  218. ^ "WXPN 88.5 FM :: Public Radio from the University of Pennsylvania". WXPN-FM / The Trustees of The University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  219. ^ Ogden, Christopher (1999). Legacy: A Biography of Moses and Walter Annenberg. New York: Little, Brown and Company. "ISBN "0-316-63379-8. 
  220. ^ a b "Market Name: Philadelphia, PA". Television Bureau of Advertising, Inc. Retrieved January 17, 2018. 
  221. ^ "Nielsen 2017-18 TV Household DMA Ranks: Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). Television Bureau of Advertising, Inc. Retrieved January 17, 2018. 
  222. ^ "Clickable Regional Rail & Rail Transit Map". "SEPTA. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  223. ^ Cox (1967), p. 16.
  224. ^ "Renovations to City Hall and 15th Street Stations | History". SEPTA. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  225. ^ Mitchell, Matthew (April 1992). "SEPTA Budget for Fiscal 1993: Continued Rail Retrenchment". The Delaware Valley Association of Railroad Passengers. 
  226. ^ "The Delaware Valley Rail Passenger". Delaware Valley Association of Railroad Passengers. June 8, 1992. Retrieved May 1, 2016. 
  227. ^ "Abandoned Rails: The Newtown Branch". Retrieved 2016-05-01. 
  228. ^ a b c "Commonwealth of Pennsylvania FY2017 Fact Sheet" (PDF). Amtrak/National Railroad Passenger Corporation. November 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2018. 
  229. ^ "Amtrak: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 30th Street Station". Amtrak/National Railroad Passenger Corporation. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  230. ^ "Connecting Transit Services". SEPTA. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  231. ^ "NJ Transit: Philadelphia 30th Street". NJ Transit. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  232. ^ "PATCO Maps & Stations". Port Authority Transit Corporation. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  233. ^ a b "Philadelphia International Airport: About Us". Philadelphia International Airport. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  234. ^ "Northeast Philadelphia Airport". Philadelphia International Airport. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  235. ^ "Aircraft Movements: Landing and take-off of an aircraft". Airports Council International. Retrieved January 29, 2018. 
  236. ^ "SEPTA Airport Line Regional Rail Schedule". SEPTA. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  237. ^ "William Penn Plans the City". The University of Virginia. Retrieved January 29, 2018. 
  238. ^ a b c "OpenStreetMap". Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  239. ^ "History of the Blue Route". I-476 Improvement Project. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on February 19, 2007. Retrieved January 30, 2018. 
  240. ^ "Delaware River Port Authority: Our Bridges". Delaware River Port Authority. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  241. ^ "Burlington County Bridge Commission: About Our Bridges". Burlington County Bridge Commission. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  242. ^ "Philadelphia Bus Station". Greyhound. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  243. ^ "Bieber Transportation Group". Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  244. ^ "Trailways: Visit Philadelphia, PA". Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  245. ^ "Martz Group: Locations (enter Philadelphia, PA)". Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  246. ^ "Peter Pan: Philadelphia, PA Station". Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  247. ^ "NJ Transit: South Jersey to Philly (Market Street, Greyhound Bus Terminal and on weekdays at 30th Street Station)". Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  248. ^ "Megabus Stops: Philadelphia, PA". Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  249. ^ "BoltBus Buy Tickets". Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  250. ^ "Atlantic City with service to ..." (PDF).  (218 KB)
  251. ^ "Trolley Lines". SEPTA. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  252. ^ "Philadelphia's PCCs Return to Service." Railway Age. Vol. 205, No. 10, p. 30. October 1, 2005.
  253. ^ "Trolley Schedules". SEPTA. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  254. ^ "Most Walkable Cities in the United States: 2017". Walk Score. Archived from the original on December 16, 2017. Retrieved December 16, 2017. 
  255. ^ "Schuylkill River Trail Named Best Urban Trail in the Nation". Metro Corp. Retrieved February 9, 2017. 
  256. ^ "Fairmount Water Works: Our Story". Fairmount Water Works. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  257. ^ a b "About Philadelphia Water". City of Philadelphia. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  258. ^ "PECO: Company Information". PECO Energy Company. Retrieved January 29, 2017. 
  259. ^ "PECO_Investing_in_our_Community_Booklet". page 2. PECO Energy Company. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  260. ^ "PGW: About Us". Philadelphia Gas Works. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  261. ^ Maykuth, Andrew (October 28, 2014). "$1.86B sale of Philadelphia Gas Works is dead". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  262. ^ Hepp, Chris (December 8, 2014). "PGW deal latest casualty in Philly's Nutter-and-Clarke soap opera". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 16, 2015. Retrieved May 25, 2015. 
  263. ^ "PA 445 Implementation for 215/267 NPA Rescinded – 445 NPA Code Reclaimed" (PDF).  (64.5 KB)
  264. ^ "Wireless Philadelphia". Technically. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  265. ^ a b "Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia Sister Cities Program". Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia. Retrieved December 16, 2017. 
  266. ^ "Florence, Italy". Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  267. ^ "Tel Aviv, Israel". Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  268. ^ "Torun, Poland". Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  269. ^ "Tianjin, China". Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  270. ^ "Incheon, Korea". Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  271. ^ "Douala, Cameroon". Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  272. ^ "Nizhny Novgorod, Russia". Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  273. ^ "Frankfurt am Main, Germany". Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia. Retrieved September 11, 2015. 
  274. ^ "Kobe, Japan". Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  275. ^ "Abruzzo, Italy". International Visitors Council of Philadelphia. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  276. ^ "Aix-en-Provence, France". Citizen Diplomacy International Philadelphia. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  277. ^ "Sister Cities Park". International Visitors Council of Philadelphia. Retrieved June 3, 2012. 
  278. ^ "Sister Cities Park History". Center City District|Central Philadelphia Development Corporation|Center City District Foundation. Retrieved December 16, 2017. 
  279. ^ IVC of Philadelphia Partners with Mosul, Iraq in Groundbreaking Program Retrieved January 26, 2011.
  280. ^ Inbound delegations visiting Philadelphia Retrieved January 26, 2011.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

) )