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Pisa
"Comune
Comune di Pisa
""Pisa
Pisa
""Flag of Pisa
Flag
""Coat of arms of Pisa
Coat of arms
""Pisa is located in Italy
Pisa
Pisa
""Pisa is located in Tuscany
Pisa
Pisa
""Pisa is located in Europe
Pisa
Pisa
Location of Pisa in Italy
Coordinates: 43°43′N 10°24′E / 43.717°N 10.400°E / 43.717; 10.400"Coordinates: 43°43′N 10°24′E / 43.717°N 10.400°E / 43.717; 10.400
Country "Italy
"Region ""Flag of Tuscany.svg "Tuscany
"Province / "Metropolitan city "Pisa (PI)
"Frazioni "Marina di Pisa, "Tirrenia, Calambrone, Barbaricina, Riglione, Oratoio, Putignano, San Piero a Grado, San Rossore, Coltano, Sant'Ermete, Ospedaletto
Government
 • Mayor Marco Filippeschi ("PD)
Area
 • Total 185 km2 (71 sq mi)
Elevation 4 m (13 ft)
Population (1 January 2015)
 • Total 91,104[1]
"Demonym(s) Pisan ("Italian: Pisani)
"Time zone "CET ("UTC+1)
 • Summer ("DST) "CEST ("UTC+2)
Postal code 56100
Patron saint "San Ranieri
Saint day 17 June
Website Official website

Pisa ("/ˈpzə/; Italian pronunciation: "[ˈpiːsa; ˈpiːza]) is a city in the "Tuscany region of "Central Italy straddling the "Arno just before it empties into the "Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the "Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its "leaning tower (the "bell tower of the city's cathedral), the city of over 91,104 residents (around 200,000 with the metropolitan area) contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces and various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian "maritime republics.

The city is also home of the "University of Pisa, which has a history going back to the 12th century and also has the "Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, founded by Napoleon in 1810, and its offshoot, the "Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies as the best sanctioned "Superior Graduate Schools in Italy.[2]

Contents

History[edit]

Historical affiliations
""Consul et lictores.png "Roman Republic 180–27 BC

""Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg "Roman Empire 27 BC–285 AD
""Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg "Western Roman Empire 285–476
"Kingdom of Odoacer 476–493
"Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553
""Simple Labarum.svg "Eastern Roman Empire 553–603
""Corona ferrea monza (heraldry).svg "Lombard Kingdom 603–773
""Charlemagne autograph.svg "Carolingian Empire 774–812
""Shield and Coat of Arms of the Holy Roman Emperor (c.1200-c.1300).svg "March of Tuscany 812–1000
""Flag of the Republic of Pisa.svg "Republic of Pisa 1000–1406
""Flag of Florence.svg "Republic of Florence 1406–1532
""Coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1562-1737).svg "Duchy of Florence 1532–1569
""Bandiera del granducato di Toscana (1562-1737 ).png "Grand Duchy of Tuscany 1569–1801
""Etrurian Kingdom and War Flag with Great Royal Coat of Arms.svg "Kingdom of Etruria 1801–1807
""Flag of France.svg "First French Empire 1807–1815
""Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1840).svg "Grand Duchy of Tuscany 1815–1859
""Flag of Italy.svg "United Provinces of Central Italy 1859–1860
""Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg "Kingdom of Italy 1861–1946

""Flag of Italy.svg "Italian Republic 1946–present

Ancient times[edit]

The origin of the name, Pisa, is a mystery. While the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the "Pelasgi, the "Greeks, the "Etruscans, and the "Ligurians had variously been proposed as founders of the city (for example, a colony of the ancient city of "Pisa, Greece). Archaeological remains from the 5th century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks and "Gauls. The presence of an Etruscan "necropolis, discovered during excavations in the "Arena Garibaldi in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins.

"Ancient Roman authors referred to Pisa as an old city. "Strabo referred Pisa's origins to the mythical "Nestor, king of "Pylos, after the fall of "Troy. "Virgil, in his "Aeneid, states that Pisa was already a great center by the times described; the settlers from the "Alpheus coast have been credited with the founding of the city in the 'Etruscan lands'. The Virgilian commentator "Servius wrote that the Teuti, or "Pelops, the king of the "Pisaeans, founded the town thirteen centuries before the start of the common era.

The maritime role of Pisa should have been already prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the "naval ram. Pisa took advantage of being the only port along the western coast from "Genoa (then a small village) to "Ostia. Pisa served as a base for Roman naval expeditions against "Ligurians, "Gauls and "Carthaginians. In 180 BC, it became a Roman colony under Roman law, as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a "municipium. Emperor "Augustus fortified the colony into an important port and changed the name in Colonia Iulia obsequens.

It is supposed that Pisa was founded on the shore. However, due to the alluvial sediments from the Arno and the Serchio, whose mouth lies about 11 kilometres (7 mi) north of the Arno's, the shore moved west. Strabo states that the city was 4.0 kilometres (2.5 mi) away from the coast. Currently, it is located 9.7 kilometres (6 mi) from the coast. However it was a maritime city, with ships sailing up the Arno.[3] In the 90s AD, a "baths complex was built in the city.

Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages[edit]

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Hypothetical map of Pisa in the 5th century AD

During the later years of the "Roman Empire, Pisa did not decline as much as the other cities of Italy, probably thanks to the complexity of its river system and its consequent ease of defence. In the 7th century Pisa helped "Pope Gregory I by supplying numerous ships in his military expedition against the "Byzantines of "Ravenna: Pisa was the sole Byzantine centre of "Tuscia to fall peacefully in "Lombard hands, through assimilation with the neighbouring region where their trading interests were prevailing. Pisa began in this way its rise to the role of main port of the Upper Tyrrhenian Sea and became the main trading centre between Tuscany and "Corsica, "Sardinia and the southern coasts of France and Spain.

After "Charlemagne had defeated the Lombards under the command of "Desiderius in 774, Pisa went through a crisis but soon recovered. Politically it became part of the duchy of "Lucca. In 860, Pisa was captured by "vikings led by "Björn Ironside. In 930 Pisa became the county centre (status it maintained until the arrival of "Otto I) within the mark of "Tuscia. Lucca was the capital but Pisa was the most important city, as in the middle of 10th century "Liutprand of Cremona, bishop of "Cremona, called Pisa Tusciae provinciae caput ("capital of the province of Tuscia"), and one century later the marquis of Tuscia was commonly referred to as "marquis of Pisa". In 1003 Pisa was the protagonist of the first "communal war in Italy, against Lucca. From the naval point of view, since the 9th century the emergence of the "Saracen pirates urged the city to expand its fleet: in the following years this fleet gave the town an opportunity for more expansion. In 828 Pisan ships assaulted the coast of "North Africa. In 871 they took part in the defence of "Salerno from the Saracens. In 970 they gave also strong support to the "Otto I's expedition, defeating a "Byzantine fleet in front of "Calabrese coasts.

11th century[edit]

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Hypothetical map of Pisa in the 11th century AD

The power of Pisa as a mighty maritime nation began to grow and reached its apex in the 11th century when it acquired traditional fame as one of the four main historical "Maritime Republics of Italy ("Repubbliche Marinare).

At that time, the city was a very important commercial centre and controlled a significant "Mediterranean merchant fleet and navy. It expanded its powers in 1005 through the sack of "Reggio Calabria in the south of Italy. Pisa was in continuous conflict with the "Saracens, who had their bases in Corsica, for control of the Mediterranean. In 1017 "Sardinian "Giudicati were militarily supported by Pisa, in alliance with "Genoa, to defeat the "Saracen King Mugahid who had settled a logistic base in the north of "Sardinia the year before. This victory gave Pisa supremacy in the "Tyrrhenian Sea. When the Pisans subsequently ousted the Genoese from Sardinia, a new conflict and rivalry was born between these mighty marine republics. Between 1030 and 1035, Pisa went on to defeat several rival towns in Sicily and conquer "Carthage in "North Africa. In 1051–1052 the admiral Jacopo Ciurini conquered "Corsica, provoking more resentment from the Genoese. In 1063 admiral Giovanni Orlando, coming to the aid of the "Norman "Roger I, took "Palermo from the Saracen pirates. The gold treasure taken from the Saracens in Palermo allowed the Pisans to start the building of their cathedral and the other monuments which constitute the famous "Piazza del Duomo.

In 1060 Pisa had to engage in their first battle with Genoa. The Pisan victory helped to consolidate its position in the Mediterranean. "Pope Gregory VII recognised in 1077 the new "Laws and customs of the sea" instituted by the Pisans, and emperor "Henry IV granted them the right to name their own consuls, advised by a Council of Elders. This was simply a confirmation of the present situation, because in those years the marquis had already been excluded from power. In 1092 "Pope Urban II awarded Pisa the supremacy over "Corsica and "Sardinia, and at the same time raising the town to the rank of archbishopric.

Pisa sacked the "Tunisian city of "Mahdia in 1088. Four years later Pisan and Genoese ships helped "Alfonso VI of Castilla to push "El Cid out of "Valencia. A Pisan fleet of 120 ships also took part in the "First Crusade and the Pisans were instrumental in the taking of "Jerusalem in 1099. On their way to the "Holy Land the ships did not miss the occasion to sack some "Byzantine islands: the Pisan crusaders were led by their archbishop "Daibert, the future "patriarch of Jerusalem. Pisa and the other Repubbliche Marinare took advantage of the crusade to establish trading posts and colonies in the Eastern coastal cities of the "Levant. In particular the Pisans founded colonies in "Antiochia, Acre, "Jaffa, "Tripoli, "Tyre, "Latakia and Accone. They also had other possessions in "Jerusalem and "Caesarea, plus smaller colonies (with lesser autonomy) in "Cairo, "Alexandria and of course "Constantinople, where the "Byzantine Emperor "Alexius I Comnenus granted them special mooring and trading rights. In all these cities the Pisans were granted privileges and immunity from taxation, but had to contribute to the defence in case of attack. In the 12th century the Pisan quarter in the Eastern part of Constantinople had grown to 1,000 people. For some years of that century Pisa was the most prominent merchant and military ally of the "Byzantine Empire, overcoming "Venice itself.

12th century[edit]

In 1113 Pisa and the "Pope Paschal II set up, together with the count of "Barcelona and other contingents from "Provence and Italy (Genoese excluded), "a war to free the Balearic Islands from the "Moors: the queen and the king of "Majorca were brought in chains to Tuscany. Even though the "Almoravides soon reconquered the island, the booty taken helped the Pisans in their magnificent programme of buildings, especially the "cathedral and Pisa gained a role of pre-eminence in the "Western Mediterranean.

In the following years the mighty Pisan fleet, led by archbishop "Pietro Moriconi, drove away the "Saracens after ferocious combats. Though short-lived, this success of Pisa in Spain increased the rivalry with Genoa. Pisa's trade with the "Languedoc and "Provence ("Noli, "Savona, "Fréjus and "Montpellier) were an obstacle to the Genoese interests in cities like "Hyères, "Fos, "Antibes and "Marseille.

The war began in 1119 when the Genoese attacked several galleys on their way to the motherland, and lasted until 1133. The two cities fought each other on land and at sea, but hostilities were limited to raids and pirate-like assaults.

In June 1135, "Bernard of Clairvaux took a leading part in the Council of Pisa, asserting the claims of pope "Innocent II against those of pope "Anacletus II, who had been elected pope in 1130 with "Norman support but was not recognised outside Rome. Innocent II resolved the conflict with Genoa, establishing the sphere of influence of Pisa and Genoa. Pisa could then, unhindered by Genoa, participate in the conflict of Innocent II against king "Roger II of Sicily. "Amalfi, one of the Maritime Republics (though already declining under Norman rule), was conquered on August 6, 1136: the Pisans destroyed the ships in the port, assaulted the castles in the surrounding areas and drove back an army sent by Roger from "Aversa. This victory brought Pisa to the peak of its power and to a standing equal to "Venice. Two years later its soldiers sacked "Salerno.

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New city walls, erected in 1156 by Consul Cocco Griffi

In the following years Pisa was one of the staunchest supporters of the "Ghibelline party. This was much appreciated by "Frederick I. He issued in 1162 and 1165 two important documents, with the following grants: apart from the jurisdiction over the Pisan countryside, the Pisans were granted freedom of trade in the whole Empire, the coast from "Civitavecchia to "Portovenere, a half of "Palermo, "Messina, "Salerno and "Naples, the whole of "Gaeta, "Mazara and "Trapani, and a street with houses for its merchants in every city of the "Kingdom of Sicily. Some of these grants were later confirmed by "Henry VI, "Otto IV and "Frederick II. They marked the apex of Pisa's power, but also spurred the resentment of cities like "Lucca, "Massa, "Volterra and "Florence, who saw their aim to expand towards the sea thwarted. The clash with "Lucca also concerned the possession of the castle of "Montignoso and mainly the control of the "Via Francigena, the main trade route between Rome and France. Last but not least, such a sudden and large increase of power by Pisa could only lead to another war with Genoa.

Genoa had acquired a largely dominant position in the markets of Southern France. The war began presumably in 1165 on the "Rhône, when an attack on a convoy, directed to some Pisan trade centres on the river, by the Genoese and their ally, the count of "Toulouse failed. Pisa on the other hand was allied to "Provence. The war continued until 1175 without significant victories. Another point of attrition was "Sicily, where both the cities had privileges granted by "Henry VI. In 1192, Pisa managed to conquer "Messina. This episode was followed by a series of battles culminating in the Genoese conquest of "Syracuse in 1204. Later, the trading posts in Sicily were lost when the new "Pope Innocent III, though removing the "excommunication cast over Pisa by his predecessor "Celestine III, allied himself with the "Guelph League of Tuscany, led by "Florence. Soon he stipulated a pact with Genoa too, further weakening the Pisan presence in Southern Italy.

To counter the Genoese predominance in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Pisa strengthened its relationship with their Spanish and French traditional bases ("Marseille, "Narbonne, "Barcelona, etc.) and tried to defy the "Venetian rule of the "Adriatic Sea. In 1180 the two cities agreed to a non-aggression treaty in the Tyrrhenian and the Adriatic, but the death of Emperor "Manuel Comnenus in "Constantinople changed the situation. Soon there were attacks on Venetian convoys. Pisa signed trade and political pacts with "Ancona, "Pula, "Zara, "Split and "Brindisi: in 1195 a Pisan fleet reached Pola to defend its independence from Venice, but the "Serenissima managed soon to reconquer the rebel sea town.

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View of the "Piazza dei Miracoli

One year later the two cities signed a peace treaty which resulted in favourable conditions for Pisa. But in 1199 the Pisans violated it by blockading the "port of Brindisi in "Apulia. In the following naval battle they were defeated by the "Venetians. The war that followed ended in 1206 with a treaty in which Pisa gave up all its hopes to expand in the Adriatic, though it maintained the trading posts it had established in the area. From that point on the two cities were united against the rising power of Genoa and sometimes collaborated to increase the trading benefits in Constantinople.

13th century[edit]

In 1209 there were in "Lerici two councils for a final resolution of the rivalry with Genoa. A twenty-year peace treaty was signed. But when in 1220 the emperor "Frederick II confirmed his supremacy over the "Tyrrhenian coast from "Civitavecchia to "Portovenere, the Genoese and Tuscan resentment against Pisa grew again. In the following years Pisa clashed with "Lucca in "Garfagnana and was defeated by the "Florentines at Castel del Bosco. The strong "Ghibelline position of Pisa brought this town diametrically against the Pope, who was in a strong dispute with the "Empire. And indeed the pope tried to deprive the town of its dominions in northern "Sardinia.

In 1238 "Pope Gregory IX formed an alliance between "Genoa and "Venice against the empire, and consequently against Pisa too. One year later he excommunicated "Frederick II and called for an anti-Empire council to be held in Rome in 1241. On May 3, 1241, a combined fleet of Pisan and Sicilian ships, led by the Emperor's son "Enzo, attacked a Genoese convoy carrying prelates from Northern Italy and France, next to the isle of "Giglio ("Battle of Giglio), in front of "Tuscany: the Genoese lost 25 ships, while about thousand sailors, two cardinals and one bishop were taken prisoner. After this outstanding victory the council in Rome failed, but Pisa was excommunicated. This extreme measure was only removed in 1257. Anyway, the Tuscan city tried to take advantage of the favourable situation to conquer the "Corsican city of "Aleria and even lay siege to "Genoa itself in 1243.

The "Ligurian republic of Genoa, however, recovered fast from this blow and won back "Lerici, conquered by the Pisans some years earlier, in 1256.

The great expansion in the "Mediterranean and the prominence of the merchant class urged a modification in the city's institutes. The system with consuls was abandoned and in 1230 the new city rulers named a Capitano del Popolo ("People's Chieftain") as civil and military leader. In spite of these reforms, the conquered lands and the city itself were harassed by the rivalry between the two families of "Della Gherardesca and "Visconti. In 1237 the archbishop and the Emperor "Frederick II intervened to reconcile the two rivals, but the strains did not cease. In 1254 the people rebelled and imposed twelve Anziani del Popolo ("People's Elders") as their political representatives in the Commune. They also supplemented the legislative councils, formed of noblemen, with new People's Councils, composed by the main guilds and by the chiefs of the People's Companies. These had the power to ratify the laws of the Major General Council and the Senate.

Decline[edit]

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Bonus certificate of Pisa, issued 19. July 1875

It is said that the decline began on August 6, 1284, when the numerically superior fleet of Pisa, under the command of Albertino Morosini, was defeated by the brilliant tactics of the Genoese fleet, under the command of "Benedetto Zaccaria and "Oberto Doria, in the dramatic naval "Battle of Meloria. This defeat ended the maritime power of Pisa and the town never fully recovered: in 1290 the Genoese destroyed forever the Porto Pisano (Pisa's Port), and "covered the land with salt. The region around Pisa did not permit the city to recover from the loss of thousands of sailors from the Meloria, while "Liguria guaranteed enough sailors to Genoa. Goods however continued to be traded, albeit in reduced quantity, but the end came when the "Arno started to change course, preventing the galleys from reaching the city's port up the river. It seems also that nearby area became infested with "malaria. The true end came in 1324 when "Sardinia was entirely lost in favour of the "Aragonese.

Always "Ghibelline, Pisa tried to build up its power in the course of the 14th century and even managed to defeat "Florence in the "Battle of Montecatini (1315), under the command of "Uguccione della Faggiuola. Eventually, however, after a long siege, Pisa was occupied by Florentines in 1406: in fact florentines corrupted the Capitano del Popolo ("People's Chieftain") Giovanni Gambacorta that opened by night the city gate of San Marco. Pisa was never conquered by an army. In 1409 Pisa was the seat of a "council trying to set the question of the "Great Schism. Furthermore, in the 15th century, access to the sea became more and more difficult, as the port was silting up and was cut off from the sea. When in 1494 "Charles VIII of France invaded the Italian states to claim the "Kingdom of Naples, Pisa grabbed the opportunity to reclaim its independence as the Second Pisan Republic.

But the new freedom did not last long. There were fifteen years of battles and sieges by the Florentine troops led by Antonio da Filicaja, Averardo Salviati and Niccolò Capponi but they never managed to conquer the city. "Vitellozzo Vitelli with his brother Paolo were the only ones that actually managed to break the strong defences of Pisa and make a breach in the Stampace bastion in the southern west part of the walls, but he did not enter the city. For that they were suspected of treachery and Paolo was put to death. However the resources of Pisa were getting low and, at the end, the city was sold to Visconti family from Milan and eventually to Florence again. Its role of major port of "Tuscany went to "Livorno. Pisa acquired a mainly cultural role spurred by the presence of the "University of Pisa, created in 1343, and later reinforced by the "Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (1810) and "Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies (1987).

Pisa was the birthplace of the important early physicist "Galileo Galilei. It is still the seat of an "archbishopric. Besides its educational institutions; it has become a light industrial centre and a railway hub. It suffered repeated destruction during "World War II.

Since the early 1950s the US Army has maintained "Camp Darby just outside Pisa which is used by many US military personnel as a base for vacations in the area.[4][5]

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Pisa experiences a borderline "humid subtropical (Cfa) and "Mediterranean climate ("Köppen climate classification Csa), since only a single month receives less than 40 millimetres (1.6 in). The city is characterized by mild winters and very warm summers. This transitional climate keeps Pisa from enjoying a summer devoid of rain, typical of Central and Southern Italy, as the summer (the driest season) experiences occasional rainshowers. Rainfall peaks in the autumn months.

Climate data for Pisa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
21.0
(69.8)
24.0
(75.2)
27.9
(82.2)
30.9
(87.6)
35.0
(95)
37.8
(100)
38.8
(101.8)
36.2
(97.2)
30.2
(86.4)
24.0
(75.2)
20.4
(68.7)
38.8
(101.8)
Average high °C (°F) 11.4
(52.5)
12.6
(54.7)
15.2
(59.4)
17.8
(64)
22.2
(72)
26.0
(78.8)
29.4
(84.9)
29.5
(85.1)
25.7
(78.3)
20.9
(69.6)
15.3
(59.5)
11.8
(53.2)
19.82
(67.67)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
7.6
(45.7)
9.8
(49.6)
12.5
(54.5)
16.4
(61.5)
20.0
(68)
23.1
(73.6)
23.4
(74.1)
20.0
(68)
15.8
(60.4)
10.7
(51.3)
7.6
(45.7)
14.48
(58.05)
Average low °C (°F) 2.2
(36)
2.5
(36.5)
4.4
(39.9)
7.2
(45)
10.7
(51.3)
14.1
(57.4)
16.7
(62.1)
17.2
(63)
14.3
(57.7)
10.7
(51.3)
6.1
(43)
3.4
(38.1)
9.13
(48.44)
Record low °C (°F) −13.8
(7.2)
−8.4
(16.9)
−8.2
(17.2)
−3.2
(26.2)
2.8
(37)
5.8
(42.4)
8.8
(47.8)
8.2
(46.8)
3.8
(38.8)
0.3
(32.5)
−7.2
(19)
−7.2
(19)
−13.8
(7.2)
Average "precipitation mm (inches) 63.4
(2.496)
57.5
(2.264)
59.8
(2.354)
89.1
(3.508)
61.5
(2.421)
47.8
(1.882)
25.4
(1)
49.4
(1.945)
101.5
(3.996)
140.3
(5.524)
123.5
(4.862)
74.4
(2.929)
893.6
(35.181)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.1 7.2 7.6 9.7 7.3 5.2 2.5 3.6 6.3 8.8 9.4 8.5 84.2
Average "relative humidity (%) 75 71 70 72 72 70 67 68 71 72 74 76 71.5
Mean monthly "sunshine hours 105.4 121.5 151.9 192.0 241.8 267.0 316.2 279.0 219.0 176.7 111.0 93.0 2,274.5
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico (temperature and precipitation data 1971–2000)[6]
Source #2: Servizio Meteorologico (relative humidity and sun data 1961–1990)[7]

Main sights[edit]

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The Monumental "Campo Santo in the "Piazza del Duomo
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Façade of "Santa Maria della Spina
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St. Francis' church
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"Palazzo della Carovana or dei Cavalieri
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Cittadella vecchia

While the "bell tower of the Cathedral, known as "the leaning Tower of Pisa", is the most famous image of the city, it is one of many works of art and architecture in the city's "Piazza del Duomo, also known, since the 20th century, as Piazza dei Miracoli (Square of Miracles), to the north of the old town center. The Piazza del Duomo also houses the "Duomo (the Cathedral), the "Baptistry and the "Campo Santo (the monumental cemetery). The medieval complex includes the above-mentioned four sacred buildings, the hospital and few palaces. All the complex is kept by the "Opera (fabrica ecclesiae) della Primaziale Pisana, an old non profit foundation that operates since the building of the Cathedral (1063) to the maintenance of the sacred buildings. The area is framed by medieval walls kept by municipality administration.

Other interesting sights include:

Museums[edit]

Pisa hosts the "University of Pisa, especially renowned in the fields of "Physics, "Mathematics, "Engineering and "Computer Science. The "Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna and the "Scuola Normale Superiore, the Italian academic élite institutions are noted mostly for research and the education of "graduate students.

Construction of a new leaning tower of glass and steel 57 meters tall, containing offices and apartments was scheduled to start in summer 2004 and take 4 years. It was designed by Dante Oscar Benini and raised criticism.

Educational institutions[edit]

Located at: Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa – Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 – 56126 Pisa (Italia)

Located at: Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, P.zza Martiri della Libertà, 33 – 56127 – Pisa (Italia)

Located at: Università di Pisa – Lungarno Pacinotti, 43 – 56126 Pisa (Italia)

Churches[edit]

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Convent, Pisa, Italy, 1895. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection (S03_06_01_001 image 291)

Palaces, towers and villas[edit]

Notable people associated with Pisa[edit]

For people born in Pisa, see "People from the Province of Pisa; among notable non-natives long resident in the city:

Transport[edit]

Travel links[edit]

Pisa has an international airport known as "Pisa International Airport located in San Giusto neighborhood in Pisa. The airport has a people mover system, called PISAMOVER, opened in March 2017, that connects Airport and Pisa central railway station, that is 2 km (1.2 mi) away, it's based on a driverless horizontal funicular that travels the distance in 5 minutes, with a 5 minutes frecuency, having an intermediate stop on a parking.

Pisa is a one-hour drive from Florence (86 kilometres (53 mi)). One can also get a train directly to Florence from a Central rail station in Pisa ("Pisa Centrale). Local buses connect the city of Pisa with all the neighboring cities (come to Pontedera, then take a bus for Volterra, San Miniato, etc.). Taxis come when requested from Pisa International Airport and Central Station.

Buses[edit]

Urban lines CPT (Compagnia Pisana Trasporti):[9]
Suburban lines CPT to/from Pisa:[9]

Trains[edit]

The city is served by two railway stations available for passengers: "Pisa Centrale and "Pisa San Rossore.

Pisa Centrale is the main railway station and is located along the "Tyrrhenic railway line. It connects Pisa directly with several other important Italian cities such as "Rome, "Florence, "Genoa, "Turin, "Naples, "Livorno, and "Grosseto.

Pisa San Rossore links the city with Lucca (20 minutes from Pisa) and "Viareggio and is also reachable from Pisa Centrale. It is a minor railway station located near the Leaning Tower zone.

There was another station called "Pisa Aeroporto situated next to the Airport with services to "Pisa Centrale and "Florence. It has been closed on 15 December 2013 for the realization of a "people mover.

Cars[edit]

Pisa has two exits on the A11 "Florence-Pisa road and on the A12 "Genoa-"Livorno road, Pisa Nord and Pisa Centro-aeroporto.

Pisa Centro leads visitors to the "city centre.

Parking: Pratale (San Jacopo), Pietrasantina (Via Pietrasantina), Piazza Carrara, Lungarni.

Sports[edit]

""
""
"A.C. Pisa 1909 play at the "Arena Garibaldi – Stadio Romeo Anconetani, as seen from the Leaning Tower

"Football is the main sport in Pisa; the local team, "A.C. Pisa, currently[10] plays in the "Lega Pro (the third highest football division in Italy), and has had a top flight history throughout the 1980s and the 1990s, featuring several world-class players such as "Diego Simeone, "Christian Vieri and "Dunga during this time. The club play at the "Arena Garibaldi – Stadio Romeo Anconetani, opened in 1919 and with a capacity of 25,000.

"Shooting was one of the first sports to have their own association in Pisa. The Società del Tiro a Segno di Pisa was founded on July 9, 1862. In 1885, they acquired their own training field. The shooting range was almost completely destroyed during World War II.

In Pisa there was a festival and game fr:Gioco del Ponte (Game of the Bridge) which was celebrated (in some form) in Pisa from perhaps the 1200s down to 1807. From the end of the 1400s the game took the form of a mock battle fought upon Pisa's central bridge (Ponte di Mezzo). The participants wore quilted armor and the only offensive weapon allowed was the targone, a shield-shaped, stout board with precisely specified dimensions. Hitting below the belt was not allowed. Two opposing teams started at opposite ends of the bridge. The object of the two opposing teams was to penetrate, drive back, and disperse the opponents' ranks and to thereby drive them backwards off the bridge. The struggle was limited to forty-five minutes. Victory or defeat was immensely important to the team players and their partisans, but sometimes the game was fought to a draw and both sides celebrated.[11] In 1927 the tradition was revived by college students as an elaborate costume parade. In 1935 "Vittorio Emanuele III with the royal family witnessed the first revival of a modern version of the game, which has been pursued in the 20th and 21st centuries with some interruptions and varying degrees of enthusiasm by Pisans and their civic institutions.

Festivals and cultural events[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Pisa is "twinned with:[12]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Istat
  2. ^ Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna di Pisa Information statistics
  3. ^ William Heywood (2010). A History of Pisa: Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. "ISBN "9781108010139. 
  4. ^ "A traveler's oasis in Italy". Wiesbaden.army.mil. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  5. ^ "Darby Military Community, Camp Darby, Italy, Top Picks". Usag.livorno.army.mil. 1945-04-30. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  6. ^ "PISA/S.GIUSTO" (PDF). Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved October 13, 2012. 
  7. ^ S. Giusto "Tabella CLINO 1961–1990 Pisa" Check |url= value ("help). Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved October 13, 2012. 
  8. ^ Navi Pisane - Le Antiche Navi Romane scoperte a Pisa
  9. ^ a b CPT (Compagnia Pisana Trasporti) official site – Timetable
  10. ^ as of 2013–14
  11. ^ Heywood, William. Palio and Ponte: An Account of the Sports of Central Italy from the Age of Dante to the XXth Century. London: Methuen & Co. pp. 116–126. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h "Pisa – Official Sister Cities". "© Comune di Pisa, Via degli Uffizi, 1 – 56100 Pisa centralino: +39 050 910111. Retrieved January 11, 2016. 
  13. ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2009. 
  14. ^ "San Rossore Officially Sister City To Ocala". Thoroughbred Times. Retrieved 2007-07-16. "This event is just the beginning of a nice relationship between the city of Ocala and the city of Pisa and San Rossore," Fontanelli said in Italian during the ceremony. 

Bibliography[edit]

See also: "Bibliography of the history of Pisa

External links[edit]


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