See more Philippines articles on AOD.

Powered by
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia

( => ( => ( => Philippines [pageid] => 23440 ) =>

"Coordinates: 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122

Republic of the Philippines
Republika ng Pilipinas
""Flag of the Philippines
""Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1]
"For God, People, Nature, and Country"
Anthem: "Lupang Hinirang
Chosen Land
"Great Seal
"Seal of the Philippines.svg
"Dakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Tagalog)
Great Seal of the Philippines
""Location of the Philippines
Capital "Manilaa
14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967
Largest city "Quezon City
14°38′N 121°02′E / 14.633°N 121.033°E / 14.633; 121.033
Official languages
Recognized regional languages
National language "Filipino
Optional languagesb
"Ethnic groups (2010[3])

"Filipino (masculine or neutral)
Filipina (feminine)

"Pinoy (colloquial masculine)
Pinay (colloquial feminine)

"Philippine (English)
"Government "Unitary "presidential "constitutional "republic
• "President
"Rodrigo Duterte
"Leni Robredo
"Aquilino Pimentel III
"Pantaleon Alvarez
"Maria Lourdes Sereno
Legislature "Congress
"House of Representatives
"Formation of the republic e
June 12, 1898
• "Treaty of Paris (1898) / Spanish Cessionc
December 10, 1898
January 21, 1899
March 24, 1934
May 14, 1935
July 4, 1946
February 2, 1987
• Total
343,448[5] km2 (132,606 sq mi) ("63rd)
• Water (%)
0.61[6] (inland waters)
• "Land
• Census
100,981,437[7] ("12th)
• Density
351/km2 (909.1/sq mi) ("38th)
"GDP ("PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$955.587 billion[8]
• Per capita
"GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$389.484 billion[8]
• Per capita
"Gini (2012) 43.0[9]
medium · "44th
"HDI (2015) Increase 0.682[10]
medium · "116th
Currency "Piso (Filipino: "[ˈpiso]) (₱) ("PHP)
Time zone "PST ("UTC+8)
• Summer ("DST)
not observed ("UTC+8)
Date format
  • mm-dd-yyyy
  • dd-mm-yyyy ("AD)
"Drives on the right[11]
"Calling code "+63
"ISO 3166 code "PH
"Internet TLD ".ph
  1. ^ While Manila proper is designated as the nation's capital, the whole of "National Capital Region (NCR) is designated as "seat of government, hence the name of a region. This is because it has many national government institutions aside from Malacanang Palace and some agencies/institutions that are located within the capital city.[12]
  2. ^ The 1987 Philippine constitution specifies "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis."[13]
  3. ^ Filipino revolutionaries "declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, but Spain ceded the islands to the United States for $20 million in the "Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898 which eventually led to the "Philippine–American War.
  4. ^ The United States of America recognized the independence of the Philippines on July 4, 1946, through the "Treaty of Manila.[14] This date was chosen because it corresponds to the U.S. "Independence Day, which was observed in the Philippines as "Independence Day until May 12, 1962, when "President "Diosdado Macapagal issued Presidential Proclamation No. 28, shifting it to June 12, the date of "Emilio Aguinaldo's proclamation.[15]
  5. ^ In accordance with article 11 of the Revolutionary Government Decree of June 23, 1898, the "Malolos Congress selected a commission to draw up a draft "constitution on September 17, 1898. The commission was composed of Hipólito Magsalin, Basilio Teodoro, José Albert, "Joaquín González, "Gregorio Araneta, Pablo Ocampo, Aguedo Velarde, Higinio Benitez, "Tomás del Rosario, "José Alejandrino, Alberto Barretto, José Ma. de la Viña, José Luna, "Antonio Luna, Mariano Abella, Juan Manday, "Felipe Calderón, "Arsenio Cruz and Felipe Buencamino.[16] They were all wealthy and well educated.[17]

The Philippines ("/ˈfɪlɪpnz/ (""About this sound listen); "Filipino: Pilipinas "[ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs] or Filipinas "[ˌfɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially the Republic of the Philippines ("Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas)[a] is a "unitary "sovereign and "archipelagic country in "Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands[18] that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: "Luzon, "Visayas, and "Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is "Manila and the most populous city is "Quezon City, both part of "Metro Manila.[19] Bounded by the "South China Sea on the west, the "Philippine Sea on the east and the "Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with "Taiwan to the north, "Vietnam to the west, "Palau to the east and "Malaysia and "Indonesia to the south.

The Philippines' location on the Pacific "Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest "biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 343,448 square kilometers (132,606 sq mi)[5] and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.[7] As of January 2018, it was the "eighth-most populated country in Asia and the "12th most populated country in the world. Approximately 10 million additional Filipinos "lived overseas,[20] comprising one of the world's largest "diasporas. Multiple "ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, "Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by "successive waves of "Austronesian peoples.[21] Exchanges with Chinese, "Malay, "Indian, and "Islamic nations occurred. Then, various competing maritime "states were established under the rule of "Datus, "Rajahs, "Sultans or "Lakans.

The arrival of "Ferdinand Magellan in "Homonhon, "Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer "Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of "Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of "Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.[22] The Philippines became part of the "Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in "Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, "Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific "trade connecting "Asia with "Acapulco in the "Americas using "Manila galleons.[23]

As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the "Philippine Revolution followed in quick succession, which then spawned the short-lived "First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody "Philippine–American War.[24] Aside from the period of "Japanese occupation, the "United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after "World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by "a non-violent revolution.[25]

It is a founding member of the "United Nations, "World Trade Organization, "Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the "Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the "East Asia Summit. It also hosts the headquarters of the "Asian Development Bank.[26] The Philippines is considered to be an "emerging market and a "newly industrialized country,[27] which has an economy transitioning from being one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing.[28] It is one of the only two predominantly "Christian nations in "Southeast Asia, the other being "East Timor.



The Philippines was named in honor of "King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer "Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of "Leyte and "Samar Felipinas after the then-"Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.[29][30][31][32][33]

The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the "Philippine Revolution, the "Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the "Philippine Republic. From the period of the "Spanish–American War (1898) and the "Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the "Commonwealth period (1935–46), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name.[24] From the "1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear and it has since become the country's common name. Since the end of "World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines.[34]



The "Tabon Caves are the site of one of the oldest human remains known in the Philippines, the "Tabon Man

The "metatarsal of the "Callao Man, reliably dated by "uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date.[35] This distinction previously belonged to the "Tabon Man of "Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.[36][37] "Negritos were also among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.[38]

There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. "F. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos "evolved locally. "Wilhelm Solheim's "Island Origin Theory[39] postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the "Sundaland area around 48,000 to 5000 BC rather than by wide-scale migration. The "Austronesian Expansion Theory explains that "Malayo-Polynesians coming from "Taiwan began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BC, displacing earlier arrivals.[40]

The most widely accepted theory, based on linguistic and archeological evidence, is the ""Out-of-Taiwan" model, which hypothesizes that "Austronesians from "Taiwan, who were themselves descended from the neolithic civilizations of the Yangtze river such as the "Liangzhu culture,[41] began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BC, displacing earlier arrivals.[40][42] During the neolithic period, a "jade culture" is said to have existed as evidenced by tens of thousands of exquisitely crafted jade artifacts found in the Philippines dated to 2000 BC.[43][44]

The jade is said to have originated nearby in Taiwan and is also found in many other areas in insular and mainland Southeast Asia. These artifacts are said to be evidence of long range communication between prehistoric Southeast Asian societies.[45] By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland "plutocracies, and port principalities.[46]

Precolonial epoch[edit]

A "Boxer Codex image illustrating the ancient kadatuan or "tumao (noble class).

The current demarcation between the "Prehistory and the "Early history of the Philippines is 21 April 900, which is the equivalent on the "Proleptic Gregorian calendar for the date indicated on the "Laguna Copperplate Inscription—the earliest known surviving written record to come from the Philippines.[47] This date came in the middle of what anthropologists refer to as the Philippines' "Emergent Phase" (1st–14th centuries "CE), which was characterized by newly emerging socio-cultural patterns, the initial development of large coastal settlements, greater social stratification and specialization, and the beginnings of local and international trade.[48] By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had become progressive trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes, ushering complex lifeways which characterized what "F. Landa Jocano called the "Barangic Phase" of early Philippine history, beginning from the 14th century through the arrival of Spanish colonizers and the beginning of the Philippines' colonial period.[48]

The discovery of iron at around the 1st century AD created significant social and economic changes which allowed settlements to grow larger and develop new social patterns, characterized by social stratification and specialization.[48]

Some of these polities, particularly the coastal settlements at or near the mouths of large rivers,[49] eventually developed substantial trade contacts with the early trading powers of Southeast Asia, most importantly the "Indianized kingdoms of Malaysia and Java, the various dynasties of China,[49] Thailand,[50] and later, the Muslim Sultanate of Brunei.[51] They also traded with "Vietnam,[50] "Japan,[52] and other Austronesian islands.[53]

Based on archeological findings, trade with China is believed to have begun in the "Tang dynasty, but grew more extensive during the "Song dynasty.[51] By the 2nd millennium CE, some (but not all) Philippine polities were known to have sent trade delegations which participated in the Tributary system enforced by the Chinese imperial court.[51] These "tributary states" nominally acknowledged the "Sinocentric system which saw China and the imperial court as the cultural center of the world. Among the early Philippine polities, this arrangement fulfilled the requirements for trade with China, but did not actually translate into political or military control.[51][49]

The "Ifugao/Igorot people utilized terrace farming in the steep mountainous regions of northern Philippines over 2000 years ago.

Regarding the relations of early Philippine polities with the various state-level polities of Indonesia and Malaysia, legendary accounts often mention the interaction of early Philippine polities with the "Srivijaya empire, but there is not much archeological evidence to definitively support such a relationship.[48] Considerable evidence exists, on the other hand, for extensive trade with the Majapahit empire.[54]

The exact scope and mechanisms of Indian cultural influences on early Philippine polities are still the subject of some debate among Southeast Asian historiographers,[48][55] but the current scholarly consensus is that there was probably little or no direct trade between India and the Philippines,[48][55] and Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices,[54] filtered in during the 10th through the early 14th centuries, through early Philippine polities' relations with the Hindu "Majapahit empire.[48] The Philippine archipelago is thus one of the countries, (others include Afghanistan and Southern Vietnam) just at the outer edge of what is considered the ""Greater Indian cultural zone".[55]

The early polities of the Philippine archipelago were typically characterized by a three-tier social structure.[48][49] Although different cultures had different terms to describe them, this three-tier structure invariably consisted of an apex nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen called "alipin" or "oripun."[48][49] Among the members of the nobility class were leaders who held the political office of "Datu," which was responsible for leading autonomous social groups called ""barangay" or "dulohan".[48] Whenever these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement[48] or a geographically looser alliance group,[49] the more senior or respected among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu", variedly called a Lakan, Sultan, Rajah, or simply a more senior Datu.[51][48][56]

Early historic coastal polities[edit]

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, c. 900. The oldest known historical record found in the Philippines, discovered at "Lumban, Laguna.

The earliest historical record of these kingdoms is the "Laguna Copperplate Inscription, which indirectly refers to the Tagalog polity of "Tondo (c. before 900–1589) and two to three other settlements believed to be located somewhere near Tondo, as well as a settlement near Mt. Diwata in Mindanao, and the temple complex of Medang in Java.[47] Although the precise political relationships between these polities is unclear in the text of the inscription, the artifact is usually accepted as evidence of intra- and inter-regional political linkages as early as 900 CE.[47][51][49] By the arrival of the earliest European ethnographers during the 1500s, Tondo was led by the paramount ruler called a ""Lakan".[51][49] It had grown into a major trading hub, sharing a monopoly with the Rajahnate of Maynila over the trade of Ming dynasty[57] products throughout the archipelago.[51] This trade was significant enough that the "Yongle Emperor appointed a Chinese governor named Ko Ch'a-lao to oversee it.[58][59]

The next historical record referred a location in the Philippines is Volume 186 of "official history of the Song dynasty which describes the "country" of "Ma-i (c. before 971 – after 1339). Song dynasty traders visited Ma-i annually, and their accounts described Ma-i's geography, trade products, and the trade behaviors of its rulers.[60] Because the descriptions of Mai's location in these accounts are not clear, there is some dispute about Mai's possible location, with some scholars believing it was located in "Bay, Laguna,[61] and others believing it was on the island of "Mindoro.[37]

The "Butuan Ivory Seal (c. 1002) was recovered in the 1970s in "Butuan.

The official history of the Song dynasty next refers to the "Rajahnate of Butuan (c. before 1001–1756) in northeastern Mindanao which is the first polity from the Philippine archipelago recorded as having sent a tribute mission to the Chinese empire – on March 17, 1001 CE. Butuan attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja,[53] who was from a Buddhist ruling-class governing a Hindu nation. This state became powerful due to the local goldsmith industry and it also had commercial ties and a diplomatic rivalry with the "Champa civilization.

The "Kedatuan of Madja-as (c. 1200–1569) was founded following a civil war in collapsing Srivijaya, wherein loyalists of the Malay "datus of Srivijaya defied the invading "Chola dynasty and its puppet-Rajah, called Makatunao, and set up a guerrilla-state in the islands of the "Visayas. Its founding datu, Puti, had purchased land for his new realms from the aboriginal "Ati hero, Marikudo.[62]["verification needed] Madja-as was founded on "Panay island (named after the destroyed state of "Pannai allied under Srivijaya which was located in "Sumatra). Afterwards, the people of Madja-as often raided the port cities of southern China and warred with the Chinese navy.[63]

The "Rajahnate of Cebu[64] (c. 1200–1565) was a neighbor of Madja-as in the Visayas led by Rajamuda "Sri Lumay, a monarch with partial "Tamil descent. This state grew wealthy by making use of the inter-island shipping within the archipelago.[65] Both the Rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu were allied to each other and they also maintained contact and had trade routes with "Kutai, a Hindu country[66] in south "Borneo established by Indian traders.[67]

The earliest legendary date mentioning the "Rajahnate of Maynila (c. 1258–1571) on the island of Luzon across the Pasig River from Tondo has to do with the naval victory of the Bruneian Rajah Ahmad over the Majapahit Rajah Avirjirkaya, who ruled a prior pre-Muslim settlement in the same location.[51] Chinese records of this period also mention a polity called "Luzon." This is believed to be a reference to Maynila since "Portuguese and Spanish accounts from the 1520s explicitly state that "Luçon" and "Maynila" were "one and the same",[51] although some historians argue that since none of these observers actually visited Maynila, "Luçon" may simply have referred to all the Tagalog and Kapampangan polities that rose up on the shores of Manila Bay.[68] Either way, from the early 1500s to as late as the 1560s, this seafaring people was referred to in Portuguese Malacca as "Luções, and they participated in trading ventures and military campaigns in "Burma, "Malacca and "Eastern Timor[69][70][71] where they were employed as traders and mercenaries.[72][73][74]

In northern Luzon, "Caboloan (Pangasinan) (c. 1406–1576) sent emissaries to China in 1406–1411,[75] and it also traded with Japan.[76]

Map showing the extent of the "Sultanate of Sulu in 1822.

The 1300s saw the arrival and eventual spread of "Islam in the Philippine archipelago. In 1380, "Karim ul' Makdum and Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an "Arab trader born in Johore, arrived in "Sulu from "Malacca and established the "Sultanate of Sulu by converting Sulu's rajah, "Rajah Baguinda Ali and marrying his daughter.[77][78] At the end of the 15th century, "Shariff Mohammed Kabungsuwan of "Johor introduced Islam in the island of Mindanao and established the "Sultanate of Maguindanao. The sultanate form of government extended further "into Lanao.[79]

Islam then started to spread out of "Mindanao in the south and went into Luzon in the north. "Manila in Luzon was Islamized during the reign of Sultan "Bolkiah in 1485 to 1521. This was accomplished because the "Sultanate of Brunei subjugated Tondo by defeating "Rajah Gambang in battle and thereafter installing the Muslim rajah, "Rajah Salalila to the throne and by establishing the Bruneian puppet-state of the Rajahnate of Maynila.[80][81][82][83] Sultan Bolkiah also married Laila Mecana, the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra to expand "Brunei's influence in both Luzon and Mindanao.[84] The Muslims then proceeded to wage wars and conduct slave-raids against the Visayans.[85] Participating in the Muslim raids, the "Sultanate of Ternate consequently destroyed the "Kedatuan of Dapitan in Bohol.[86] The Hindu Rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu also endured slave raids from, and waged wars against the Sultanate of Maguindanao.[87] Simultaneous with these slave-raids, was the rebellion of Datu "Lapu-Lapu of "Mactan against "Rajah Humabon of Cebu.[88] There was also a simmering territorial conflict between the Polity of Tondo and the Bruneian vassal-state, the Islamic Rajahnate of Maynila, to which the ruler of Maynila, "Rajah Matanda, sought military assistance against Tondo from his relatives at the Sultanate of Brunei.[89]

The rivalries between the Datus, Rajahs, Sultans, and Lakans eventually eased Spanish colonization. Furthermore, the islands were "sparsely populated[90] due to consistent natural disasters[91] and inter-kingdom conflicts. Therefore, colonization was made easy and the small states of the archipelago quickly became incorporated into the Spanish Empire and were "Hispanicized and Christianized.[92]

Colonial era[edit]

Journalist Alan Robles has opined, "Colonialism created the Philippines, shaped its political culture and continues to influence its mindset. The 333 years under Spain and nearly five decades under the USA decisively moulded the nation".[93] Anthropologist Prospero Covar has observed, "Our thinking, culture, and psychology became virtually westernized, when we were, in fact, Asians."[94]

Spanish rule[edit]

A sketch of a "Manila galleon used during the "Manila-Acapulco Trade.

In 1521, "Portuguese explorer "Ferdinand Magellan's expedition arrived in the Philippines, claimed the islands for Spain and was then killed at the "Battle of Mactan.[95] Colonization began when Spanish explorer "Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first Hispanic settlements in Cebu. After relocating to "Panay island and consolidating a coalition of native "Visayan allies, Hispanic soldiers and Latin-American recruits, the Spaniards then "invaded Islamic Manila, therein they put down the "Tondo Conspiracy and exiled the conspirators to "Guam and "Guerrero.[96] Under Spanish rule, they established Manila as the capital of the "Spanish East Indies (1571).[97]

They also defeated the Chinese warlord "Limahong.[98][99] To counteract the Islamization of the Philippines, the Spanish then conducted the "Castilian War which was aimed against the "Sultanate of Brunei[100][101] and war was also waged against the "Sultanate of Ternate and "Tidore (in response to Ternatean slaving and piracy against Spain's allies: "Bohol and "Butuan).[102] The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the "Reconquista, a centuries-long campaign to retake and rechristianize the Spanish homeland which was invaded by the Muslims of the "Umayyad Caliphate. The Spanish expeditions into the Philippines were also part of a larger Ibero-Islamic world conflict[103] that included "a rivalry with the Ottoman Caliphate which had a center of operations at its nearby vassal, the "Sultanate of Aceh.[104] Consequently, fortifications were also set up in "Taiwan and the "Maluku islands. These were abandoned and the Spanish soldiers, along with the "newly Christianized "Papuan natives of the "Moluccas, "withdrew back to the Philippines in order to re-concentrate their military forces because of a threatened invasion by the Japan-born "Ming-dynasty loyalist, "Koxinga, ruler of the "Kingdom of Tungning.[105] However, the planned invasion was aborted. Meanwhile, settlers were sent to the Pacific islands of "Palau and the "Marianas.[106]

Spanish rule eventually contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the fragmented states of the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Mexico-based "Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from "Madrid after the "Mexican War of Independence. The "Manila galleons, the largest wooden ships ever built, were constructed in "Bicol and "Cavite.[107] The Manila galleons were accompanied with a large naval escort as it traveled to and from Manila and "Acapulco.[108] The galleons sailed once or twice a year, between the 16th and 19th centuries.[109] The Manila Galleons brought with them "goods,[110] settlers[111] and military reinforcements destined for the Philippines, from "Latin America.[112]

The landing of the "Spanish expedition to Sulu by "Antonio Brugada.

Trade introduced foodstuffs such as "maize, "tomatoes, "potatoes, "chili peppers, "chocolate and "pineapples from "Mexico and "Peru. Within the Philippines, the "Marquisate of Buglas was established and the rule of it was awarded to "Sebastian Elcano and his crew, the survivors of the first circumnavigation of the world, as well as his descendants. New towns were also created[99] and "Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to "Christianity.[113] They also founded schools, a university, hospitals and churches which were built along the "Earthquake Baroque architectural style.[114] To defend their settlements, the Spaniards constructed and manned a network of military fortresses (called ""Presidios") across the archipelago.[115] The Spanish also decreed the introduction of free public schooling in 1863.[116] As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially.[117][118]

During its rule, Spain quelled "various indigenous revolts. There were also several external military challenges from Chinese and Japanese pirates, the Dutch, the English, the Portuguese and the Muslims of Southeast Asia. Those challengers were fought off despite the hostile forces having encircled the Philippine archipelago in a crescent formed from Japan to Indonesia. "British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 in an extension of the fighting of the "Seven Years' War. Spanish rule was restored following the "1763 Treaty of Paris.[92][119][120] The "Spanish–Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of "Mindanao and the "Moro Muslims in the "Sulu Sultanate formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.

Photograph of armed Filipino revolutionaries known as "Katipuneros.

In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines ("criollos)[121] and those of mixed ancestry ("mestizos) became wealthy and an influx of "Latin American immigrants[122] opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the "Iberian Peninsula ("peninsulares). The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands. Criollo dissatisfaction resulted in the 1872 "Cavite Mutiny that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution.[92][123][124][125]

Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three priests—"Mariano Gómez, "José Burgos, and "Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as "Gomburza)—were accused of "sedition by colonial authorities and executed.[123][124] This would inspire a "propaganda movement in Spain, organized by "Marcelo H. del Pilar, "José Rizal, and "Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion.[126] As attempts at reform met with resistance, "Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the secret society called the "Katipunan, who sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.[125]

Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the "Magdalo of "Cavite province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio's position as the leader of the revolution and "Emilio Aguinaldo took over. In 1898, the "Spanish–American War began in "Cuba and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo "declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, and the "First Philippine Republic was established in the "Barasoain Church in the following year.[92]

American rule[edit]

A depiction of the Battle of Paceo during the "Philippine–American War.

The islands were ceded by Spain to the United States as a result of the latter's victory in the "Spanish–American War.[127] A compensation of US$20 million was paid to Spain according to the terms of the "1898 Treaty of Paris.[128] As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the nascent First Philippine Republic, the "Philippine–American War broke out, the First Republic was defeated, and the archipelago was administered under an "Insular Government.[129] The war resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of combatants as well as a couple of hundred thousand civilians, mostly from a cholera epidemic.[129][130][131][132]

The Americans then suppressed other rebellious sub-states: mainly, the waning "Sultanate of Sulu, as well as the insurgent "Tagalog Republic, the Cantonal "Republic of Negros in the Visayas, and the "Republic of Zamboanga in Mindanao.[133][134] During this era, a renaissance in Philippine culture occurred, with the expansion of "Philippine cinema and "literature.[135][136][137] "Daniel Burnham built an architectural plan for "Manila which would have transformed it into a modern city.[138] In 1935, the Philippines was granted "Commonwealth status with "Manuel Quezon as president. He designated a national language and introduced women's suffrage and land reform.[139][140]

Japanese rule[edit]

"General Douglas MacArthur landing ashore during the "Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944.

Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the "Japanese Empire invaded and the "Second Philippine Republic of "José P. Laurel was established as a collaborator state. Many atrocities and "war crimes were committed during the war such as the "Bataan Death March and the "Manila massacre that culminated with the "Battle of Manila.[141] In 1944, Quezon died in exile in the United States and "Sergio Osmeña succeeded him. The "Allied Forces then employed a strategy of "island hopping towards the Philippine "archipelago, in the process, retaking territory conquered by Imperial Japan.

From mid-1942 through mid-1944, the "Filipino guerrilla resistance[142][143] had been supplied and encouraged by U.S. Navy submarines and a few parachute drops, so that the guerrillas could harass the Japanese Army and take control of the rural areas, jungles and mountains – thus, the Japanese Empire only controlled 12 out of 48 provinces.[144] While remaining loyal to the United States, many Filipinos hoped and believed that liberation from the Japanese would bring them freedom and their already-promised independence.

Eventually, the largest naval battle in history, according to gross tonnage sunk, the "Battle of Leyte Gulf, occurred when Allied forces started the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese Empire.[145][146] Allied troops "defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died.[147][148][149]

Postcolonial period[edit]

"Proclamation of Philippine independence from the United States (1946).

On October 11, 1945, the Philippines became one of the "founding members of the "United Nations.[150] The following year, on July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially recognized by the "United States as an independent nation through the "Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of "Manuel Roxas.[6] Disgruntled remnants of the communist "Hukbalahap[151] continued to roam the countryside but were put down by President "Elpidio Quirino's successor "Ramon Magsaysay.[152][153] Magsaysay's successor, "Carlos P. Garcia, initiated the "Filipino First Policy,[154] which was continued by "Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of "Emilio Aguinaldo's "declaration,[155][156] while furthering the "claim on the eastern part of "North Borneo.[157][158]

In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to "Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but was accused of massive corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds.[159] Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared "Martial Law on September 21, 1972.[160] This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations but the US were steadfast in their support.[161]

On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader "Benigno Aquino, Jr., was "assassinated on the tarmac at "Manila International Airport. Marcos eventually called snap "presidential elections in 1986.[162] Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent, leading to the "People Power Revolution. Marcos and his allies fled to "Hawaii and Aquino's widow, "Corazon Aquino was recognized as president.[162][163]

Contemporary history[edit]

The 1991 eruption of "Mount Pinatubo is the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.

The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, "coup attempts, "disasters, a persistent "communist insurgency,[164] and a military conflict with "Moro separatists.[165] During "Corazon Aquino's administration, U.S. forces withdrew from the Philippines, due to the rejection of the "U.S. Bases Extension Treaty,[166][167] and leading to the official transfer of "Clark Air Base in November 1991 and "Subic Bay to the government in December 1992.[168][169] The administration also faced a series of natural disasters, including the eruption of "Mount Pinatubo in June 1991.[170][171] After introducing a constitution that limited presidents to a single term, Aquino did not stand for re-election.

Aquino was succeeded by "Fidel V. Ramos, who won the "Philippine presidential election held in May 1992. During this period the country's economic performance remained modest, with a 3.6%[172] percent GDP growth rate.[173] However, the political stability and economic improvements, such as the peace agreement with the "Moro National Liberation Front in 1996,[174] were overshadowed by the onset of the "1997 Asian financial crisis.[175][176] On his Presidency the death penalty was revived in the light of the Rape-slay case of Eileen Sarmienta and Allan Gomez in 1993 and the first person to be executed was "Leo Echegaray in 1999.[177]

Ramos' successor, "Joseph Estrada assumed office in June 1998 and managed to regain the economy from −0.6% growth to 3.4% by 1999 amidst the "1997 Asian financial crisis.[178][179][180] The government had announced a war against the "Moro Islamic Liberation Front in March 2000 and neutralized the camps including the headquarters of the insurgents.[181][182] In the middle of ongoing conflict with the "Abu Sayyaf,[183] accusations of alleged corruption, and a stalled impeachment process, "Estrada's administration was overthrown by the "2001 EDSA Revolution and succeeded by his "Vice President, "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 20, 2001.[184]

In "Arroyo's 9-year administration, the economy experienced a phenomenal growth of 4-7% averaging at 5.33% from 2002 to 2007 with the completion of infrastructure projects like "LRT Line 2 in 2004[185] and managed to avoid the "Great Recession.[186] By comparison, the Philippines has been growing an average of 3.6% from 1965 to 2001 or 3.5% (1986-2001) if we include only those years when democracy was already achievement in the Philippines on 1986. The improvement of the Philippine annual growth rate from her predecessors (since Marcos Regime to Estrada Administration) was around 1.7–1.87%. And this jumpstart from a sluggish economy for almost 5 decades that left it behind by its neighbors in the 1960s would prove to be the Philippines rise from being the sick man of Asia to become one of the ""Tiger Cub Economy" for the next decade after her administration.[172] Nevertheless, it was tied with graft and political scandals like the "Hello Garci scandal pertaining to the alleged manipulation of votes in the "2004 presidential elections.[187][188][189][190]

On November 23, 2009, the "Maguindanao massacre led to the murder of 34 journalists.[191][192]

"Benigno Aquino III won the "2010 national elections and served as the "15th "President of the Philippines. The first major issue he dealt with was the 2010 "Manila hostage crisis that caused deeply strained relations between "Manila and "Hong Kong for a time. The "Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed on October 15, 2012, as the first step of the creation of an autonomous political entity named "Bangsamoro.[193] However, territorial disputes in eastern "Sabah and the "South China Sea have escalated.[194][195][196]

On May 15, 2013, the Philippines implemented the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, commonly known as "K–12 program. It added two more years to the country's ten-year schooling system for primary and secondary education.[197] On November 8, 2013, "Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) struck and heavily devastated the country, especially in the "Visayas.[198][199] When the United States President "Barack Obama visited the Philippines on April 28, 2014, the "Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, was signed, paving the way for the return of "United States Armed Forces bases into the country.[200][201][202][203] On January 25, 2015, 44 members of the "Philippine National Police-"Special Action Force were killed after "a clash took place in "Mamasapano, "Maguindanao putting efforts to pass the "Bangsamoro Basic Law into law in an impasse.[204][205]

"Rodrigo Duterte takes his oath as he is sworn in as the 16th President of the Philippines

Former "Davao City mayor "Rodrigo Duterte of "PDP–Laban won the "2016 presidential election becoming the first president from "Mindanao.[206] On July 12, 2016, the "Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled in favor of the Philippines in its "case against China's claims in the South China Sea.[207] After winning the Presidency, Duterte launched an intensified anti-drug campaign to fulfill a campaign promise of wiping out criminality in six months.[208] By March 2017, the death toll for the "Philippine Drug War passed 8,000 people, with 2,679 killed in legitimate police operations and the rest the government claims to be homicide cases.[209][210][211]

Duterte initiated the "Build, Build, Build" program, which aims to usher the Philippines into a new "golden age" of infrastructure. It will create more jobs and business opportunities, which, in turn, would sustain the country’s economic growth and accelerate poverty reduction.[212] The construction industry needs two million more workers to sustain the program.[213][214]

The Build, Build, Build program is made up of 75 projects, which includes six air transport projects, 12 rail transport projects, and four water transport projects. It also includes four major flood management projects, 11 water supply and irrigation projects, four power projects, and three other public infrastructure projects.[215] The Philippines is expected to spend $160 billion to $180 billion up to 2022 for the public investments in infrastructure.[216]


"Malacañang Palace is the official residence of the "President of the Philippines.

The Philippines has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a "presidential system.[217] It is governed as a "unitary state with the exception of the "Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a "federal, "unicameral, or "parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.[218][219]

The "President functions as both "head of state and "head of government and is the "commander-in-chief of the "armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the "cabinet.[220] The "bicameral "Congress is composed of the "Senate, serving as the "upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the "House of Representatives, serving as the "lower house, with members elected to a three-year term.[220]

Senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both "legislative districts and through sectoral representation.[220] The "judicial power is vested in the "Supreme Court, composed of a "Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen "associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the "Judicial and Bar Council.[220]

Foreign relations[edit]

"President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President "Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in "Pasay City, 2017.

The Philippines' international relations are based on trade with other nations and the well-being of the 10 million "overseas Filipinos living outside the country.[221] As a founding and active member of the "United Nations, the Philippines has been elected several times into the "Security Council. "Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the "United Nations General Assembly. The country is an active participant in the "Human Rights Council as well as in "peacekeeping missions, particularly in "East Timor.[222][223][224]

In addition to membership in the United Nations, the Philippines is also a founding and active member of "ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among states in the Southeast Asian region.[225] It has hosted several "summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.[226]

The Philippines values its relations with the United States.[221] It supported the United States during the Cold War and the War on Terror and is a "major non-NATO ally. Despite this history of goodwill, controversies related to the presence of the now former "U.S. military bases in "Subic Bay and "Clark and the current "Visiting Forces Agreement have flared up from time to time.[221] Japan, the biggest contributor of "official development assistance to the country,[227] is thought of as a friend. Although historical tensions still exist on issues such as the plight of "comfort women, much of the animosity inspired by memories of World War II has faded.[228]

Relations with other nations are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western and European countries while similar economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a bridge in relations with "Spain.[229][230][231] Despite issues such as "domestic abuse and war affecting overseas Filipino workers,[232][233] relations with "Middle Eastern countries are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there.[234]

With communism no longer the threat it once was, once hostile relations in the 1950s between the Philippines and "China have improved greatly. Issues involving Taiwan, the Spratly Islands, and concerns of expanding Chinese influence, however, still encourage a degree of caution.[228] Recent foreign policy has been mostly about economic relations with its Southeast Asian and Asia-Pacific neighbors.[221]

The Philippines is an active member of the "East Asia Summit (EAS), the "Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the "Latin Union, the "Group of 24, and the "Non-Aligned Movement.[220] It is also seeking to strengthen relations with Islamic countries by campaigning for observer status in the "Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.[235][236]



The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) are responsible for national security and consist of three branches: the "Philippine Air Force, the "Philippine Army, and the "Philippine Navy (includes the "Marine Corps).[237][238][239] The Armed Forces of the Philippines are a "volunteer force.[240] Civilian security is handled by the "Philippine National Police under the "Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG).[241][242]

In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the largest separatist organization, the "Moro National Liberation Front, is now engaging the government politically. Other more militant groups like the "Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the communist "New People's Army, and the "Abu Sayyaf have previously kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly on the southern island of "Mindanao.[244][245][246][247] Their presence decreased due to successful security provided by the Philippine government.[248][249] At 1.1 percent of GDP, the Philippines spent less on its military forces than the regional average. As of 2014 Malaysia and Thailand were estimated to spend 1.5%, China 2.1%, Vietnam 2.2% and South Korea 2.6%.[250][251]

The Philippines has been an "ally of the United States since World War II. A "mutual defense treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951. The Philippines supported American policies during the "Cold War and participated in the "Korean and "Vietnam wars. It was a member of the now dissolved "SEATO, a group that was intended to serve a role similar to "NATO and that included Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[252] After the start of the "War on Terror, the Philippines was part of the coalition that gave support to the United States in Iraq.[253]

Administrative divisions[edit]

The Philippines is divided into three island groups: "Luzon, "Visayas, and "Mindanao. These are further divided into 17 "regions, 81 "provinces, 145 "cities, 1,489 "municipalities, and 42,036 "barangays.[254] In addition, Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the definition of the territorial sea around the Philippine archipelago does not affect the "claim over the eastern part of "Sabah.[255][256]

Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Ecija Northern Samar Northern Samar Northern Samar Negros Oriental Negros Occidental Mountain Province Misamis Oriental Misamis Occidental Metro Manila Masbate Masbate Masbate Marinduque Maguindanao Leyte La Union Lanao del Sur Lanao del Norte Laguna Kalinga Isabela City Isabela Iloilo Iloilo Iloilo Ilocos Sur Ilocos Norte Ifugao Guimaras Eastern Samar Eastern Samar Dinagat Islands Davao Oriental Davao Oriental Davao Occidental Davao Occidental Davao Occidental Davao del Sur Davao del Norte Davao del Norte Davao del Norte Cotabato City Cotabato Compostela Valley Cebu Cebu Cebu Cebu Cebu Cebu Cebu Cavite Catanduanes Capiz Camarines Sur Camarines Sur Camarines Sur Camarines Norte Camiguin Cagayan Cagayan Cagayan Cagayan Cagayan Cagayan Cagayan Bulacan Bukidnon Bohol Bohol Bohol Biliran Biliran Benguet Batangas Batangas Batangas Batangas Batanes Batanes Batanes Bataan Basilan Aurora Apayao Antique Antique Antique Antique Albay Albay Albay Albay Aklan Agusan del Sur Agusan del Norte Abra Zamboanga Sibugay Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga City Zamboanga City Zambales Samar Samar Samar Samar Tawi-Tawi Tawi-Tawi Tawi-Tawi Tawi-Tawi Tawi-Tawi Tawi-Tawi Tarlac Surigao del Sur Surigao del Sur Surigao del Norte Surigao del Norte Surigao del Norte Surigao del Norte Surigao del Norte Sulu Sulu Sulu Sulu Sulu Sulu Sulu Sulu Sultan Kudarat Southern Leyte Southern Leyte South Cotabato Sorsogon Siquijor Sarangani Sarangani Romblon Romblon Romblon Romblon Romblon Romblon Rizal Rizal Quirino Quezon Quezon Quezon Quezon Quezon Quezon Quezon Pangasinan Pangasinan Pampanga Palawan Palawan Palawan Palawan Palawan Palawan Palawan Palawan Palawan Palawan Palawan Palawan Palawan Palawan Oriental Mindoro Occidental Mindoro Occidental Mindoro Occidental Mindoro Occidental Mindoro Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) Ilocos Region (Region I) Cagayan Valley (Region II) Central Luzon (Region III) National Capital Region (NCR) CALABARZON (Region IV-A) MIMAROPA Region Bicol Region (Region V) Eastern Visayas (Region VIII) Central Visayas (Region VII) Western Visayas (Region VI) Negros Island Region (now defunct) - Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental reverted to Regions VI and VII, respectively Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX) Northern Mindanao (Region X) Caraga (Region XIII) Davao Region (Region XI) SOCCSKSARGEN (Region XII) Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) Philippine Sea Sulu Sea South China Sea Celebes Sea Lake Buluan Dupulisan Bay Pagadian Bay Mayo Bay Pujada Bay Melgar Bay Taguite Bay Sindangan Bay Panguil Bay Dumanquilas Bay Dapa Channel Lake Mainit Pilar Bay Tolong Bay San Juanico Strait Janabatas Channel Ormoc Bay Carigara Bay Maqueda Bay Cabugao Bay Lake Buhi Lake Bato Panganiran Bay Lake Naujan Mompog Pass Bagac Bay Subic Bay Dingalan Bay Palanan Bay Divilacan Bay Dasol Bay Bangui Bay Gingoog Bay Bislig Bay Lianga Bay Lanuza Bay Luzon Strait (Batanes Islands) Luzon Strait (Babuyan Islands) Baler Bay Casiguran Sound Masbate Pass Ticao Pass Burias Pass San Pedro Bay Batangas Bay Balayan Bay San Bernardino Strait Sibutu Passage Lanao Lake Taal Lake Sarangani Strait Sarangani Bay Balintang Channel Babuyan Channel Dinagat Sound Surigao Strait Sogod Bay Canigao Channel Cebu Strait Macajalar Bay Butuan Bay Iligan Bay Sorsogon Bay Albay Gulf Lagonoy Gulf Lamon Bay Tayabas Bay Tablas Strait Laguna de Bay Linapacan Strait Mindoro Strait Cuyo East Pass Cuyo West Pass Guimaras Strait Iloilo Strait Panay Gulf Samar Sea Asid Gulf Ragay Gulf San Miguel Bay Polillo Strait Lingayen Gulf Leyte Gulf Bohol Sea Bohol Sea Bohol Sea Basilan Strait Sibuguey Bay Illana Bay Davao Gulf Moro Gulf Maligay Bay Sulu Sea Camotes Sea Camotes Sea Camotes Sea Camotes Sea Visayan Sea Visayan Sea Visayan Sea Visayan Sea Visayan Sea Visayan Sea Verde Island Passage Jintotolo Channel Manila Bay Manila Bay Manila Bay Sibuyan Sea Sibuyan Sea Sibuyan Sea Sibuyan Sea Sibuyan Sea Sibuyan Sea Sibuyan Sea Sibuyan Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea Tañon Strait Tañon Strait Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Celebes Sea Celebes Sea Celebes Sea Celebes Sea Celebes Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea Tañon Strait South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Sulu Sea Celebes Sea Celebes Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea Philippine Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea South China Sea Honda Bay Cabalian Bay Pagapas Bay Sigayan Bay Basiad Bay Maribojoc Bay Taytay Bay Calavite Passage Balabac StraitLabelled map of the Philippines - Provinces and Regions.png
""About this image

Administrative regions[edit]

Regions in the Philippines are "administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the "provinces of the country for administrative convenience. The Philippines is divided into 17 regions (16 administrative and 1 "autonomous). Most government offices are established by region instead of individual provincial offices, usually (but not always) in the city designated as the regional center. As of 2015, "CALABARZON was the most populated region while the "National Capitol Region (NCR) the most densely populated.

10 Most Populous Regions of the Philippines (2015)[257]
Rank Designation Name Area Population (as of 2015)  % of Population Population density
1st Region IV "CALABARZON 16,873.31 km2 (6,514.82 sq mi) 14,414,774 14.27% 850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
2nd NCR "National Capital Region 619.57 km2 (239.22 sq mi) 12,877,253 12.75% 21,000/km2 (54,000/sq mi)
3rd Region III "Central Luzon 22,014.63 km2 (8,499.90 sq mi) 11,218,177 11.11% 510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
4th Region VII "Central Visayas 10,102.16 km2 (3,900.47 sq mi) 6,041,903 5.98% 600/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
5th Region V "Bicol Region 18,155.82 km2 (7,010.00 sq mi) 5,796,989 5.74% 320/km2 (830/sq mi)
6th Region I "Ilocos Region 16,873.31 km2 (6,514.82 sq mi) 5,026,128 4.98% 300/km2 (780/sq mi)
7th Region XI "Davao Region 20,357.42 km2 (7,860.04 sq mi) 4,893,318 4.85% 240/km2 (620/sq mi)
8th Region X "Northern Mindanao 20,496.02 km2 (7,913.56 sq mi) 4,689,302 4.64% 230/km2 (600/sq mi)
9th Region XII "SOCCSKSARGEN 22,513.30 km2 (8,692.43 sq mi) 4,545,276 4.50% 200/km2 (520/sq mi)
10th Region VI "Western Visayas 12,828.97 km2 (4,953.29 sq mi) 4,477,247 4.43% 350/km2 (910/sq mi)


Topography of the Philippines

The Philippines is an "archipelago composed of about 7,641 islands[258] with a total land area, including inland bodies of water, of 343,448 square kilometers (132,606 sq mi)[5]. The 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) of coastline makes it the country with the 5th "longest coastline in the world.[220][259] It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude and is bordered by the "Philippine Sea[260] to the east, the "South China Sea[261] to the west, and the "Celebes Sea[262] to the south. The island of "Borneo[263] is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. The "Moluccas and "Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest and "Palau is located to the east of the islands.[220]

Most of the mountainous islands are covered in "tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is "Mount Apo. It measures up to 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao.[264][265] The Galathea Depth in the "Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the "third deepest in the world. The trench is located in the Philippine Sea.[266]

The longest river is the "Cagayan River in northern Luzon.[267] "Manila Bay, upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to "Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the "Pasig River. "Subic Bay, the "Davao Gulf, and the "Moro Gulf are other important bays. The "San Juanico Strait separates the islands of Samar and Leyte but it is traversed by the "San Juanico Bridge.[268]

Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific "Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The "Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in "tectonic "subduction.[269] Around 20 "earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the "1990 Luzon earthquake.[270]

"Mayon is the Philippines' most active volcano.

There are "many active volcanoes such as the "Mayon Volcano, "Mount Pinatubo, and "Taal Volcano. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century.[271] Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the "Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, the area represents a habitat for "biodiversity conservation, the site also contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia.[272]

Due to the "volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa and one of the largest copper deposits in the world.[273] It is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, and environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.[273] "Geothermal energy is a product of volcanic activity that the Philippines has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.[274]


"Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta), one of the smallest "primates.

The Philippines' rainforests and its extensive coastlines make it home to a diverse range of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures.[275] It is one of the ten most biologically "megadiverse countries.[276][277][278] Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere.[279] The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of "mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise.[280] Native mammals include the "palm civet cat, the "dugong, the "cloud rat and the "Philippine tarsier associated with "Bohol.

Although the Philippines lacks large mammalian predators, it does have some very large "reptiles such as "pythons and "cobras, together with gigantic "saltwater crocodiles. The largest crocodile in captivity, known locally as "Lolong, was captured in the southern island of Mindanao.[281][282] The "national bird, known as the "Philippine eagle has the longest body of any "eagle, it generally measures 86 to 102 cm (2.82 to 3.35 ft) in length and weighs 4.7 to 8.0 kg (10.4 to 17.6 lb).[283][284] The Philippine eagle is part of the "Accipitridae family and is endemic to the rainforests of "Luzon, "Samar, "Leyte and "Mindanao.

"Rafflesia speciosa is endemic to the island of "Panay.

Philippine "maritime waters encompass as much as 2,200,000 square kilometers (849,425 sq mi) producing unique and diverse marine life, an important part of the "Coral Triangle.[255] The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively.[275][279] New records[285][286] and species discoveries[287][288][289] continuously increase these numbers underlining the uniqueness of the marine resources in the Philippines. The "Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea was declared a "World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds.[275][290]

With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands,[279] Philippine "rainforests boast an array of flora, including many rare types of "orchids and "rafflesia.[291][292] "Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is "an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the Philippines's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999.[293] Many species are endangered and scientists say that "Southeast Asia, which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 21st century.[294] According to "Conservation International, "the country is one of the few nations that is, in its entirety, both a hotspot and a megadiversity country, placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation."[291]


The Philippines has a tropical maritime "climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: tag-init or tag-araw, the hot dry season or summer from March to May; tag-ulan, the rainy season from June to November; and tag-lamig, the cool dry season from December to February. The southwest "monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan.[295] Temperatures usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.[220][296]

The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F).[295] In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. Whether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of "Baguio at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), making it a popular destination during hot summers.[295]

Sitting astride the "typhoon belt, most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October,[297] with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall.[298][299][300] Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys.[297] The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the "archipelago was the July 1911 "cyclone, which dropped over 1,168 millimeters (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio.[301] Bagyo is the local term for a "tropical cyclone in the Philippines.[301]


""Philippine Export Treemap in 2012.
A proportional representation of the Philippines' exports, 2012.

The Philippine economy is the "34th largest in the world, with an estimated 2017 "gross domestic product (nominal) of $348.593 billion.[8] Primary exports include "semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, "copper products, "petroleum products, "coconut oil, and fruits.[6] Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand.[6] Its unit of "currency is the "Philippine peso (₱ or PHP).[302]

A "newly industrialized country, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing. Of the country's total labor force of around 40.813 Million,[6] the "agricultural sector employs 30% of the labor force, and accounts for 14% of GDP. The industrial sector employs around 14% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP. Meanwhile, the 47% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56% of GDP.[304][305]

The "unemployment rate as of 14 December 2014, stands at 6.0%.[306][307] Meanwhile, due to lower charges in basic necessities, the inflation rate eases to 3.7% in November.[308] Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion.[309] The "Debt-to-GDP ratio continues to decline to 38.1% as of March 2014[310][311] from a record high of 78% in 2004.[312] The country is a net importer[305] but it is also a creditor nation.[313]

After World War II, the Philippines was for a time regarded as the second wealthiest in East Asia, next only to Japan.[221][314][315] In the 1960s its economic performance started being overtaken. The economy stagnated under the dictatorship of President "Ferdinand Marcos as the regime spawned economic mismanagement and political volatility.[221][315] The country suffered from slow economic growth and bouts of economic "recession. Only in the 1990s with a program of "economic liberalization did the economy begin to recover.[221][315]

The "1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the "peso and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the "fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the "International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.[174] There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades.[316][317] Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.[318][319][320]

The economy is heavily reliant upon "remittances from "overseas Filipinos, which surpass "foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. "Remittances peaked in 2010 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% in 2012 and in 2014, Philippines total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion.[321][322] Regional development is uneven, with Luzon – Metro Manila in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions,[323][324] although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Despite constraints, service industries such as "tourism and "business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country.[305][325]

"Goldman Sachs includes the country in its list of the ""Next Eleven" economies[326][327] but China and India have emerged as major economic competitors.[328] "Goldman Sachs estimates that by the year 2050, it will be the 20th largest economy in the world.[329] "HSBC also projects the Philippine economy to become the 16th largest economy in the world, 5th largest economy in Asia and the largest economy in the "South East Asian region by 2050.[330][331][332] The Philippines is a member of the "World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the "World Trade Organization (WTO), the "Asian Development Bank which is headquartered in "Mandaluyong, the "Colombo Plan, the "G-77 and the "G-24 among other groups and institutions.[6]


The transportation infrastructure in the Philippines is relatively underdeveloped. This is partly due to the mountainous terrain and the scattered geography of the islands, but also the result of consistently low investment in infrastructure by successive governments. In 2013, about 3% of national GDP went towards infrastructure development – much lower than many of its neighbors.[333][334] There are 216,387 kilometers (134,457 mi) of roads in the Philippines, with only 61,093 kilometers (37,961 mi) of roads paved.[335]

Buses, "jeepneys, taxis, and motorized tricycles are commonly available in major cities and towns. In 2007, there were about 5.53 million registered motor vehicles with registrations increasing at an average annual rate of 4.55%.[336]

The "Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines manages airports and implementation of policies regarding safe air travel[337][338] with 85 public airports operational as of 2014.[339] "Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) serves the "Greater Manila Area together with "Clark International Airport. "Philippine Airlines, Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name, and "Cebu Pacific, the leading low-cost airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic and international destinations.[340][341][342]

Expressways and highways are mostly located on the island of Luzon including the "Pan-Philippine Highway, connecting the islands of "Luzon, "Samar, "Leyte, and "Mindanao,[343][344] the "North Luzon Expressway, "South Luzon Expressway, and the "Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway.[345][346][347][348][349][350]

A "LRT-2 train at "Santolan LRT Station.

"Rail transport in the Philippines only plays a role in transporting passengers within "Metro Manila and the "province of "Laguna. The region is served by three rapid transit lines: "LRT-1, and "LRT-2 and "MRT-3.[351][352][353] In the past, railways served major parts of Luzon, and railroad services were available on the islands of Cebu and Negros. Railways were also used for agricultural purposes, especially in tobacco and sugar cane production. Rail freight transportation was almost non-existent as of 2014. A few transportation systems are under development: "DOST-MIRDC and "UP are implementing pre-feasibility studies on Automated Guideway Transit.[354][355][356] A so-called Hybrid Electric Road Train which is a long "bi-articulated bus, was also being tested as of 2015.[357][358][359]

As an archipelago, inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary.[360] The busiest seaports are "Manila, "Batangas, "Subic, "Cebu, "Iloilo, "Davao, Cagayan de Oro, and "Zamboanga.[361] "2GO Travel and "Sulpicio Lines serve Manila, with links to various cities and towns through passenger vessels. The 919-kilometer (571 mi) "Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established in 2003.[362] The "Pasig River Ferry Service serves the major rivers in Metro Manila, including the "Pasig River and "Marikina River having numerous stops in Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina.[363][364]

Science and technology[edit]

""An IRRI researcher studying rice DNA under ultraviolet light.
An "IRRI researcher studying "rice "DNA under "ultraviolet light.

The Philippines has pursued efforts to improve the field of science and technology. The "Department of Science and Technology is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science- and technology-related projects in the Philippines.[365] The "National Scientist of the Philippines award is given to individuals that have contributed to different field of science in the country. Notable Filipino scientists include "Maria Orosa, a food technologist famous for her formulated food products like calamansi nip, soyalac and the "banana ketchup,[366]

"Fe del Mundo, a pediatrician whose pioneering work in pediatrics as an active medical practice spanned 8 decades,[367] "Paulo Campos, a physician who was dubbed as "The Father of Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines" for his contributions in the field of "nuclear medicine,[368] "Ramon Barba, an inventor and horticulturist known for his method to induce more flowers in mango trees.[369]

Research organizations include the "International Rice Research Institute, an international independent research and training organization established in 1960 with headquarters in "Los Baños, Laguna,[370][371] focusing on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques to help farmers in the country improve their lives.[372] The Philippines bought its first satellite in 1996.[373] In 2016, "the Philippines first micro-satellite, "Diwata-1 was launched aboard the US "Cygnus spacecraft.[374]


The Philippines has a sophisticated cellular phone industry and a high concentration of users. "Text messaging is a popular form of communication and, in 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion "SMS messages per day. Over five million mobile phone users also use their phones as virtual wallets, making it a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks.[375][376][377] The "Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commonly known as PLDT is the leading telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country.[375][378]

The "National Telecommunications Commission is the agency responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country.[379] There are approximately 383 AM and 659 FM radio stations and 297 television and 873 cable television stations.[380] On March 29, 1994, the country went live on the Internet via a 64 kbit/s connection from a router serviced by "PLDT to a Sprint router in California.[381] Estimates for "Internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people.[382][383] "Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent Internet activities.[384]


Limestone cliffs of "El Nido, Palawan.

The travel and tourism sector is a major contributor to the "economy, contributing 7.1% to the Philippine GDP in 2013 [385] and providing 1,226,500 jobs or 3.2 percent of total employment.[386] 2,433,428 international visitors arrived from January to June 2014 up by 2.22% in the same period in 2013. South Korea, China, and Japan accounted for 58.78% while the Americas accounted for 19.28% and Europe 10.64%.[387] The "Department of Tourism has responsibility for the management and promotion of the tourism sector.

The country's rich biodiversity is one of the main tourist attractions with its beaches, mountains, rainforests, islands and diving spots among the most popular tourist destinations. As an archipelago consisting of about 7,500 islands, the Philippines has numerous beaches, caves and other rock formations. "Boracay has glaring white sand beaches and was named as the best island in the world by "Travel + Leisure in 2012.[388] The "Banaue Rice Terraces in Ifugao, the historic town of "Vigan in "Ilocos Sur, the "Chocolate Hills in Bohol, "Magellan's Cross in "Cebu and the "Tubbataha Reef in Visayas are other highlights.

The Philippines is also one of the favorite "retirement destinations for foreigners due to its warm climate all year round, beaches and low cost of living.[389]

Water supply and sanitation[edit]


Among the achievements of the government in the Philippines are a high access to an "improved water source of 92% in 2010; the creation of financially sustainable water service providers ("Water Districts") in small and medium towns with the continuous long-term support of a national agency (the "Local Water Utilities Administration" LWUA); and the improvement of access, service quality and efficiency in Manila through two high-profle water concessions awarded in 1997.[390]

The challenges include limited access to sanitation services, high pollution of water resources, often poor drinking water quality and poor service quality, a fragmentation of executive functions at the national level among numerous agencies, and a fragmentation of service provision at the local level into many small service providers.[390]

In 2015 it was reported by the "Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF that 74% of the population had access to "improved sanitation and that "good progress" had been made.[391] The access to improved sanitation was reported to be similar for the urban and rural population.[391]


Population density per province as of 2009 per square kilometer.

The population of the Philippines increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame.[392] The first "official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.[393]

It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The 3.21% population growth rate between 1995 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005–2010 period, but remains a "contentious issue.[394][395] The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old.[6] Life expectancy at birth is 71.94 years, 75.03 years for females and 68.99 years for males.[396] Poverty Incidence significantly dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012.[397]

Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States having "Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. In 2007 there were an estimated[398][399] 12 million "Filipinos living overseas.[400]

According to the official count the population of the Philippines hit 100 million at the time of midnight on July 27, 2014, making it the 12th country to reach this number.[401]

The Philippine population will continue to increase throughout 2018 and is projected to reach around 107,190,081 by Dec. 31, 2018, based on projections made by the Commission on Population using the latest population census of 2015 (Philippine Statistics Authority). [402]


"Metro Manila is the most populous of the "3 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the "11th most populous in the world. as of 2007, census data showed it had a population of 11,553,427, comprising 13% of the national population.[403] Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces ("Bulacan, "Cavite, "Laguna, and "Rizal) of "Greater Manila, the population is around 21 million.[403][404]

Metro Manila's "gross regional product was estimated as of 2009 to be "468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP.[405] In 2011 Manila ranked as the "28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in "Southeast Asia.[406]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Dominant ethnic groups by province.

According to the 2000 census, 28.1% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Visayans/Bisaya (excluding Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray), 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% as "others",[6][407] which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the "Moro, the "Kapampangan, the "Pangasinense, the "Ibanag, and the "Ivatan.[408] There are also "indigenous peoples like the "Igorot, the "Lumad, the "Mangyan, the "Bajau, and the "tribes of Palawan.[409]

Filipinos generally belong to several "Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the "Austronesian or "Malayo-Polynesian speaking people.[409] It is believed that thousands of years ago Austronesian-speaking "Taiwanese aborigines migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, eventually displacing the earlier "Negrito groups of the islands.[410] "Negritos, such as the "Aeta and the "Ati, are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.[411]

Being at the crossroads of the West and East, the Philippines is also home to migrants from places as diverse as China, Spain, Mexico, United States, India, South Korea, and Japan. Two important non-indigenous minorities are the "Chinese and the "Spaniards.

The "Chinese, mostly descendants of immigrants from "Fujian, "China after 1898, number 2 million, although there are an estimated 27 percent of Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry,[412][413][414] stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese migrants.[415] Intermarriage between the groups is evident in the major cities and urban areas.[416]

At least one-third of the population of "Luzon, as well as old settlements in the "Visayas and "Zamboanga City at Mindanao (around 13.33% of the Philippine population), have partial Hispanic ancestry (from varying points of origin and ranging from "Latin America[417] to Spain).[418] Recent genetic studies confirm this partial European[419][420] and Latin-American ancestry.[421]

Other important non-indigenous minorities include "Indians, "Britons, and "Japanese people. The descendants of mixed-race couples are known as "mestizos.[422][423]


Population by "mother tongue (2010)
Language Speakers
"Tagalog 24.44% 24.44
"Cebuano 21.35% 21.35
"Ilokano 8.77% 8.77
"Hiligaynon 8.44% 8.44
"Waray 3.97% 3.97
Other local languages/dialects 26.09% 26.09
Other foreign languages/dialects 0.09% 0.09
Not reported/not stated 0.01% 0.01
TOTAL 92,097,978
Source: "Philippine Statistics Authority[3]

"Ethnologue lists 186 individual languages in the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages, while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the "Philippine branch of the "Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the "Austronesian language family.[409] The only language not classified as an Austronesian language is "Chavacano which is a "creole language of "Mexican-Spanish and is classified as a "Romance language.[424]

"Filipino and "English are the official languages of the country.[13] Filipino is a standardized version of "Tagalog, spoken mainly in Metro Manila and other urban regions. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. In most towns, the local indigenous language is spoken. The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of "Spanish and "Arabic on a voluntary and optional basis, although neither are used on as wide a scale as in the past.[13] Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use, but is experiencing a revival due to government promotion, while Arabic is mainly used in Islamic schools in Mindanao.[425] However, Spanish loanwords are still present today in many of the indigenous Philippine languages.[426]

Nineteen regional languages act as auxiliary official languages used as mediums of instruction: "Aklanon, "Bikol, "Cebuano, "Chavacano, "Hiligaynon, "Ibanag, "Ilocano, "Ivatan, "Kapampangan, "Kinaray-a, "Maguindanao, "Maranao, "Pangasinan, "Sambal, "Surigaonon, Tagalog, "Tausug, "Waray, and "Yakan.[2] Other indigenous languages such as, "Cuyonon, "Ifugao, "Itbayat, "Kalinga, "Kamayo, "Kankanaey, "Masbateño, "Romblomanon, "Malay, and several "Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces.[427]

Languages not indigenous to the islands are also taught in select schools. "Mandarin is used in Chinese schools catering to the "Chinese Filipino community. Islamic schools in "Mindanao teach "Modern Standard Arabic in their curriculum.[428] "French, "German, "Japanese, "Korean, and "Spanish are taught with the help of foreign linguistic institutions.[429] The Department of Education began teaching the "Malay languages of "Indonesian and "Malaysian in 2013.[430]


Religion in the Philippines (2010 census)
religion percent
Other, "irreligious or unanswered

The Philippines is an officially "secular state, although "Christianity is the dominant faith.[431] Census data from 2010 found that about 80.58% of the population professed "Catholicism.[4] Around 37% regularly attend "Mass and 29% identify as very religious.[432][433] "Protestants are 10.8%[434][435] of the total population, mostly endorsing "evangelical Protestant denominations that were introduced by American missionaries at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, they are heavily concentrated in Northern Luzon and Southern Mindanao.[436][437] The "Philippine Independent Church is a notable "independent Catholic denomination.[438][439][440] "Iglesia ni Cristo is a notable "Unitarian and "Restorationist denomination in the country and are mostly concentrated at Central Luzon.[441][442]

"Islam is the second largest religion. The "Muslim population of the Philippines was reported as 5.57% of the total population according to census returns in 2010,[4] although a 2012 report by the "National Commission on Muslim Filipinos estimates it at 11%.[443] The majority of Muslims live in the "Bangsamoro region.[444][445][446][447] Most practice "Sunni Islam under the "Shafi'i school.[448][449]

An unknown number of Filipinos are "irreligious, but they may form as much as 20% of the population.[450][451][452] Catholicism's historic dominance is steadily declining, with about 9% of adherents considering leaving their church.[453]

An estimated 2% of the total population practice "Philippine traditional religions, whose practices and folk beliefs are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam.[442][454] "Buddhism is practiced by around 2% of the population, and is concentrated among Filipinos of Chinese descent.[442][448][454] The remaining population is divided between a number of religious groups, including "Hindus, "Jews, and "Baha'is.[455]


The façade of the "Bonifacio Global City branch of "St. Luke's Medical Center

There are an increasing number of private health providers and, as of 2009, 67.1% of healthcare came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. In 2013, total expenditures on the health sector was 3.8% of GDP, below the "WHO target of 5%.[456] Health expenditure represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was USD52.[457] The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2010 was ₱28 billion (about USD597 million) or ₱310 ($7) per person[458] but had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as "Sin tax Bill).[459]

There are an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 dentists, and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people.[457] Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. 70% of nursing graduates go overseas to work. The Philippines is the biggest supplier of nurses for export.[460]

In 2001 there were about 1,700 "hospitals, of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private. "Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25% of all deaths. According to official estimates, 1,965 cases of "human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003, of which 636 had developed "acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Despite the increase of HIV/AIDS cases from 12,000 in 2005[461] to 17,450 as of April 2014 with 5,965 people who were under anti-retroviral therapy,[462] the country is still a low-HIV-prevalence country with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive.[463]


The "University of Santo Tomas, established in 1611, has the oldest "extant university charter in Asia.

The Philippines has a simple "literacy rate of 95.6%, with 95.1% for males and 96.1% for females. The Philippines had a "functional literacy rate of 86.45%, with 84.2% for males and 88.7% for females in 2008.[464][465] Spending on education accounted for 16.11% in the national budget proposed for 2015.[466][467]

The "Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private.[468] Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs.[220] A 6-year elementary and 4-year high school education is mandatory[469] with an additional two years being added in 2013.[470][471]

Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education. The "Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers post-secondary, middle-level education training and development. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulates standards in higher education.[472]

In 2004, "madaris were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education.[473] Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as "State Universities and Colleges (SUC) or "Local Colleges and Universities (LCU).[468] The "University of the Philippines, a system of eight (8) constituent universities, is the "national university system of the Philippines.[474]


A participant of the "Ati-Atihan Festival.

Philippine culture is a combination of "Eastern and "Western cultures. The Philippines exhibits aspects found in other Asian countries with a "Malay[475] heritage, yet its culture also displays a significant number of "Spanish and "American influences. Traditional festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common, these community celebrations are times for feasting, music, and dancing. The "Ati-Atihan, "Moriones and "Sinulog festivals are a couple of the most well-known.

Some traditions, however, are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The "Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the "tinikling and "singkil that both feature clashing bamboo poles.[476]

One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of "Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General "Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of "Hispanic nomenclature on the population.[477] The names of many streets, towns, and provinces are also in Spanish.

The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' love of "fast food and American film and music. Fast food outlets are found on many street corners. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast food chains like "Goldilocks and most notably "Jollibee, the leading fast food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against their foreign rivals.[478][479]


Colonial houses in "Vigan.

"Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II.[57] Some examples remain, mainly among the country's churches, government buildings, and universities. Four Philippine "baroque churches are included in the list of "UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the "San Agustín Church in Manila, "Paoay Church in "Ilocos Norte, "Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in "Ilocos Sur, and "Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in "Iloilo.[480] "Vigan in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there.[481]

The "American occupation in 1898 introduced a new breed of architectural structures in the Philippines. This led to the construction of government buildings and "Art Deco theaters. During the American period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by "Daniel Burnham was done on the portions of the city of "Manila. Part of the Burnham's plan was the construction of government buildings that resembled "Greek or "Neoclassical architecture.[482] In "Iloilo, a lot of the colonial edifices constructed during the American occupation in the country can still be seen. Commercial buildings, houses and churches in that era are abundant in the city and especially in "Calle Real.[483]

However, certain areas of the country like "Batanes have slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino ways of architecture assimilated differently due to the climate. Limestones and coral were used as building materials.[484] "Idjangs or "Ivatan castles were the primary shelter of the people prior to the Spanish conquest of the whole Philippines.[485]


Percussion instruments that make up the Philippine "kulintang ensemble, an example of pre-Hispanic musical tradition

Philippine music has evolved rapidly due to the different influences stemming from colonialism under other countries. Before the Spanish conquest of the islands, most music was reminiscent of, or heavily influenced by, nature. Some examples of this tribal music is Koyu No Tebulul of the "T'boli and Ambo Hato of the "Ifugao. This genre is often accompanied by gong music and one well known instrument is the "Kulintang.

During the Spanish era "Rondalya music, where traditional string orchestra "mandolin type instruments were used, was widespread. In the Philippines, Rondalya refers to any group of stringed instruments that are played using a plectrum or pick. Filipino instruments are made from indigenous Philippine wood; plectrums, or picks, are made from tortoise-shell. Other stringed instruments composing the standard Filipino rondalla are the 14-string bandurria found only in the Philippines, the laúd, the octavina, the Twelve-string guitar, the Ukulele, the bajo de uñas or double bass, the Guitarrón mexicano, and other Filipino-made instruments modeled and developed after the guitar. Harana and Kundiman are prevalent during this time wherein these songs are often used in courtship rituals.[486]

Marcelo Adonay (organist), Simplicio Solis (organist), Diego C. Perez (pianist), Jose Conseco (pianist) and "Doña Dolores Paterno (composer) were some of the recognized musicians in this era. Nowadays, American pop culture has a heavy hold on the Filipinos that evolved from the Spanish times when the American occupation happened. Along with Korean pop, these two are dominating the recent music scene in media.[487][488] However, the revival of Spanish-influence folk music has been possible thanks to the different choir groups coming in and going out of the country, such as the "Philippine Madrigal Singers.[489]


"Tinikling dancers.

Just like the evolution of Philippine music, dance as well has been in constant change. Prior to colonial rule, the Philippines has a wide array of ethnic dances from different tribal groups. This is due mainly to the fact that Philippines is an archipelago thus the different varieties of dance developed. Both Luzon and Visayas, at first, were more akin to tribal movements until the Spanish came. Mindanao represents more of an array of Muslim inspired dances and Spanish influence was minimal in the region of "Zamboanga.

Universal dances in the Philippines are found at societal functions such as rituals, mimicry, life cycle and parties. During the Spanish era, most dances are accompanied by Rondalya music usually with 14-string bandurrias that the Filipinos invented or by other type of stringed instruments that locally evolved in to the culture as well.

One famous dance that is well known is called the "Tinikling, where a band of Rondalya musicians play along with the percussive beat of the two bamboo poles. It usually starts with men and women acting a scene about "How rural townsfolk mingle". The dancers then graze thru the clashing of the bamboo poles held on opposite sides. The end displays the paired bamboo poles crossing each other. The Muslim version of this where bamboo poles are also used is called the "Singkil.[490] Nowadays, in the Modern and Post-Modern time periods, dances vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing to name a few.[491]

Visual art[edit]

The "Spoliarium (1884) by "Juan Luna.

Pottery and weaving are among the very first art forms showcasing Filipino artistic design and are evident from cave dwellings all over the country. Among these are mostly anthropomorphic earthenware jars dating from c. 5 BC to 225 AD. Weaving was mostly done by women, using fibers from abaca, pineapple, cotton, and bark to make clothes, rugs and hats. Baskets were mostly utilized to carry grain and other foods.[492][493]

Early Philippine sculpture is characterized by frontal nudity. One of the earliest forms are the bulols by the "Ifugao people which serve as an assurance for bountiful harvests. The original function of these sculptures are related to the ceremonies and beliefs of the tribes who created them. Arab and Russian missionaries also brought beveled type of carvings in the form of Okkil. The beginnings of this sculpture type started with the Islamization of "Sulu. The Spanish colonization of the country did not hinder Filipinos creating sculptures for objects of adoration. During this time, sculptures of deities and saints were used to teach Filipinos Christian doctrines. During the American colonialism, worshippers of faith were not discouraged to sculpt in order to adorn churches. Filipinos' first exposure to painting happened when "Spain conquered the Philippines and these were used as religious propaganda often displayed in churches. However, as education progressed and wealth increased, more and more artists started to shift from the traditional religious motifs to a more secular pattern of imagery.[494]

Paintings of early "modernist painters such as "Damián Domingo often still had a religious association but the art of "Juan Luna and "Félix Hidalgo showed a trend towards political statement. The first Philippine national artist "Fernando Amorsolo used post-modernism to produce paintings that illustrated aspects of Philippine culture, while other artists such as "Fernando Zóbel used both realistic and "abstract techniques.

In the modern period, the integration of architecture in the Art Deco style happened. Many of these examples can be seen in statues all over the country especially in public parks and spaces.[495]


As a general description, the distinct "value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly "Christianity), and commercial relationships.[496]

Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group.[497] The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and "Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'.[497] Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.[498]

Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.[499]


Left-to-right: "Lumpia, "Adobo, "Halo-halo and "Sisig.

Filipino cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its "Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many "Hispanic, "Chinese, "American, and other "Asian influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the "paellas and "cocidos created for fiestas.[479][500]

Popular dishes include "lechón, "adobo, "sinigang, "kare-kare, "tapa, "crispy pata, "pancit, "lumpia, and "halo-halo. Some common local ingredients used in cooking are "calamansi, coconuts, "saba (a kind of short wide "plantain), "mangoes, "ube, "milkfish, and "fish sauce. Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors, but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.[479][500]

Unlike many of their Asian counterparts, Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Filipino cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork.[501]

The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan (using the washed right hand for bringing food to the mouth)[502] was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas.[503] However, due to the various Filipino restaurants that introduced Filipino food to people of other nationalities as well as to Filipino urbanites, kamayan fast became popular. This recent trend also sometimes incorporates the "Boodle Fight" concept (as popularized and coined by the Philippine Army), wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates on top of which rice portions and Filipino viands are placed all together for a filial, friendly and/or communal kamayan feasting.[504]


"José Rizal is a pioneer of "Philippine Revolution through his literary works.

Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influences can nonetheless be detected in many cases. Philippine mythology mostly consists of creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, such as the "aswang, the "manananggal, the "diwata/"engkanto, and nature. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are "Maria Makiling, "Lam-Ang, and the "Sarimanok.[505]

Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created from the 17th to 19th century. "Adarna, for example, is a famous epic about an eponymous magical bird allegedly written by "José de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw".[506] "Francisco Balagtas, the poet and playwright who wrote "Florante at Laura, is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Filipino language. "José Rizal wrote the novels "Noli Me Tángere (Touch Me Not) and "El Filibusterismo (The Filibustering, also known as The Reign of Greed). He is considered a national hero.[507] His depiction of the injustices of Spanish rule, and his death by firing squad, inspired other Filipino revolutionaries to seek independence.[508] Several Filipino writers were awarded "National Artist of the Philippines such as "N. V. M. Gonzalez, "Amado V. Hernandez, "Francisco Arcellana, "Nick Joaquín, "F. Sionil José and many more.


"Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan languages are also used, especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. The dominant "television networks "ABS-CBN, "GMA and "TV5 also have extensive radio presence.[509]

The entertainment industry is vibrant and feeds "broadsheets and tabloids with an unending supply of details about "celebrities and sensationalist daily scandals. "Drama and "fantasy shows are anticipated as are Latin "telenovelas, "Asianovelas, and "anime. Daytime television is dominated by game shows, variety shows, and talk shows such as "Eat Bulaga and "It's Showtime.[510] "Philippine cinema has a long history and is popular domestically, but has faced increasing competition from "American, "Asian and "European films. Critically acclaimed directors and actors include "Lino Brocka and "Nora Aunor for films like "Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag (Manila: In the Claws of Light) and "Himala (Miracle).[511][512][513][514] In recent years it has become common to see celebrities flitting between television and movies and then moving into politics provoking concerns.[515]


"Brillante Mendoza is a prominent Filipino film director.

Salón de Pertierra was the first introduced moving picture on January 1, 1897 in the Philippines. All films were all in Spanish since Philippine cinema was first introduced during the final years of the Spanish era of the country. "Antonio Ramos was the first known movie producer. He used the Lumiere Cinematograph when he filmed Panorama de Manila (Manila landscape), Fiesta de Quiapo (Quiapo Fiesta), Puente de España (Bridge of Spain), and Escenas Callejeras (Street scenes). Meanwhile, "Jose Nepomuceno was dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Cinema".[516] Dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Cinema", his work marked the start of cinema as an art form in the Philippines.[517] His first film produced was entitled "Dalagang Bukid (Country Maiden) in 1919.

Film showing resumed in 1900 during the "American period. Walgrah, a British entrepreneur, opened the Cine Walgrah at No. 60 Calle Santa Rosa in "Intramuros. It was also during this time that a movie market was formally created in the country along with the arrival of silent movies. These silent films were always accompanied by gramophone, a piano, a quartet, or a 200-man choir. During the "Japanese occupation, filmmaking was put on hold. Nonetheless, it was continued on 1930s up until 1945 replacing the Hollywood market with Japanese films but met with little success. Postwar 1940s and the 1950s were known as the first golden age of "Philippine cinema with the resurgence of mostly Visayan films through Lapu-Lapu Pictures.

During the 1960s, "James Bond movies, bomba (soft porn) pictures and an era of musical films, produced mostly by Sampaguita Pictures, dominated the cinema. The second golden age occurred from 1970s to early 1980s. It was during this era that filmmakers ceased to produce pictures in black and white. A rise in Hollywood films dominated theater sales during the late 1980s until the 2000s.[518] The dawn of this era saw a dramatic decline of the mainstream Philippine movie industry.[519] In the year 2009, however, presence of box-office films in the Philippine Box Office has surged. The mid 2010s also saw broader commercial success of films produced by independent studios.[520][521]


A "PBA game at the "Smart Araneta Coliseum.

Various "sports and pastimes are popular in the Philippines including "basketball, "boxing, "volleyball, "football (soccer), "American football, both codes of "Rugby football, "badminton, "karate, "taekwondo, "billiards, "ten-pin bowling, "chess, and "sipa. "Motocross, "cycling, and "mountaineering are also becoming popular. Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines.[522][523] In 2010, "Manny Pacquiao was named ""Fighter of the Decade" for the 2000s (decade) by the "Boxing Writers Association of America (BWAA), "World Boxing Council (WBC), and "World Boxing Organization (WBO).[524] The national "martial art and sport of the country is "Arnis, "Eskrima or "Kali in some regions[525]

The Philippines has participated in the "Summer Olympic Games since "1924 and was the first country in "Southeast Asia to compete and win a medal.[526] The country had competed in every "Summer Olympic Games since then, except when they participated in the "American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics.[527] The Philippines is also the first "tropical nation to compete at the "Winter Olympic Games debuting in the "1972 edition.[528]


"Sabong or Cock Derby

"Traditional Philippine games such as luksung baka, patintero, piko, and tumbang preso are still played primarily as "children's games among the youth.[529][530] "Sungka is a traditional native Philippine board game. "Card games are popular during festivities, with some, including pusoy and tong-its, being used as a form of "illegal gambling. "Mahjong is played in some Philippine communities.

"Sabong or cockfighting is another popular entertainment especially among Filipino men, and existed prior to the arrival of the Spanish. "Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's chronicler, first documented this pastime in the kingdom of Taytay.[531][532] The "yo-yo, a popular toy in the Philippines, was introduced in its modern form by "Pedro Flores with its name coming from the "Ilocano language.[533]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ In the recognized regional "languages of the Philippines:
    In the recognized optional languages of the Philippines:
    • "Spanish: República de Filipinas
    • "Arabic: جمهورية الفلبين‎, "translit. Jumhuriat al-Falabin



  1. ^ "Republic act no. 8491". Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b DepEd adds 7 languages to mother tongue-based education for Kinder to Grade 3. "GMA News. July 13, 2013.
  3. ^ a b Philippine Statistics Authority 2014, pp. 29–34.
  4. ^ a b c "Table 1.10; Household Population by Religious Affiliation and by Sex; 2010" (PDF). 2015 Philippine Statistical Yearbook. East Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority: 1–30. October 2015. "ISSN 0118-1564. Retrieved August 15, 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h "East & Southeast Asia :: Philippines". The World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Author: Central Intelligence Agency. October 28, 2009. Archived from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  7. ^ a b "Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population - Philippine Statistics Authority". 
  8. ^ a b c d e "Philippines". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. October 2016. 
  9. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  10. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved March 21, 2017. 
  11. ^ Lucas, Brian (August 2005). "Which side of the road do they drive on?". Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  12. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 940, s. 1976". Manila: Malacanang. Archived from the original on May 29, 1976. Retrieved April 4, 2015. 
  13. ^ a b c Joselito Guianan Chan; Managing Partner. "1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article XIV, Section 7". Chan Robles & Associates Law Firm. Retrieved May 4, 2013. 
  14. ^ Treaty of General Relations Between the United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines. Signed at Manila, on 4 July 1946 (PDF), United Nations, archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011, retrieved December 10, 2007 
  15. ^ "Republic of the Philippines Independence Day". "United States State Department. Archived from the original on September 15, 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2015. 
  16. ^ Calderón, Felipe (1907). Mis memorias sobre la revolución filipina: Segunda etapa, (1898 á 1901). Manila: Imp. de El Renacimiento. pp. 234, 235; appendix, pp. 5–10. 
  17. ^ Dolan, Ronald E. (1983). Philippines, a country study (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. "ISBN "0-8444-0748-8. 
  18. ^ "More islands, more fun in PH". "CNN Philippines. February 20, 2016. Retrieved February 20, 2016. 
  19. ^ "Metro Manila Official Website". Metro Manila Development Authority. Retrieved December 17, 2015. 
  20. ^ "Stock Estimate of Filipinos Overseas As of December 2013" (PDF). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. Retrieved September 19, 2015. 
  21. ^ "Isidore Dyen (1965). "A Lexicostatistical Classification of the Austronesian Languages". Internationald Journal of American Linguistics, Memoir. 19: 38–46. 
  22. ^ "History of Cebu". Cebu City Tour. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  23. ^ "Kane, Herb Kawainui (1996). "The Manila Galleons". In Bob Dye. Hawaiʻ Chronicles: Island History from the Pages of Honolulu Magazine. I. Honolulu: "University of Hawaii Press. pp. 25–32. "ISBN "0-8248-1829-6. 
  24. ^ a b Constantino, R (1975). The Philippines: a Past Revisited. Quezon City: Tala Pub. Services. 
  25. ^ "The Original People Power Revolution". QUARTET p. 77. Retrieved February 28, 2008. 
  26. ^ admin. "Departments and Offices". Asian Development Bank. Asian Development Bank. Retrieved November 26, 2015. 
  27. ^ "The N-11: More Than an Acronym – Goldman Sachs" (PDF). "The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. March 28, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 10, 2011. 
  28. ^ CIA World Factbook, Philippines Archived July 19, 2015, at the "Wayback Machine., Retrieved May 15, 2009.
  29. ^ "Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth-century Philippine Culture and Society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 6. "ISBN "971-550-135-4. 
  30. ^ "Spate, Oskar H. K. (1979). "Chapter 4. Magellan's Successors: Loaysa to Urdaneta. Two failures: Grijalva and Villalobos". The Spanish Lake – The Pacific since Magellan, Volume I. Taylor & Francis. p. 97. "ISBN "0-7099-0049-X. Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
  31. ^ Friis, Herman Ralph, ed. (1967). The Pacific Basin: A History of Its Geographical Exploration. American Geographical Society. p. 369. 
  32. ^ "Galang, Zoilo M., ed. (1957). Encyclopedia of the Philippines, Volume 15 (3rd ed.). E. Floro. p. 46. 
  33. ^ Tarling, Nicholas (1999). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia – Volume One, Part Two – From c. 1500 to c. 1800. Cambridge University Press. p. 12. "ISBN "0-521-66370-9. 
  34. ^ "Quezon, Manuel, III (March 28, 2005). "The Philippines are or is?". Manuel L. Quezon III: The Daily Dose. Retrieved December 20, 2009. 
  35. ^ Henderson, Barney (August 4, 2010). "Archaeologists unearth 67000-year-old human bone in Philippines". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Fox, Robert B. (1970). The Tabon Caves: Archaeological Explorations and Excavations on Palawan. National Museum. p. 44. "ASIN B001O7GGNI. Retrieved December 16, 2009. 
  37. ^ a b "Scott, William Henry (1984). Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. p. 15. "ISBN "971-10-0227-2. 
  38. ^ "Scott, William Henry (1984). Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. p. 138. "ISBN "971-10-0227-2. Not one roof beam, not one grain of rice, not one pygmy Negrito bone has been recovered. Any theory which describes such details is therefore pure hypothesis and should be honestly presented as such. 
  39. ^ Solheim, Wilhelm G., II. (2006). Archeology and Culture in Southeast Asia. University of the Philippines Press. pp. 57–139. "ISBN "978-971-542-508-7.
  40. ^ a b Mijares, Armand Salvador B. (2006). The Early Austronesian Migration To Luzon: Perspectives From The Peñablanca Cave Sites. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 26: 72–78. (archived from the original on July 7, 2014)
  41. ^ Bellwood, Peter (2014). The Global Prehistory of Human Migration. p. 213. 
  42. ^ "Solheim, Wilhelm G., II. (January 2006). Origins of the Filipinos and Their Languages (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 3, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2009. 
  43. ^ Scott, William (1984). Prehispanic Source Material. p. 17. 
  44. ^ Bellwood, Peter (2011). Pathos of Origin. pp. 31–41. 
  45. ^ Hsiao-Chun, Hung (2007). Ancient jades map 3,000 years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia. 
  46. ^ Legarda, Benito, Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines. 23: 40. 
  47. ^ a b c Postma, Antoon (1992). "The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary". Philippine Studies. Ateneo de Manila University. 40 (2): 182–203. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Jocano, F. Landa (2001). Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage. Quezon City: Punlad Research House, Inc. "ISBN "971-622-006-5. 
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h Junker, L (1999). Raiding, Trading, and Feasting the Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. Honolulu: University of Hawaiì Press. 
  50. ^ a b Miksic, John N. (2009). Southeast Asian Ceramics: New Light on Old Pottery. Editions Didier Millet. "ISBN "9789814260138. 
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. "ISBN "971-550-135-4. 
  52. ^ Sals, Florent Joseph (2005). The history of Agoo : 1578–2005. La Union: Limbagan Printhouse. p. 80. 
  53. ^ a b "Timeline of history". Archived from the original on November 23, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009. 
  54. ^ a b Jocano, Felipe Jr. (2012-08-07). Wiley, Mark, ed. A Question of Origins. Arnis: Reflections on the History and Development of Filipino Martial Arts. Tuttle Publishing. "ISBN "978-1-4629-0742-7. 
  55. ^ a b c "Osborne, Milton (2004). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (Ninth ed.). Australia: Allen & Unwin. "ISBN "1-74114-448-5. 
  56. ^ Legarda, Benito, Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines. 23: 40. 
  57. ^ a b Ring, Trudy; Robert M. Salkin & Sharon La Boda (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. pp. 565–569. "ISBN "1-884964-04-4. Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
  58. ^ Ho Khai Leong (2009). Connecting and Distancing: Southeast Asia and China. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 33. "ISBN "978-981-230-856-6. 
  59. ^ "In Our Image". Retrieved August 24, 2015. 
  60. ^ Wang Zhenping (2008). "Reading Song-Ming Records on the Pre-colonial History of the Philippines" (PDF). Journal of East Asian Cultural Interaction Studies. 1: 249–260. "ISSN 1882-7756. 
  61. ^ Go, Bon Juan (2005). "Ma'I in Chinese Records – Mindoro or Bai? An Examination of a Historical Puzzle". Philippine Studies. Ateneo de Manila Press. 53 (1): 119–138. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. 
  62. ^ Prehispanic Source Materials Page 74 by William Henry Scott (NEW DAY PUBLISHERS INC.)
  63. ^ Jobers Bersales, Raiding China at
  64. ^ Zhang Xie. (1618) (in Chinese). Dong Xi Yang Kao [A Study of the Eastern and Western Oceans] Volume 5 ("Chinese: 東西洋考). "ISBN "7532515931. MID 00024687. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
  65. ^ Cebu, a Port City in Prehistoric and in Present Times. Accessed September 05, 2008.
  66. ^ "Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. "ISBN "978-0-8248-0368-1. 
  67. ^ The Tenggarong Kutai in the Joshua Project
  68. ^ Alfonso, Ian Christopher B. (2016). The Nameless Hero: Revisiting the Sources on the First Filipino Leader to Die for Freedom. Angeles: Holy Angel University Press. "ISBN "9789710546527. 
  69. ^ Lucoes warriors aided the Burmese king in his invasion of Siam in 1547 AD. At the same time, Lusung warriors fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya. SOURCE: Ibidem, page 195.
  70. ^ The former sultan of Malacca decided to retake his city from the Portuguese with a fleet of ships from Lusung in 1525 AD. SOURCE: Barros, Joao de, Decada terciera de Asia de Ioano de Barros dos feitos que os Portugueses fezarao no descubrimiento dos mares e terras de Oriente [1628], Lisbon, 1777, courtesy of William Henry Scott, Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society, Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994, page 194.
  71. ^ "Pigafetta, Antonio (1969) [1524]. "First voyage round the world". Translated by J.A. Robertson. Manila: Filipiniana Book Guild. 
  72. ^ "Pires, Tomé (1944). A suma oriental de Tomé Pires e o livro de Francisco Rodriguez: Leitura e notas de Armando Cortesão [1512 – 1515] (in Portuguese). Translated by Armando Cortesao. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society. 
  73. ^ Lach, Donald Frederick (1994). "Chapter 8: The Philippine Islands". Asia in the Making of Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. "ISBN "0-226-46732-5. 
  74. ^ "Reid, Anthony (1995). "Continuity and Change in the Austronesian Transition to Islam and Christianity". In Peter Bellwood; James J. Fox; "Darrell Tryon. The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, The Australian National University. 
  75. ^ Scott, William Henry (1989). "Filipinos in China in 1500" (PDF). China Studies Program. De la Salle University. p. 8. 
  76. ^ Sals, Florent Joseph (2005). The history of Agoo : 1578-2005. La Union: Limbagan Printhouse. p. 80. 
  77. ^ 100 Events That Shaped The Philippines (Adarna Book Services Inc. 1999 Published by National Centennial Commission) Page 72 "The Founding of the Sulu Sultanate"
  78. ^ Bascar, C.M. (n.d.). Sultanate of Sulu, "The Unconquered Kingdom" Archived December 1, 2008, at the "Wayback Machine.. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from The Royal Hashemite Sultanate of Sulu & Sabah Official Website.["unreliable source?]
  79. ^ "The Maguindanao Sultanate", Moro National Liberation Front web site. "The Political and Religious History of the Bangsamoro People, condensed from the book Muslims in the Philippines by Dr. C. A. Majul." Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  80. ^ "Info Sejarah". The Government of Burnei Darussalam. Archived from the original on 2017-01-09. 
  81. ^ McAmis 2002, pp. 18–24, 53–61
  82. ^ Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. p. 171. "ISBN "981-4155-67-5. 
  83. ^ U.S. Department of State. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. (June 2009). Background Note: Brunei. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
  84. ^ Sidhu, Jatswan S. (2009). "Bolkiah, Sultan (r. 1485–1524)". Historical Dictionary of Brunei Darussalam (second ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 37. "ISBN "978-0-8108-7078-9. 
  85. ^ Celestino C. Macachor (2011). "Searching for Kali in the Indigenous Chronicles of Jovito Abellana". Rapid Journal. 10 (2). Archived from the original on July 3, 2012. 
  86. ^ History of the Kingdom of Dapitan. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
  87. ^ Marivir Montebon, Retracing Our Roots – A Journey into Cebu’s Pre-Colonial Past, p.15
  88. ^ Celestino C. Macachor (2011). "Searching for Kali in the Indigenous Chronicles of Jovito Abellana". Rapid Journal. 10 (2). Archived from the original on July 3, 2012. 
  89. ^ Pigafetta, Antonio (1524). Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo. 
  90. ^ Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg Free Online E-books. 1: 139. Fourth.—In considering this Spanish conquest, we must understand that the islands were far more sparsely inhabited than they are to-day. The Bisayan islands, the rich Camarines, the island of Luzon, had, in Legaspi's time, only a small fraction of their present great populations. This population was not only small, but it was also extremely disunited. Not only were the great tribes separated by the differences of language, but, as we have already seen, each tiny community was practically independent, and the power of a dato very limited. There were no great princes, with large forces of fighting retainers whom they could call to arms, such as the Portuguese had encountered among the Malays south in the Moluccas. 
  91. ^ Locsin, Joel (November 1, 2014). "For improved response? PAGASA to adopt 'super typhoon' category in 2015". GMA News Online. Retrieved November 2, 2014. 
  92. ^ a b c d Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1990). History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Garotech Publishing. p. 22. "ISBN "971-8711-06-6. 
  93. ^ Alan C. Robles (15 October 2017). "No trust in institutions". D+C, development and cooperation. Retrieved 23 November 2017. 
  94. ^ quoted in Mendoza, Susanah Lily L. (2002). Between the Homeland and the Diaspora: The Politics of Theorizing Filipino and Filipino American Identities : a Second Look at the Poststructuralism-indigenization Debates. Psychology Press. pp. 50–51. "ISBN "978-0-415-93157-1. 
  95. ^ Zaide, Gregorio F. & Sonia M. Zaide (2004). Philippine History and Government (6th ed.). All-Nations Publishing Company. 
  96. ^ Tomas L., Magat Salamat, Archived from the original on October 27, 2009, retrieved July 14, 2008 
  97. ^ Fernando A. Santiago Jr. (2006). "Isang Maikling Kasaysayan ng Pandacan, Maynila 1589–1898". Malay. 19 (2): 70–87. Retrieved July 18, 2008. 
  98. ^ Kurlansky, Mark. (1999). The Basque History of the World. New York: Walker & Company. p. 64. "ISBN "0-8027-1349-1.
  99. ^ a b "Joaquin, Nick. (1988). Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming. Manila: Solar Publishing.
  100. ^ McAmis 2002, p. 33
  101. ^ de Sande, Francisco. "Letter from Francisco de Sande to Felipe II". Archived from the original on July 30, 2012. Retrieved January 15, 2016. 
  102. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c (1300, 2nd ed.). London: MacMillan. p. 25. "ISBN "0-333-57689-6. 
  103. ^ Charles A. Truxillo (2012), Jain Publishing Company, "Crusaders in the Far East: The Moro Wars in the Philippines in the Context of the Ibero-Islamic World War".
  104. ^ Peacock Gallop (2015) "From Anatolia to Aceh: Ottomans, Turks and Southeast Asia".
  105. ^ Borao, José Eugenio (2010). The Spanish experience in Taiwan, 1626–1642: the Baroque ending of a Renaissance endeavor. Hong Kong University Press. p. 199. "ISBN "962-209-083-4. "JSTOR j.ctt1xcrpk. 
  106. ^ "Catholic Missions in the Carolines and Marshall Islands". 
  107. ^ "Astilleros: the Spanish shipyards of Sorsogon" (PDF). Mary Jane Louise A. Bolunia. Archaeology Division, National Museum of the Philippines. Retrieved October 26, 2015. 
  108. ^ Williams, Glyn (1999). The Prize of All the Oceans. New York: Viking. p. 4. "ISBN "0-670-89197-5. 
  109. ^ Schurz, William Lytle. The Manila Galleon, 1939. P 193.
  110. ^ 1996. “Silk for Silver: Manila-Macao Trade in the 17th Century.” Philippine Studies 44, 1:52–68.
  111. ^ "Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World" By Eva Maria Mehl, page 235.
  112. ^ Letter from Fajardo to Felipe III From Manila, August 15 1620.(From the Spanish Archives of the Indies)("The infantry does not amount to two hundred men, in three companies. If these men were that number, and Spaniards, it would not be so bad; but, although I have not seen them, because they have not yet arrived here, I am told that they are, as at other times, for the most part boys, mestizos, and mulattoes, with some Indians (Native Americans). There is no little cause for regret in the great sums that reënforcements of such men waste for, and cost, your Majesty. I cannot see what betterment there will be until your Majesty shall provide it, since I do not think, that more can be done in Nueva Spaña, although the viceroy must be endeavoring to do so, as he is ordered.")
  113. ^ Russell, S.D. (1999) "Christianity in the Philippines". Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  114. ^ "The City of God: Churches, Convents and Monasteries". Discovering Philippines. Retrieved on July 6, 2011.
  115. ^ "Fortress of Empire, Rene Javellana, S. J. 1997". 
  116. ^ Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Education". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from Country Studies US Website.
  117. ^ Lahmeyer, Jan (1996). "The Philippines: historical demographic data of the whole country". Retrieved July 19, 2003. 
  118. ^ "Censos de Cúba, Puerto Rico, Filipinas y España. Estudio de su relación". Voz de Galicia. 1898. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  119. ^ Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore. pp. 119–120. "ISBN "971-23-3934-3. 
  120. ^ de Borja, Marciano R. (2005). Basques in the Philippines. University of Nevada Press. pp. 81–83. "ISBN "0-87417-590-9. 
  121. ^ Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". 1: 179. Within the walls, there were some six hundred houses of a private nature, most of them built of stone and tile, and an equal number outside in the suburbs, or arrabales, all occupied by Spaniards (todos son vivienda y poblacion de los Españoles). This gives some twelve hundred Spanish families or establishments, exclusive of the religious, who in Manila numbered at least one hundred and fifty, the garrison, at certain times, about four hundred trained Spanish soldiers who had seen service in Holland and the Low Countries, and the official classes. 
  122. ^ "Second Book of the Second Part of the Conquests of the Filipinas Islands, and Chronicle of the Religious of Our Father, St. Augustine" (Zamboanga City History) "He (Governor Don Sebastían Hurtado de Corcuera) brought a great reënforcements of soldiers, many of them from Perú, as he made his voyage to Acapulco from that kingdom."
  123. ^ a b Nuguid, Nati. (1972). "The Cavite Mutiny". in Mary R. Tagle. 12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History. [Manila]: National Media Production Center. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from StuartXchange Website.
  124. ^ a b "Joaquin, Nick. A Question of Heroes.
  125. ^ a b Richardson, Jim. (January 2006). "Andrés Bonifacio Letter to Julio Nakpil, April 24, 1897". Documents of the Katipunan. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2009. 
  126. ^ "Ocampo, Ambeth (1999). "Rizal Without the Overcoat (Expanded ed.). Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc. "ISBN "971-27-0920-5. 
  127. ^ Halstead, M (1898). The Story of the Philippines. Chicago: Our Possessions. 
  128. ^ Price, Michael G. (2002). Foreword. In A. B. Feuer, America at War: the Philippines, 1898–1913 (pp. xiii–xvi). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood. "ISBN "0-275-96821-9.
  129. ^ a b Gates, John M. (November 2002). "The Pacification of the Philippines". The U.S. Army and Irregular Warfare. Archived from the original on August 5, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  130. ^ Guillermo, Emil (February 8, 2004), "A first taste of empire", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: 03J, archived from the original on December 8, 2012 
  131. ^ Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter; Smallman-Raynor, Matthew (1998). Deciphering Global Epidemics: Analytical Approaches to the Disease Records of World Cities, 1888–1912. Cambridge University Press. p. 21. "ISBN "978-0-521-47266-1. 
  132. ^ Burdeos, Ray L. (2008). Filipinos in the U.S. Navy & Coast Guard During the Vietnam War. AuthorHouse. p. 14. "ISBN "978-1-4343-6141-7. 
  133. ^ Kho, Madge. "The Bates Treaty". Retrieved December 2, 2007. 
  134. ^ "History of The Republic of Zamboanga (May 1899 – March 1903)". Zamboanga City, Philippines: July 18, 2009. Archived from the original on August 2, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2010. 
  135. ^ "2014 Philippines Yearly Box Office Results". 
  136. ^ Armes, Roy. "Third World Film Making and the West", p.152. University of California Press, 1987. Retrieved on January 9, 2011.
  137. ^ "The Role of José Nepomuceno in the Philippine Society: What language did his silent film speaks?". Stockholm University Publications. Retrieved on January 28, 2014.
  138. ^ Moore, Charles (1921). "Daniel H. Burnham: Planner of Cities". Houghton Mifflin and Co., Boston and New York.
  139. ^ Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
  140. ^ Manapat, Carlos, et al. Economics, Taxation, and Agrarian Reform. Quezon City: C&E Pub., 2010.Print.
  141. ^ White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Retrieved August 1, 2007.
  142. ^ "The Guerrilla War". "American Experience. "PBS. Archived from the original on 2017-01-28. Retrieved February 24, 2011. 
  143. ^ Jubair, Salah. "The Japanese Invasion". Maranao.Com. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  144. ^ Caraccilo, Dominic J. (2005). Surviving Bataan And Beyond: Colonel Irvin Alexander's Odyssey As A Japanese Prisoner Of War. Stackpole Books. pp. 287. "ISBN "978-0-8117-3248-2. 
  145. ^ Woodward, C. Vann (1947). The Battle for Leyte Gulf. New York: Macmillan. 
  146. ^ "Lieutenant Ramsey's War" by Edwin Price Ramsey and Stephen J. Rivele.Published by Knightsbride publishing Co, Los Angeles, California
  147. ^ Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific Island Guide – A Geo-Military Study. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 318. "ISBN "0-313-31395-4.
  148. ^ "Cebu"., citing The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved July 4, 2010. 
  149. ^ Zaide, Sonia M. (1994). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All-Nations Publishing Co. p. 354. "ISBN "971-642-071-4. 
  150. ^ "Founding Member States". United Nations. 
  151. ^ Jeff Goodwin, No Other Way Out, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p.119, "ISBN "0-521-62948-9, "ISBN "978-0-521-62948-5
  152. ^ Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the Centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
  153. ^ Carlos P. Romulo and Marvin M. Gray, The Magsaysay Story (1956), is a full-length biography
  154. ^ "Our Vision and Mission". Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. 
  155. ^ Diosdado Macapagal. "Proclamation No. 28 Declaring June 12 as Philippine Independence Day". Philippine History Group of Los Angeles. Archived from the original on July 13, 1997. Retrieved November 11, 2009. 
  156. ^ Manuel S. Satorre Jr. "President Diosdado Macapagal set RP Independence Day on June 12". Retrieved December 10, 2008. 
  157. ^ "Developing Regional Minorities in Asia" (PDF). Sabri Zain. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 15, 2012. Retrieved January 15, 2016. 
  158. ^ Weatherbee, Donald E.; Ralf Emmers; Mari Pangestu; Leonard C. Sebastian (2005). International relations in Southeast Asia. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 68–69. "ISBN "0-7425-2842-1. 
  159. ^ What happened to the Marcos fortune?. "BBC News. January 24, 2013.
  160. ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro (2003). History and Culture, Language, and Literature : Selected Essays of Teodoro A. Agoncillo. España Manila: University of Santo Tomas Pub. House. 
  161. ^ US Embassy (2001). To Islands Far Away: the Story of the Thomasites and Their Journey to the Philippines. Manila: US Embassy. 
  162. ^ a b Chandler, David P. & David Joel Steinberg (1987). In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History (Revised 2nd ed.). University of Hawaii Press. pp. 431–442. "ISBN "0-8248-1110-0. 
  163. ^ Osborne, Milton E. (2004). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (9th ed.). Allen & Unwin. pp. 235–241. "ISBN "1-74114-448-5. 
  164. ^ "Gov't drafts new framework to guide peace talks with leftist rebels". "The Philippine Star. May 6, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2014. 
  165. ^ Julie Alipala (October 2, 2010). "RP terror campaign cost lives of 11 US, 572 RP soldiers—military". "Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved May 1, 2012. 
  166. ^ Shenon, Phillip (September 16, 1991). "Philippine Senate votes to Reject U.S. Base Renewal". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2014. 
  167. ^ De Santos, Jonathan (September 16, 2011). "Philippine Senators remember day when they rejected US bases treaty". Sun Star Manila. Retrieved October 25, 2014. 
  168. ^ Whaley, Floyd (April 26, 2013). "Shadows of an Old Military Base". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  169. ^ Drogin, Bob (November 27, 1991). "After 89 Years, U.S. Lowers Flag at Clark Air Base". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 12, 2011. 
  170. ^ "Tarlac map". University of Texas in Austin Library. Retrieved on August 2, 2011.
  171. ^ "Report of the Philippine Commission to the President, 1901 Vol. III", pg. 141. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1901.
  172. ^ a b "Philippines Economic growth - data, chart -". 
  173. ^ Pempel, T. J. (1999). The Politics of the Asian Economic Crisis. Cornell University Press. p. "economic%20performance%20remained%20modest" 163. "ISBN "0-8014-8634-3. 
  174. ^ a b Gargan, Edward A. (December 11, 1997). "Last Laugh for the Philippines; Onetime Joke Economy Avoids Much of Asia's Turmoil". "New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2008. 
  175. ^ Shen, Andrew (July 2009). "Financial Crisis and Global Governance: A Network Analysis". Retrieved June 11, 2012. 
  176. ^ Yenilmez, Taylan & Saltoglu, Burak. "Analyzing Systemic Risk with Financial Networks During a Financial Crash" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 8, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014. 
  177. ^ "A timeline of death penalty in the Philippines". Philippine Center for Investigated Journalist. April 18, 2006. Retrieved April 18, 2006. 
  178. ^ Maniago, E (2007). "Communication Variables Favoring Celebrity Candidates in Becoming Politicians: A Case Study of the 1998 and 2004 Elections in the Philippines". Southeast Asian Studies. 44 (4): 494–518. "hdl:2433/53866. 
  179. ^ "The Philippines: Consolidating Economic Growth". "Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. March 13, 2000. Retrieved September 20, 2014. 
  180. ^ "Records prove Estrada's achievements". "Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 7, 2008. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2014. 
  181. ^ "Speech of Former President Estrada on the GRP-MORO Conflict". "Philippine Human Development Network. September 18, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2014. 
  182. ^ "Philippine Military Takes Moro Headquarters". "People's Daily. July 10, 2000. Retrieved September 20, 2014. 
  183. ^ "2 US Navy men, 1 Marine killed in Sulu land mine blast". "GMA News. September 29, 2009. Archived from the original on October 2, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009. Two US Navy personnel and one Philippine Marine soldier were killed when a land mine exploded along a road in Indanan, Sulu Tuesday morning, an official said. The American fatalities were members of the US Navy construction brigade, Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) spokesman Lt. Col. Romeo Brawner Jr. told GMANews.TV in a telephone interview. He did not disclose the identities of all three casualties.  and
    Al Pessin (September 29, 2009). "Pentagon Says Troops Killed in Philippines Hit by Roadside Bomb". "Voice of America. Retrieved January 12, 2011.  and
    "Troops killed in Philippines blast". Al Jazeera. September 29, 2009. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009.  and
    Jim Gomez (September 29, 2009). "2 US troops killed in Philippines blast". CBS News. Archived from the original on February 2, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  184. ^ Dirk J. Barreveld (2001). Philippine President Estada Impeached!: How the President of the World's 13th Most Populous Country Stumbles Over His Mistresses, a Chinese Conspiracy and the Garbage of His Capital. iUniverse. pp. 476. "ISBN "978-0-595-18437-8. 
  185. ^ "Timeline: LRT, MRT construction". "The Philippine Star. July 19, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
  186. ^ Dante B. Canlas; Muhammad Ehsan Khan; Juzhong Zhuang (2011). Diagnosing the Philippine Economy: Toward Inclusive Growth. Anthem Press. p. 107. "ISBN "0-85728-939-X. 
  187. ^ "Bolante Faces Off with Senators Over Fertilizer Fund Scam". ANC. November 13, 2008. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2008. 
  188. ^ "Arroyo claims hollow victory" by Leslie Davis, "Asia Times Online, September 27, 2005.
  189. ^ Dizon, David. "Corruption was Gloria's biggest mistake: survey". "ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Retrieved April 15, 2012. 
  190. ^ Press, Associated (November 18, 2011). "Philippines charges Gloria Arroyo with corruption". "The Guardian. Retrieved April 15, 2012. Former president is formally accused of electoral fraud after government rushed to court as she tried to leave country 
  191. ^ Jimenez-Gutierrez, Jason (November 23, 2010). "Philippines mourns massacre victims". "Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2010. 
  192. ^ Analyn Perez (November 25, 2009). "The Ampatuan Massacre: a map and timeline". GMA News. GMANews.TV. 
  193. ^ (October 15, 2012). "Speech of President Benigno Aquino III during the signing of the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro". Archived from the original on December 28, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 
  194. ^ "The Republic of the Philippines v. The People's Republic of China". Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved October 24, 2013. 
  195. ^ Del Cappar, Michaela (April 25, 2013). "ITLOS completes five-man tribunal that will hear PHL case vs. China". GMA News One. Retrieved October 24, 2013. 
  196. ^ Frialde, Mike (February 23, 2013). "Sultanate of Sulu wants Sabah returned to Phl". "The Philippine Star. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  197. ^ "Aquino signs K-12 bill into law". "Rappler. May 15, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2014. 
  198. ^ Typhoon Haiyan death toll rises over 5,000 (Report). "BBC. November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  199. ^ "Tacloban: City at the centre of the storm". "BBC. November 12, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2014. 
  200. ^ "Obama to stay overnight in PH". "Rappler. April 1, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014. 
  201. ^ "US, PH reach new defense deal". "ABS-CBN News. April 27, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2014. 
  202. ^ "Philippines, US sign defense pact". "Agence France-Presse. "ABS-CBN News. April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014. 
  203. ^ Postrado, Leonard (January 13, 2016). "EDCA prevails". "Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2016. 
  204. ^ "At least 30 elite cops killed in clash with MILF". "ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 25, 2015. 
  205. ^ Arcon, Dennis (January 26, 2015). "PNP-SAF casualties in encounter now 50 – ARMM police chief". "Interaksyon. Archived from the original on 2015-02-07. Retrieved January 26, 2015. 
  206. ^ "Duterte, Robredo win 2016 polls". ABS-CBN. May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016. 
  207. ^ Philips, T.; Holmes, O.; Bowcott, O. (July 12, 2016). "Philippines wins South China Sea case against China". The Guardian. Retrieved July 12, 2016. 
  208. ^ "Duterte sworn in as Philippines president". "Reuters. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  209. ^ "Between Duterte and a death squad, a Philippine mayor fights drug-war violence". Reuters. March 16, 2017. 
  210. ^ "#RealNumbersPH". "Philippine Information Agency. Retrieved 22 May 2017. 
  211. ^ "Cayetano: PH war on drugs exaggerated by fake news". ABS-CBN. 5 May 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017. 
  212. ^ "Infra spending to sustain high growth, generate economic multipliers". "Department of Finance. August 28, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  213. ^ Mogato, Anna Gabriela A. (October 26, 2017). "Construction worker shortage 'about 2.5M' – DTI". "BusinessWorld Online. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  214. ^ Gonzales, Anna Leah E. (August 28, 2017). "2M more workers needed for 'Build Build Build'". "The Manila Times. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  215. ^ Schnabel, Chris (December 20, 2017). "Metro Manila Subway leads expected infra buildup in 2018". Rappler. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  216. ^ "Making "Build, Build, Build" Work in the Philippines". "Asian Development Bank. October 30, 2017. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  217. ^ "Country description". US State Department Website. US State Department Website. January 2012. Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2012. The Philippines is an emerging economy with a democratic system of government. 
  218. ^ Robles, Alan C. (July–August 2008). "Civil service reform: Whose service?". D+C. Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung [InWEnt]. 49: 285–289. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008. 
  219. ^ Bigornia, Amante (September 17, 1997). "The 'consultations' on Charter change". The Manila Standard. Retrieved December 13, 2009. 
  220. ^ a b c d e f g h i "General Information". March 9, 2009. Archived from the original on March 9, 2009. Retrieved September 21, 2014. . (older version – as it existed in 2009 – during the presidency of "Gloria Macapagal Arroyo), The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines Archived September 30, 2007, at the "Wayback Machine..
  221. ^ a b c d e f g U.S. Department of State. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (October 2009). "Background Note: Philippines". Retrieved December 18, 2009. 
  222. ^ Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. [c. 2008]. About Us. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  223. ^ Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. [c. 2008]. The Philippines and the UN Security Council. Retrieved January 12, 2008. (archived from the original on January 23, 2008)
  224. ^ "United Nations Security Council. (October 25, 1999). Resolution 1272 [S-RES-1272(1999)]. Retrieved March 21, 2010.
  225. ^ Bangkok Declaration. (August 8, 1967). Retrieved December 20, 2009 from Wikisource.
  226. ^ "ASEAN Primer" at the "Wayback Machine (archived December 17, 2007). (1999). 3rd ASEAN Informal Summit. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
  227. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. [c. 2009]. "Japan's ODA Data by Country – Philippines" (PDF). Retrieved June 2, 2010. 
  228. ^ a b Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Relations with Asian Neighbors". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved January 5, 2010 from Country Studies US Website.
  229. ^ Matikas Santos (September 15, 2014). "PH-Spain bilateral relations in a nutshell". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved September 23, 2014. 
  230. ^ "Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos As of December 2009" (PDF). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 26, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  231. ^ "Filipino Among Royal Guards of King of Spain". ABS CBN News. Archived from the original on August 8, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2009. 
  232. ^ Leonard, John (July 3, 2008). "OFW rights violation worsens under the Arroyo administration". Filipino OFWs Qatar. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2009. 
  233. ^ Olea, Ronalyn (October 25, 2008). "Middle East is 'Most Distressing OFW Destination' – Migrant Group". Bulatlat News. Retrieved January 25, 2009. 
  234. ^ Torres, Estrella (January 22, 2009). "Saudi Arabia will still need RP medical professionals". Business Mirror. Retrieved January 24, 2009. 
  235. ^ "DFA: 'Technicalities' blocking RP bid for OIC observer status". (May 26, 2009). GMA News. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
  236. ^ Balana, Cynthia (May 26, 2009). "RP nears observer status in OIC – DFA". "The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 4, 2015. Retrieved July 10, 2009. 
  237. ^ "Shoulder Ranks (Officers)". The Philippine Army. Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved September 23, 2014. 
  238. ^ "Philippine Military Rank Insignia". Retrieved September 23, 2014. 
  239. ^ "AFP Organization". Archived from the original on April 19, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2008. 
  240. ^ "The Philippine Constitution". 
  241. ^ "Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990". Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  242. ^ "Republic Act No. 6975". The LAWPHiL Project. Retrieved December 31, 2012. 
  243. ^ "Government urged to help kidnapped Australian". "Australian Broadcasting Corporation. January 5, 2012. 
  244. ^ Hayden Cooper, 2012, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Government urged to help kidnapped Australian, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Warren Richard Rodwell from Australia being held captive by this group since December 5, 2011...please do whatever to raise the 2 million US dollars they are asking for my release ..."[243]
  245. ^ Florante S. Solmerin, December 7, 2013, Manila Standard, Abu Sayyaf keeping 17 foreigners hostage Archived October 6, 2014, at the "Wayback Machine., Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...17 foreigners, mostly birdwatchers, were being held hostage by the Abu Sayyaf Group..."
  246. ^ Roel Pareño, The Philippine Star, March 24, 2013, Sayyaf releases Aussie hostage, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Australian Warren Rodwell emerged early yesterday withered after being held for 15 months by Abu Sayyaf bandits in southern Mindanao..."
  247. ^ Sun Star, April 25, 2014, Abducted tourist, hotel staff now in Sulu, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Abu Sayyaf bandits have brought a Chinese tourist and a Filipino hotel receptionist to their jungle stronghold in southern Philippines after kidnapping the women from a dive resort in eastern Malaysia ..."
  248. ^ "Guide to the Philippines conflict". (August 10, 2007). "BBC News. Retrieved December 16, 2009.
  249. ^ World Bank. Conflict Prevention & Reconstruction Unit. (February 2005). The Mindanao Conflict in the Philippines: Roots, Costs, and Potential Peace Dividend by Salvatore Schiavo-Campo and Mary Judd. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. (Social Development Paper No. 24). Retrieved December 16, 2009.
  250. ^ "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 2016, Signalistgatan 9, SE-16972 Solna, Sweden. Retrieved March 27, 2016. 
  251. ^ "Military expenditure (% of GDP)". The World Bank. Retrieved March 27, 2016. 
  252. ^ Liefer, Michael. (2005). Michael Liefer – Selected Works on Southeast Asia (Chin, Kin-Wah & Leo Suryadinata, Eds.). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. "ISBN "981-230-270-0.
  253. ^ The White House (March 27, 2003). "Coalition Members". Retrieved December 18, 2009. 
  254. ^ "Provincial Summary: Number of Provinces, Cities, Municipalities and Barangays, by Region as of September 30, 2016" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved January 5, 2017. 
  255. ^ a b Ronald Echalas Diaz, Office Manager (September 18, 1968). "Republic Act No. 5446 – An Act to Amend Section One of Republic Act Numbered Thirty Hundred and Forty-Six, Entitled "An Act to Define the Baselines of the Territorial Sea of the Philippines". Republic of the Philippines". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved May 4, 2013. 
  256. ^ Mohamad, Kadir (2009). "Malaysia's territorial disputes – two cases at the ICJ : Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge (Malaysia/Singapore), Ligitan and Sipadan [and the Sabah claim] (Malaysia/Indonesia/Philippines)" (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR) Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia: 46. Retrieved May 16, 2014. Map of British North Borneo, highlighting in yellow color the area covered by the Philippine claim, presented to the Court by the Philippines during the Oral Hearings at the ICJ on 25 June 2001 
  257. ^ "2015 Population Counts Summary" (XLSX). Philippine Statistics Authority. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2017. 
  258. ^ Mayuga, Jonathan (February 10, 2016). "Namria 'discovers' 400 previously 'unknown' PHL islands using IfSAR". BusinessMirror. Retrieved February 12, 2016. 
  259. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). "Field Listing :: Coastline". Washington, D.C.: Author. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
  260. ^ Philippine Sea, Archived October 31, 2009, at "WebCite (archived from the original Archived August 20, 2009, at the "Wayback Machine. on August 20, 2009).
  261. ^ "U.S. report details rich resources in South China Sea." (archived from the original on 2013-02-133)
  262. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Celebes Sea. Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. P.Saundry & C.J.Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
  263. ^ "An Awesome Island". Borneo: Island in the Clouds. PBS. Retrieved November 11, 2012. 
  264. ^ "Philippines Mountain Ultra-Prominence". Retrieved June 19, 2009. 
  265. ^ (2011-04-06). "The World Factbook – Philippines" Archived July 19, 2015, at the "Wayback Machine.. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on March 14, 2011.
  266. ^ Bruun, Anton Frederick (1956). The Galathea Deep Sea Expedition, 1950–1952, described by members of the expedition. Macmillian, New York. 
  267. ^ Kundel, Jim (June 7, 2007). "Water profile of Philippines". Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved September 30, 2008. 
  268. ^ Republic of the Philippines. Department of Tourism. [c. 2008]. Leyte is Famous for... at the "Wayback Machine (archived April 27, 2012) (archived from the original on April 27, 2012). Retrieved March 21, 2010 from
  269. ^ "Submissions, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, pursuant to article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982". United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. May 28, 2009. Retrieved May 29, 2009. 
  270. ^ La Putt, Juny P. [c. 2003]. The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from The City of Baguio Website.
  271. ^ Newhall, Chris; James W. Hendley II & Peter H. Stauffer (February 28, 2005). "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines (U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 113-97)". U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from the original on August 25, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2007. 
  272. ^ "Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved May 4, 2013. 
  273. ^ a b Greenlees, Donald (May 14, 2008). "Miners shun mineral wealth of the Philippines". "The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  274. ^ Davies, Ed & Karen Lema (June 29, 2008). "Pricey oil makes geothermal projects more attractive for Indonesia and the Philippines". "The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2009. 
  275. ^ a b c "Natural Resources and Environment in the Philippines". (n.d.). eTravel Pilipinas. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
  276. ^ Chanco, Boo. (December 7, 1998). "The Philippines Environment: A Warning". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on 2001-07-11.  Retrieved February 15, 2010 from
  277. ^ Williams, Jann; Cassia Read; Tony Norton; Steve Dovers; Mark Burgman; Wendy Proctor & Heather Anderson (2001). "Biodiversity Theme Report: The Meaning, Significance and Implications of Biodiversity (continued)". CSIRO on behalf of the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage. "ISBN "0-643-06749-3. Archived from the original on May 14, 2007. Retrieved November 6, 2009. 
  278. ^ Carpenter, Kent E. & Victor G. Springer (April 2005). "The center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands". Environmental Biology of Fishes. Springer Netherlands. 74 (2): 467–480. "doi:10.1007/s10641-004-3154-4. 
  279. ^ a b c Rowthorn, Chris & Greg Bloom (2006). Philippines (9th ed.). "Lonely Planet. p. 52. "ISBN "1-74104-289-5. 
  280. ^ "Biological diversity in the Philippines". Retrieved May 4, 2013. 
  281. ^ ""Lolong" holds world record as largest croc in the world". Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. November 17, 2011. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2012. 
  282. ^ Britton, Adam (November 12, 2011). "Accurate length measurement for Lolong". Croc Blog. Retrieved June 23, 2012. 
  283. ^ Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. (2001). Raptors of the World. London: "Christopher Helm. pp. 717–19. "ISBN "0-7136-8026-1. 
  284. ^ BirdLife International. (2004). "Pithecophaga jefferyi". "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. "International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  285. ^ Bos, A.R. & Smits, H.M. (2013). "First Record of the dottyback Manonichthys alleni (Teleostei: Perciformes: Pseudochromidae) from the Philippines". Marine Biodiversity Records. 6 (e61). "doi:10.1017/s1755267213000365. Archived from the original on 2013-10-16. 
  286. ^ Bos, Arthur R. & Gumanao, Girley S. (2013). "Seven new records of fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) from coral reefs and pelagic habitats in Southern Mindanao, the Philippines". Marine Biodiversity Records. 6 (e95): 1–6. "doi:10.1017/s1755267213000614. Archived from the original on 2014-09-19. 
  287. ^ Bos A.R.; Gumanao, G.S.; Salac, F.N. (2008). "A newly discovered predator of the crown-of-thorns starfish". Coral Reefs. 27 (3): 581. "Bibcode:2008CorRe..27..581B. "doi:10.1007/s00338-008-0364-9. Archived from the original on 2015-07-03. 
  288. ^ Ocaña O., J.C.; den Hartog; A. Brito; Bos, A.R. (2010). "On Pseudocorynactis species and another related genus from the Indo-Pacific (Anthozoa: Corallimorphidae)". Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias. XXI (3–4): 9–34. Archived from the original on 2014-09-19. 
  289. ^ Bos A.R. (2014). "Upeneus nigromarginatus, a new species of goatfish (Perciformes: Mullidae) from the Philippines". Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 62: 745–753. Archived from the original on 2015-07-03. 
  290. ^ "About the Philippines". (October 17, 2009). Retrieved December 20, 2009 from the Philippine History Website.
  291. ^ a b "Hub of Life: Species Diversity in the Philippines". Foundation for the Philippine Environment. February 18, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
  292. ^ Taguinod, Fioro. (November 20, 2008). "Rare flower species found only in northern Philippines". GMA News. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
  293. ^ Peralta, Eleno O. (2005). "21. Forests for poverty alleviation: the response of academic institutions in the Philippines". In Sim, Appanah, and Hooda (Eds.). Proceedings of the workshop on forests for poverty reduction: changing role for research, development and training institutions (RAP Publication). "Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Retrieved December 20, 2009.
  294. ^ Kirby, Alex. (July 23, 2003). SE Asia faces 'catastrophic' extinction rate. BBC News. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
  295. ^ a b c "Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (n.d.). "Climate of the Philippines". Archived from the original on May 31, 2010. Retrieved April 24, 2010. 
  296. ^ "Lonely Planet. (n.d.). Philippines: When to go & weather. Retrieved January 23, 2009.
  297. ^ a b "Library of Congress – "Federal Research Division. (March 2006). Country Profile: Philippines. Retrieved December 17, 2009.
  298. ^ Chong, Kee-Chai; Ian R. Smith & Maura S. Lizarondo (1982). "III. The transformation sub-system: cultivation to market size in fishponds". Economics of the Philippine Milkfish Resource System. The United Nations University. "ISBN "92-808-0346-8. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2009. 
  299. ^ Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). (January 2009). "Member Report to the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, 41st Session" (PDF). Retrieved December 17, 2009. 
  300. ^ Monthly Typhoon Tracking Charts. (2010). Retrieved April 24, 2010 from the "National Institute of Informatics, Kitamoto Laboratory, Digital Typhoon Website.
  301. ^ a b Glossary of Meteorology. Baguio. (archived from the original Archived August 6, 2011, at the "Wayback Machine. on 2014-08-30).
  302. ^ "Compare currencies in South East Asia". Retrieved July 15, 2014.