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Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC) was the third of the "three pillars of the European Union (EU). It was named Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) before 2003. The pillar existed between 1993 and 2009, when it was absorbed into a consolidated "European Union structure and became the "area of freedom, security and justice.
The pillar focused on co-operation in law enforcement and combating "racism. It was based more around intergovernmental cooperation than the other pillars meaning there was little input from the "European Commission, "European Parliament and the "Court of Justice. It was responsible for policies including the "European Arrest Warrant.
It was created, on the foundations of the "TREVI cooperation, as the Justice and Home Affairs pillar by the "Maastricht treaty in order to advance cooperation in criminal and justice fields without member states sacrificing a great deal of sovereignty. Decisions were taken by consensus rather than majority (which was the case in the "European Community areas) and the "supranational "institutions had little input.
The "Treaty of Amsterdam transferred the areas of illegal "immigration, "visas, "asylum, and judicial co-operation in civil matters to the integrated European Community. The term Justice and Home Affairs later covers these integrated fields as well as the intergovernmental third pillar. The pillar was renamed "Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters" to reflect its reduced scope.
Before the Maastricht Treaty, member states cooperated at the intergovernmental level in various sectors relating to free movement and personal security ("group of co-ordinators", CELAD, TREVI) as well as in customs co-operation (GAM) and judicial policy. With Maastricht, Justice and Home Affairs co-operation aimed at reinforcing actions taken by member states while allowing a more coherent approach of these actions, by offering new tools for coordinating actions.
The "Treaty of Lisbon, which entered into force in December 2009, abolished the entire pillar system. The PJC areas and those transferred from JHA to the Community were once more grouped together in creating an "area of freedom, security and justice.
"Modified Brussels Treaty
(protocol amending WUDO to become WEU)
Treaty & "EURATOM
(founded EEC and EURATOM)
(merging the legislative & administrative bodies of the 3 European communities)
"Council Agreement on TREVI
(amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EEC)+
"Maastricht Treaty (TEU)
(amended: EURATOM, ECSC, and EEC to EC)+(founded: JHA+CFSP)
(amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EC to also contain Schengen, and TEU where PJCC replaced JHA)
(amended with focus on institutional changes: EURATOM, ECSC, EC and TEU)
|"Three pillars of the European Union:|
|"European Communities (with a single Commission & Council):|
|"European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)|
|"European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)||Treaty expired in 2002||"European Union (EU)|
|"European Economic Community (EEC)|
|"Schengen Rules||"European Community (EC)|
|"Terrorism, Radicalism, Extremism and Violence Internationally (TREVI)||"Justice and Home Affairs (JHA)|
|Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC)|
|"European Political Cooperation (EPC)||"Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)|
|"Western Union Defence Organization (WUDO)||"Western European Union (WEU)|
|Treaty terminated in 2011|
The "Maastricht Treaty established that, while reaching the objectives of the Union, and notably the freedom of movement, the member states consider the following as areas of common interest under Justice and Home Affairs:
There were three EU agencies under the PJC pillar: "Eurojust, "Europol and "European Police College (Cepol).