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Phrygia
Ancient Region of Anatolia
Location Central "Anatolia
State existe Dominant kingdom in Asia Minor from c. 1200–700 BC
Biggest city "Gordium
"Persian satrapy "Hellespontine Phrygia, Greater Phyrgia
"Roman province "Galatia, "Asia
""Phrygia among the classical regions of Anatolia

In Antiquity, Phrygia ("/ˈfrɪiə/; "Ancient Greek: Φρυγία, Phrygía "[pʰryɡía], modern pronunciation Frygía; "Turkish: Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of "Anatolia, in what is now Asian "Turkey, centered on the "Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.

Stories of the "heroic age of "Greek mythology tell of several legendary "Phrygian kings:

According to "Homer's "Iliad, the Phrygians participated in the "Trojan War as close allies of the "Trojans, fighting against the "Achaeans. Phrygian power reached its peak in the late 8th century BC under another, historical, king: "Midas, who dominated most of western and central Anatolia and rivaled "Assyria and "Urartu for power in eastern Anatolia. This later Midas was, however, also the last independent king of Phrygia before "Cimmerians sacked the Phrygian capital, "Gordium, around 695 BC. Phrygia then became subject to "Lydia, and then successively to "Persia, "Alexander and his "Hellenistic successors, "Pergamon, "Rome and "Byzantium. Phrygians gradually became assimilated into other cultures by the early medieval era; after the "Turkish conquest of Anatolia, the name "Phrygia" passed out of usage as a territorial designation.

Contents

Geography[edit]

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Location of Phrygia in Anatolia

Phrygia describes an area on the western end of the high Anatolian plateau, an arid region quite unlike the forested lands to the north and west. Phrygia begins in the northwest where an area of dry steppe is watered by the Sakarya and "Porsuk river system and is home to the settlements of "Dorylaeum near modern "Eskisehir, and the Phrygian capital "Gordion. The climate is harsh with hot summers and cold winters; olives will not easily grow here and the land is mostly used for livestock grazing and the production of barley. South of Dorylaeum, there is another important Phrygian settlement, Midas City ("Yazılıkaya, Eskişehir), situated in an area of hills and columns of volcanic "tuff. To the south again, central Phrygia includes the cities of "Afyonkarahisar (ancient Akroinon) with its marble quarries at nearby "Docimium (İscehisar), and the town of "Synnada. At the western end of Phrygia stood the towns of "Aizanoi (modern "Çavdarhisar) and "Acmonia. From here to the southwest lies the hilly area of Phrygia that contrasts to the bare plains of the region's heartland. Southwestern Phrygia is watered by the Maeander ("Büyük Menderes River) and its tributary the "Lycus, and contains the towns of "Laodicea on the Lycus and "Hierapolis.[1]

Origins[edit]

Inscriptions found at "Gordium make clear that Phrygians spoke an "Indo-European language with at least some vocabulary similar to "Greek, and clearly not belonging to the family of "Anatolian languages (such as "Hittite) spoken by most of Phrygia's neighbors.[2][3] One of the so-called "Homeric Hymns describes the "Phrygian language as not mutually intelligible with that of Troy.[4]

According to ancient tradition among Greek historians, the Phrygians anciently migrated to "Anatolia from the "Balkans. "Herodotus says that the Phrygians were called "Bryges when they lived in Europe.[5] He and other Greek writers also recorded legends about King "Midas that associated him with or put his origin in "Macedonia; Herodotus, for example, says a wild rose garden in Macedonia was named after Midas.[6] Some classical writers["which?] also connected the Phrygians with the "Mygdones, the name of two groups of people, one of which lived in northern Macedonia and another in "Mysia. Likewise, the "Phrygians have been identified["by whom?] with the "Bebryces, a people said to have warred with "Mysia before the "Trojan War and who had a king named "Mygdon at roughly the same time as the Phrygians were said to have had a king named Mygdon. The classical historian "Strabo groups Phrygians, "Mygdones, "Mysians, "Bebryces and "Bithynians together as peoples that migrated to Anatolia from the Balkans.[7] This image of Phrygians as part of a related group of northwest Anatolian cultures seems the most likely explanation for the confusion over whether "Phrygians, "Bebryces and Anatolian Mygdones were or were not the same people.

The apparent similarity of the "Phrygian language to Greek and its dissimilarity with the "Anatolian languages spoken by most of their neighbors is also taken as support for a European origin of the Phrygians. Phrygian continued to be spoken until the 6th century AD, though its distinctive alphabet was lost earlier than those of most Anatolian cultures.[1]

Some scholars have theorized that such a migration could have occurred more recently than classical sources suggest, and have sought to fit the Phrygian arrival into a narrative explaining the downfall of the "Hittite Empire and the end of the high Bronze Age in Anatolia.[8] According to this "recent migration" theory, the Phrygians invaded just before or after the collapse of the Hittite Empire at the beginning of the 12th century BC, filling the political vacuum in central-western Anatolia, and may have been counted among the ""Sea Peoples" that Egyptian records credit with bringing about the Hittite collapse. The so-called Handmade Knobbed Ware found in Western Anatolia during this period has been tentatively identified as an import connected to this invasion.

However, most scholars reject such a recent Phrygian migration and accept as factual the "Iliad's account that the Phrygians were established on the "Sakarya River before the "Trojan War, and thus must have been there during the later stages of the "Hittite Empire, and probably earlier. These scholars seek instead to trace the Phrygians' origins among the many nations of western Anatolia who were subject to the "Hittites.[9] This interpretation also gets support from Greek legends about the founding of Phrygia's main city "Gordium by "Gordias and of "Ancyra by "Midas,[10] which suggest that Gordium and Ancyra were believed to date from the distant past before the Trojan War. Some scholars dismiss the claim of a Phrygian migration as a mere legend, likely arising from the coincidental similarity of their name to the "Bryges.

No one has conclusively identified which of the many subjects of the "Hittites might have represented early Phrygians. According to a classical tradition, popularized by "Josephus, Phrygia can be equated with the country called "Togarmah by the ancient Hebrews, which has in turn been identified as the "Tegarama of Hittite texts and Til-Garimmu of Assyrian records. "Josephus called Togarmah "the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians". However, the Greek source cited by "Josephus is unknown, and it is unclear if there was any basis for the identification other than name similarity. Scholars of the Hittites believe Tegarama was in eastern Anatolia - some locate it at "Gurun - far to the east of Phrygia. Some scholars have identified Phrygia with the "Assuwa league, and noted that the "Iliad mentions a Phrygian (Queen "Hecuba's brother) named "Asios.[11] Another possible early name of Phrygia could be Hapalla, the name of the easternmost province that emerged from the splintering of the Bronze Age western Anatolian empire "Arzawa. However, scholars are unsure if Hapalla corresponds to Phrygia or to "Pisidia, further south.

"Herodotus also claims that Phrygian colonists founded the "Armenian nation.[5] This is likely a reference to a third group of people called "Mygdones living in northern "Mesopotamia who were apparently allied to the Armenians; "Xenophon describes them in his "Anabasis in a joint army with the "Armenians.["citation needed] However, little is known about these eastern Mygdones, and no evidence of "Phrygian language in that region has been found.["citation needed]

"Eric P. Hamp in his 2012 "Indo-European family tree classified the "Phrygian language together with "Italo-Celtic as a member of a "Northwest Indo-European" group.[12] In Hamp's view, Northwest Indo-Europeans are likely to have been the first inhabitants of "Hallstatt with the Pre-Phrygians moving east and south to Anatolia in the same manner as the Galatians did later on.[12] In 2010, Raymund Carl mentions that the "Lausitz culture was one such Hallstatt-associated culture.[13]

History[edit]

Around the time of the Trojan war[edit]

According to the Iliad, the homeland of the Phrygians was on the "Sangarius River, which would remain the centre of Phrygia throughout its history. Phrygia was famous for its wine and had "brave and expert" horsemen.

According to the "Iliad, before the "Trojan War, a young king "Priam of "Troy had taken an army to Phrygia to support it in a war against the "Amazons. Homer calls the Phrygians "the people of Otreus and godlike "Mygdon.[14] According to "Euripides, "Quintus Smyrnaeus and others, this Mygdon's son, "Coroebus, fought and died in the "Trojan War; he had sued for the hand of the Trojan princess "Cassandra in marriage. The name Otreus could be an eponym for "Otroea, a place on "Lake Ascania in the vicinity of the later "Nicaea, and the name Mygdon is clearly an eponym for the "Mygdones, a people said by "Strabo to live in northwest Asia Minor, and who appear to have sometimes been considered distinct from the "Phrygians.[15] However, "Pausanias believed that Mygdon's tomb was located at Stectorium in the southern Phrygian highlands, near modern "Sandikli.[16]

According to the "Bibliotheca, the Greek hero "Heracles slew a king Mygdon of the "Bebryces in a battle in northwest Anatolia that if historical would have taken place about a generation before the "Trojan War. According to the story, while traveling from "Minoa to the "Amazons, Heracles stopped in "Mysia and supported the "Mysians in a battle with the Bebryces.[17] According to some interpretations, Bebryces is an alternate name for Phrygians and this Mygdon is the same person mentioned in the "Iliad.

King "Priam married the Phrygian princess Hecabe (or "Hecuba[18]) and maintained a close alliance with the Phrygians, who repaid him by fighting "ardently" in the "Trojan War against the Greeks. Hecabe was a daughter of the Phrygian king "Dymas, son of Eioneus, son of Proteus. According to the "Iliad, Hecabe's younger brother "Asius also fought at Troy (see above); and "Quintus Smyrnaeus mentions two grandsons of Dymas that fell at the hands of "Neoptolemus at the end of the Trojan War: "Two sons he slew of Meges rich in gold, Scion of Dymas - sons of high renown, cunning to hurl the dart, to drive the steed in war, and deftly cast the lance afar, born at one birth beside Sangarius' banks of Periboea to him, Celtus one, and Eubius the other." Teleutas, father of the maiden "Tecmessa, is mentioned as another mythical Phrygian king.

There are indications in the Iliad that the heart of the Phrygian country was further north and downriver than it would be in later history. The Phrygian contingent arrives to aid "Troy coming from Lake Ascania in northwest Anatolia, and is led by "Phorcys and "Ascanius, both sons of Aretaon.

In one of the so-called "Homeric Hymns, Phrygia is said to be "rich in fortresses" and ruled by "famous Otreus".[4]

Peak and destruction of the Phrygian kingdom[edit]

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Detail from a reconstruction of a Phrygian building at Pararli, Turkey, 7th–6th Centuries BC; Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, "Ankara. A griffin, sphinx and two centaurs are shown.

During the 8th century BC, the Phrygian kingdom with its capital at "Gordium in the upper "Sakarya River valley expanded into an empire dominating most of central and western Anatolia and encroaching upon the larger "Assyrian Empire to its southeast and the kingdom of "Urartu to the northeast.

According to the classical historians "Strabo,[19] "Eusebius and "Julius Africanus, the king of Phrygia during this time was another "Midas. This historical "Midas is believed to be the same person named as Mita in Assyrian texts from the period and identified as king of the "Mushki. Scholars figure that Assyrians called Phrygians "Mushki" because the Phrygians and "Mushki, an eastern Anatolian people, were at that time campaigning in a joint army.[20] This Midas is thought to have reigned Phrygia at the peak of its power from about 720 BC to about 695 BC (according to Eusebius) or 676 BC (according to Julius Africanus). An Assyrian inscription mentioning "Mita", dated to 709 BC, during the reign of "Sargon of Assyria, suggests Phrygia and "Assyria had struck a truce by that time. This "Midas appears to have had good relations and close trade ties with the Greeks, and reputedly married an Aeolian Greek princess.

A system of writing in the "Phrygian language developed and flourished in Gordium during this period, using a Phoenician-derived alphabet similar to the Greek one. A distinctive Phrygian pottery called Polished Ware appears during this period.

However, the Phrygian Kingdom was then overwhelmed by "Cimmerian invaders, and "Gordium was sacked and destroyed. According to Strabo and others, "Midas committed suicide by drinking bulls' blood.

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Tomb at "Midas City (6th century BC), near "Eskişehir

A series of digs have opened "Gordium as one of Turkey's most revealing archeological sites. Excavations confirm a violent destruction of Gordium around 675 BC. A tomb from the period, popularly identified as the "Tomb of Midas", revealed a wooden structure deeply buried under a vast "tumulus, containing grave goods, a coffin, furniture, and food offerings (Archaeological Museum, Ankara).

As a Lydian province[edit]

After their destruction of "Gordium, the Cimmerians remained in western Anatolia and warred with "Lydia, which eventually expelled them by around 620 BC, and then expanded to incorporate Phrygia, which became the Lydian empire's eastern frontier. The Gordium site reveals a considerable building program during the 6th century BC, under the domination of Lydian kings including the proverbially rich King "Croesus. Meanwhile, Phrygia's former eastern subjects fell to "Assyria and later to the "Medes.

There may be an echo of strife with Lydia and perhaps a veiled reference to royal hostages, in the legend of the twice-unlucky Phrygian prince "Adrastus, who accidentally killed his brother and exiled himself to "Lydia, where King "Croesus welcomed him. Once again, Adrastus accidentally killed Croesus' son and then committed suicide.

As Persian province(s)[edit]

Some time in the 540s BC, Phrygia passed to the "Achaemenid (Great Persian) Empire when "Cyrus the Great conquered "Lydia.

After "Darius the Great became Persian Emperor in 521 BC, he remade the ancient trade route into the Persian ""Royal Road" and instituted administrative reforms that included setting up "satrapies. The Phrygian "satrapy (province) lay west of the "Halys River (now "Kızıl River) and east of "Mysia and Lydia. Its capital was established at "Dascylium, modern Ergili.

In the course of the 5th century, the region was divided in two administrative satrapies : "Hellespontine Phrygia and Greater Phrygia.[21]

Under Alexander and his successors[edit]

The Macedonian conqueror "Alexander the Great passed through "Gordium in 333 BC and severed the "Gordian Knot in the temple of "Sabazios (""Zeus"). According to a legend, possibly promulgated by Alexander's publicists, whoever untied the knot would be master of "Asia. With Gordium sited on the "Persian Royal Road that led through the heart of "Anatolia, the prophecy had some geographical plausibility. With Alexander, Phrygia became part of the wider "Hellenistic world. Upon Alexander's death in 323, the "Battle of Ipsus took place in 301 BC.[22]

Celts and Attalids[edit]

In the chaotic period after Alexander's death, northern Phrygia was overrun by "Celts, eventually to become the province of "Galatia. The former capital of "Gordium was captured and destroyed by the Gauls soon afterwards and disappeared from history.

In 188 BC, the southern remnant of Phrygia came under the control of the "Attalids of "Pergamon. However, the "Phrygian language survived, although now written in the "Greek alphabet.

Under Rome and Byzantium[edit]

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The two Phrygian provinces within the Diocese of Asia, c. 400 AD

In 133 BC, the remnants of Phrygia passed to "Rome. For purposes of provincial administration, the Romans maintained a divided Phrygia, attaching the northeastern part to the province of "Galatia and the western portion to the province of "Asia. During the reforms of "Diocletian, Phrygia was divided anew into two provinces: "Phrygia I", or Phrygia Salutaris, and Phrygia II, or Pacatiana, both under the "Diocese of Asia. Salutaris with Synnada as its capital comprised the eastern portion of the region and Pacatiana with "Laodicea on the Lycus as capital the western portion. The provinces survived up to the end of the 7th century, when they were replaced by the "Theme system. In the "Byzantine period, most of Phrygia belonged to the "Anatolic theme. It was overrun by the Turks in the aftermath of the "Battle of Manzikert (1071).[23] The Byzantines were finally evicted from there in the 13th century, but the name of Phrygia remained in use until the last remnant of the Byzantine Empire was conquered by the "Ottoman empire in 1453.

Culture[edit]

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The "Flaying of Marsyas by "Titian, 1570s, with King Midas at right, and the man with a knife in a "Phrygian cap

The ruins of Gordion and Midas City prove that Phrygia had developed an advanced "Bronze Age culture. This Phrygian culture interacted in a number of ways with Greek culture in various periods of history.[1]

The "Great Mother", "Cybele, as the Greeks and Romans knew her, was originally worshiped in the "mountains of Phrygia, where she was known as "Mountain Mother". In her typical Phrygian form, she wears a long belted dress, a polos (a high cylindrical headdress), and a veil covering the whole body. The later version of Cybele was established by a pupil of "Phidias, the "sculptor "Agoracritus, and became the image most widely adopted by Cybele's expanding following, both in the "Aegean world and at "Rome. It shows her humanized though still enthroned, her hand resting on an attendant lion and the other holding the "tympanon, a circular frame drum, similar to a "tambourine.

The Phrygians also venerated "Sabazios, the sky and father-"god depicted on horseback. Although the Greeks associated Sabazios with "Zeus, representations of him, even in Roman times, show him as a horseman god. His conflicts with the indigenous Mother Goddess, whose creature was the "Lunar Bull, may be surmised in the way that Sabazios' horse places a hoof on the head of a bull, in a "Roman relief at the "Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

The earliest traditions of "Greek music derived from Phrygia, transmitted through the Greek colonies in Anatolia, and included the "Phrygian mode, which was considered to be the warlike mode in ancient Greek music. Phrygian "Midas, the king of the "golden touch", was tutored in music by "Orpheus himself, according to the myth. Another musical invention that came from Phrygia was the "aulos, a reed instrument with two pipes.

"Marsyas, the "satyr who first formed the instrument using the hollowed "antler of a "stag, was a Phrygian follower of Cybele. He unwisely competed in music with the "Olympian "Apollo and inevitably lost, whereupon Apollo "flayed Marsyas alive and provocatively hung his skin on Cybele's own sacred tree, a "pine. Phrygia was also the scene of another musical contest, between Apollo and "Pan. "Midas was either a judge or spectator, and said he preferred Pan's pipes to Apollo's lyre, and was given donkey's ears as a punishment. The two stories were often confused or conflated, as by "Titian.

Classical Greek iconography identifies the "Trojan "Paris as non-Greek by his Phrygian cap, which was worn by "Mithras and survived into modern imagery as the ""Liberty cap" of the American and "French revolutionaries. The Phrygians spoke an "Indo-European language. (See "Phrygian language.) Although the Phrygians adopted the "alphabet originated by the "Phoenicians, only a few dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language have been found, primarily funereal, and so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia is second-hand information from Greek sources.

Mythic past[edit]

The name of the earliest known mythical king was Nannacus (aka Annacus).[24] This king resided at Iconium, the most eastern city of the kingdom of Phrygia at that time; and after his death, at the age of 300 years, a great flood overwhelmed the country, as had been foretold by an ancient oracle. The next king mentioned in extant classical sources was called Manis or Masdes. According to Plutarch, because of his splendid exploits, great things were called "manic" in Phrygia.[25] Thereafter, the kingdom of Phrygia seems to have become fragmented among various kings. One of the kings was "Tantalus, who ruled over the north western region of Phrygia around "Mount Sipylus. Tantalus was endlessly punished in "Tartarus, because he allegedly killed his son "Pelops and sacrificially offered him to the Olympians, a reference to the suppression of "human sacrifice. Tantalus was also falsely accused of stealing from the lotteries he had invented. In the mythic age before the "Trojan war, during a time of an "interregnum, "Gordius (or Gordias), a Phrygian farmer, became king, fulfilling an oracular "prophecy. The kingless Phrygians had turned for guidance to the oracle of Sabazios ("Zeus" to the Greeks) at "Telmissus, in the part of Phrygia that later became part of "Galatia. They had been instructed by the oracle to acclaim as their king the first man who rode up to the god's temple in a cart. That man was Gordias (Gordios, Gordius), a farmer, who dedicated the ox-cart in question, tied to its shaft with the ""Gordian Knot". Gordias refounded a capital at Gordium in west central Anatolia, situated on the old trackway through the heart of Anatolia that became "Darius's Persian "Royal Road" from "Pessinus to "Ancyra, and not far from the "River Sangarius.

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Man in Phrygian costume, "Hellenistic period (3rd–1st century BC), "Cyprus

The Phrygians are associated in Greek mythology with the "Dactyls, minor gods credited with the invention of iron smelting, who in most versions of the legend lived at "Mount Ida in Phrygia.

"Gordias's son (adopted in some versions) was "Midas. A large body of myths and legends surround this first king Midas.[26] connecting him with a mythological tale concerning "Attis.[27] This shadowy figure resided at Pessinus and attempted to marry his daughter to the young Attis in spite of the opposition of his lover Agdestis and his mother, the goddess "Cybele. When Agdestis and/or Cybele appear and cast madness upon the members of the wedding feast. Midas is said to have died in the ensuing chaos.

King Midas is said to have associated himself with "Silenus and other satyrs and with "Dionysus, who granted him a "golden touch".

In one version of his story, Midas travels from "Thrace accompanied by a band of his people to Asia Minor to wash away the taint of his unwelcome "golden touch" in the river "Pactolus. Leaving the gold in the river's sands, Midas found himself in Phrygia, where he was adopted by the childless king Gordias and taken under the protection of Cybele. Acting as the visible representative of Cybele, and under her authority, it would seem, a Phrygian king could designate his successor.

The Phrygian "Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Phrygia.

According to "Herodotus,[28] the Egyptian pharaoh "Psammetichus II had two children raised in isolation in order to find the original language. The children were reported to have uttered bekos, which is Phrygian for "bread", so Psammetichus admitted that the Phrygians were a nation older than the Egyptians.

Christian period[edit]

Visitors from Phrygia were reported to have been among the crowds present in "Jerusalem on the occasion of "Pentecost as recorded in Acts 2:10. In Acts 16:6 the "Apostle Paul and his companion "Silas travelled through Phrygia and the region of "Galatia proclaiming the "Christian gospel. Their plans appear to have been to go to "Asia but circumstances or guidance, "in ways which we are not told, by inner promptings, or by visions of the night, or by the inspired utterances of those among their converts who had received the gift of prophecy" [29] prevented them from doing so and instead they travelled westwards towards the coast.[30]

The Christian heresy known as "Montanism, and still known in "Orthodoxy as "the Phrygian heresy", arose in the unidentified village of Ardabau in the 2nd century AD, and was distinguished by ecstatic spirituality and women priests. Originally described as a rural movement, it is now thought to have been of urban origin like other Christian developments. The new Jerusalem its adherents founded in the village of Pepouza has now been identified in a remote valley that later held a monastery.[1]

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Peter Thonemann (ed), 2013, Roman Phrygia: culture and society, Cambridge University Press
  2. ^ Claude Brixhe, Phrygian, in Roger D. Woodard (editor), The ancient Languages of Asia Minor, Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 72
  3. ^ Midas and the Phrygians, by Miltiades E. Bolaris (2010)
  4. ^ a b "Homeric Hymns number 5, To Aphrodite.
  5. ^ a b Herodotus VII.73.
  6. ^ Herodotus VII.73, VIII.138.
  7. ^ "Strabo 7.3.3.
  8. ^ See for example Encyclopædia Britannica.
  9. ^ Phillip Clapham, "Hittites and Phrygians", C&AH IV:2, pp.71-121.
  10. ^ "Pausanias 1.4.5.
  11. ^ CAH, Vol 2, Part 2, p. 418.
  12. ^ a b Hamp, Eric P. (August 2013). "The Expansion of the Indo-European Languages: An Indo-Europeanist's Evolving View" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers. 239: 8,10. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  13. ^ Celtic from the West, 2010
  14. ^ "Homer, "Iliad III.216-225.
  15. ^ "Homer, "Iliad II.1055-1057; "Smith, William (1878). A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: J. Murray. p. 230. 
  16. ^ Pausanias 10.27
  17. ^ "Bibliotheca 2.5.10.
  18. ^ "Homer, "Iliad XVI.873-875.
  19. ^ "Strabo, I.3.21.
  20. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica.
  21. ^ Scott 1995, p. 183.
  22. ^ "Kingdoms of the Successors of Alexander: After the Battle of Ipsus, B.C. 301". "World Digital Library. 1800–1884. Retrieved 2013-07-27. 
  23. ^ Swain, Simon; Adams, J. Maxwell; Janse, Mark (2002). Bilingualism in ancient society: language contact and the written word. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. pp. 246–266. "ISBN "0-19-924506-1. 
  24. ^ Suidas s. v. Νάννακος; Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. Ἰκόνιον; Both passages are translated in: A new system: or, An analysis of ancient mythology by Jacob Bryant (1807) Pages 12-14
  25. ^ Plutarch, On Isis and Osiris, Chapter 24
  26. ^ There were seven all together
  27. ^ Pausanias Description of Greece 7:17; Arnobius Against the Pagans 5.5
  28. ^ Histories 2.9
  29. ^ Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers, accessed 18 September 2015
  30. ^ Acts 16:7-8

Sources and external links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

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