See more Political parties in the United States articles on AOD.

Powered by
TTSReader
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia


( => ( => ( => Political parties in the United States [pageid] => 249433 ) =>

"Political parties in the United States are mostly dominated by a "two-party system. However, the "United States Constitution has always been silent on the issue of political parties; at the time it was signed in 1787, there were no parties in the nation. Indeed, no nation in the world had voter-based political parties.

Contents

Overview[edit]

The need to win popular support in a "republic led to the American invention of voter-based political parties in the 1790s.[1] Americans were especially innovative in devising new campaign techniques that linked public opinion with public policy through the party.[2]

Political scientists and historians have divided the development of America's two-party system into five eras.[3] The first two-party system consisted of the "Federalist Party, who supported the ratification of the Constitution, and the "Democratic-Republican Party or the Anti-Federalists, who opposed the powerful central government, among others, that the Constitution established when it took effect in 1789.[4]

The modern two-party system consists of the "Democratic Party and the "Republican Party. Several "third parties also operate in the U.S., and from time to time elect someone to local office.[5] The largest third party since the 1980s is the "Libertarian Party.

Besides the Constitution, Green, and Libertarian parties, there are "many other political parties that receive only minimal support and only appear on the ballot in one or a few states.

Some political candidates, and many voters, choose not to identify with a particular political party. In some states, "independents are not allowed to vote in primary elections, but in others, they can vote in any primary election of their choice. Although the term "independent" often is used as a synonym for "moderate," "centrist," or "swing voter," to refer to a politician or voter who holds views that incorporate facets of both liberal and conservative ideologies, an independent can be of any ideological or political persuasion.

History and early political parties[edit]

""
""
Popular votes to political parties during presidential elections.
""
""
Political parties derivation. Dotted line means unofficially.

The "United States Constitution Is silent on the subject of political parties. The "Founding Fathers did not originally intend for American politics to be partisan. In "Federalist Papers No. 9 and "No. 10, "Alexander Hamilton and "James Madison, respectively, wrote specifically about the dangers of domestic "political factions. In addition, the first "President of the United States, "George Washington, was not a member of any political party at the time of his election or throughout his tenure as president. Furthermore, he hoped that political parties would not be formed, fearing conflict and stagnation, as outlined in his "Farewell Address.[6]

Nevertheless, the beginnings of the American "two-party system emerged from his immediate circle of advisers. Hamilton and Madison, who wrote the aforementioned Federalist Papers against political factions, ended up being the core leaders in this emerging party system. It was the split camps of Federalists, given rise with Hamilton as a leader, and Democratic-Republicans, with Madison and "Thomas Jefferson at the helm of this political faction, that created the environment in which partisanship, once distasteful, came to being.[7][8]

First Party System: 1792–1824[edit]

The First Party System of the United States featured the "Federalist Party and the "Democratic-Republican Party (also called "Democratic-Republican" or "Jeffersonian Republican"). The Federalist Party grew from the national network of Washington's Secretary of the Treasury, "Alexander Hamilton, who favored a strong united central government, close ties to Britain, a centralized banking system, and close links between the government and men of wealth.

The Democratic-Republican Party was founded by Madison and Thomas Jefferson, who strongly opposed Hamilton's agenda.[9] The "Jeffersonians came to power in 1800 and the Federalists were too elitist to compete effectively. They survived in the Northeast, but their refusal to support the "War of 1812 verged on secession and was a devastating blow when the war ended well. The "Era of Good Feelings under President James Monroe (1816–1824) marked the end of the First Party System and a brief period in which partisanship was minimal.[10]

Second Party System: 1828–1854[edit]

"Presidential election victories by party system[11]
Party System Party A Party B
First 1 7
Second 5 2
Third 3 7
Fourth 2 7
Fifth 7 2
Sixth 5 7

The Second Party System operated from about 1828 to 1854, following the splintering of the Democratic-Republican Party. Two major parties dominated the political landscape: the "Whig Party, led by "Henry Clay, that grew from the "National Republican Party, and the "Democratic Party, led by "Andrew Jackson. The Democrats supported the primacy of the Presidency over the other branches of government, and opposed both the "Bank of the United States as well as modernizing programs that they felt would build up "industry at the expense of the "taxpayer.

The Whigs, on the other hand, advocated the primacy of "Congress over the "executive branch as well as policies of modernization and economic protectionism. Central political battles of this era were the "Bank War and the "Spoils system of federal patronage.[12] The 1850s saw the collapse of the Whig party, largely as a result of decline in its leadership and a major intra-party split over slavery as a result of the "Compromise of 1850. In addition, the fading of old economic issues removed many of the unifying forces holding the party together.

Third Party System: 1854–1890s[edit]

The Third Party System stretched from 1854 to the mid-1890s, and was characterized by the emergence of the anti-slavery "Republican Party (nicknamed "GOP"), which adopted many of the economic policies of the Whigs, such as national banks, railroads, high tariffs, homesteads and aid to land grant colleges.

"Civil war and "Reconstruction issues polarized the parties until the "Compromise of 1877, which ended the latter. Thus, both parties became broad-based voting coalitions. The race issue pulled newly enfranchised African Americans ("Freedmen) into the Republican party while white southerners ("Redeemers) joined the Democratic Party. The Democratic coalition also had conservative pro-business "Bourbon Democrats, traditional Democrats in the North (many of them former "Copperheads), and Catholic immigrants, among others. The Republican coalition also consisted of businessmen, shop owners, skilled craftsmen, clerks, and professionals who were attracted to the party's modernization policies.[13]

Fourth Party System: 1896–1932[edit]

The Fourth Party System, 1896 to 1932, consisted of the same interest groups as the Third Party System, but saw major shifts in the central issues of debate. This period also corresponded to the "Progressive Era, and was dominated by the Republican Party. It began after the Republicans blamed the Democrats for the "Panic of 1893, which later resulted in "William McKinley's victory over "William Jennings Bryan in the "1896 presidential election.

The central domestic issues changed to government regulation of railroads and large corporations (""trusts"), the protective tariff, the role of labor unions, child labor, the need for a new banking system, corruption in party politics, primary elections, direct election of senators, racial segregation, efficiency in government, women's suffrage, and control of immigration. Most voting blocs continued unchanged, but some realignment took place, giving Republicans dominance in the industrial Northeast and new strength in the border states. Historians have long debated why no Labor Party emerged in the United States, in contrast to Western Europe.[14]

Fifth and Sixth Party Systems: 1933–present[edit]

The Fifth Party System emerged with the "New Deal Coalition beginning in 1933.[15] The Republicans began losing support after the "Great Depression, giving rise to Democratic President "Franklin D. Roosevelt and the activist "New Deal. They promoted "American Liberalism, anchored in a coalition of specific liberal groups, especially ethno-religious constituencies (Catholics, Jews, African Americans), white Southerners, well-organized labor unions, urban machines, progressive intellectuals, and populist farm groups.

Opposition Republicans were split between a conservative wing, led by "Ohio Senator "Robert A. Taft, and a more successful moderate wing exemplified by the politics of Northeastern leaders such as "Nelson Rockefeller, "Jacob Javits, and "Henry Cabot Lodge. The latter steadily lost influence inside the GOP after 1964.[16]

Experts debate whether this era ended (and a "Sixth Party System subsequently emerged) in the mid-1960s when the New Deal coalition died, the early 1980s when the "Moral Majority and the "Reagan coalition were formed, the early 1990s when "Third Way emerged among Democrats, the mid-1990s during the "Republican Revolution, or if the Fifth system continues in some form to the present.

Since the 1930s, the Democrats positioned themselves more towards "Liberalism while the "Conservatives increasingly dominated the GOP.[17] But new voter coalitions emerged during the latter half of the 20th Century, with Conservatives and the Republicans becoming dominant in the South, rural areas, and suburbs; while Liberals and the Democrats increasingly started to rely on a coalition of African-Americans, Hispanics and white urban Progressives.

Minor parties and independents[edit]

Although American politics have been dominated by the two-party system, several other political parties have also emerged throughout the country's history. The oldest third party was the "Anti-Masonic Party and was formed in upstate New York in 1828; the party's creators feared the "Freemasons, believing they were a powerful secret society that was trying to rule the country in defiance of republican principles.[18]

Modern U.S. political party system[edit]

The modern political party system in the U.S. is a "two-party system dominated by the "Democratic Party and the "Republican Party. These two parties have won every "United States presidential election since 1852 and have controlled the "United States Congress to some extent "since at least 1856.

The two major parties[edit]

Democratic Party[edit]

The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the U.S. Founded in 1828 by "Andrew Jackson, it is the oldest extant voter-based political party in the world.[19][20]

The Democratic Party at its founding supported a different set of issues than it presently supports. From its founding until the mid-20th century, the Democratic Party was the dominant party among white Southerners, and as such, was then the party most associated with the defense of slavery. However, following the "Great Society under "Lyndon B. Johnson, the Democratic Party became the more progressive party on issues of civil rights, while losing dominance in the Southern states to the Republicans.

The Democratic Party since 1912 has positioned itself as the liberal party on domestic issues. The economic philosophy of "Franklin D. Roosevelt, which has strongly influenced "modern American liberalism, has shaped much of the party's agenda since 1932. Roosevelt's "New Deal coalition controlled the White House until 1968 with the exception of Eisenhower 1953–1961. Since the mid-20th century, Democrats have generally been in the "center-left and currently support "social justice, "social liberalism, a "mixed economy, and the "welfare state, although "Bill Clinton and other "New Democrats have pushed for "free trade and "neoliberalism, which is seen to have shifted the party rightwards. Democrats are currently strongest on the "East and "West Coasts and in major American urban centers. African-Americans and Latinos tend to be disproportionately Democratic, as do "trade unions.

In 2004, it was the largest political party, with 72 million registered voters (42.6% of 169 million registered) claiming affiliation.[21] The former president of the United States, "Barack Obama, was the 15th Democrat to hold the office, and from the "2006 midterm elections until the "2014 midterm elections, the Democratic Party was the "majority party in the "United States Senate. Although his party lost the election for president in 2004, Obama would later go on to become president in 2009 and continue to be the president until January 2017.

A 2011 "USA Today review of state voter rolls indicates that the number of registered Democrats declined in 25 of 28 states (some states do not register voters by party). During this time, Republican registration also declined, as independent or no preference voting was on the rise. Democrats were still the largest political party with more than 42 million voters (compared with 30 million Republicans and 24 million independents). But in 2011 Democrats numbers shrank 800,000, and from 2008 they were down by 1.7 million, or 3.9%.[22]

Republican Party[edit]

The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America. Since the 1880s it has been nicknamed (by the media) the "Grand Old Party" or GOP, although it is younger than the Democratic Party.

Founded in 1854 by Northern anti-slavery activists and modernizers, the Republican Party rose to prominence in 1860 with the election of "Abraham Lincoln, who used the party machinery to support victory in the "American Civil War. The GOP dominated national politics during the "Third Party System, from 1854 to 1896, and the "Fourth Party System from 1896 to 1932.

Since its founding, the Republican Party has been the more market-oriented of the two American political parties, often favoring policies that aid American business interests. As a party whose power was once based on the voting clout of Union Army veterans, this party has traditionally supported more aggressive defense measures and more lavish veteran's benefits. Today, the Republican Party supports an "American conservative platform, with further foundations in "economic liberalism, "fiscal conservatism, and "social conservatism. The Republican Party tends to be strongest in the "Southern United States and the ""flyover states", as well as suburban and rural areas in other states. One significant base of support for the Republican Party are "Evangelical Christians, who have wielded significant clout in the party since the early 1970s.

"President "Donald Trump is the 20th and the current Republican to be elected to the office of "President of the United States. Since the "2010 midterm elections, the Republicans have held a majority in the United States House of Representatives, and since the 2014 elections, the Senate.[23]

Major third parties[edit]

Libertarian Party[edit]

The Libertarian Party was founded on December 11, 1971.[24] It is one of the largest continuing "third parties in the United States, claiming more than 511,277 registered voters across all 50 states.[25] They currently have about 144 elected officials, more than any of the other minor parties, including 4 state legislators.[26][27]

The 2012 Libertarian Party nominee for United States President was former New Mexico governor, "Gary Johnson. He achieved ballot access in every "state except for "Michigan (only as a write-in candidate) and "Oklahoma. He received over one million votes in the election. In "2016, Johnson ran again, receiving over four million votes, or 3% of the popular vote.

The Libertarian Party's core mission is to reduce the size, influence and expenditures of all levels of government. To this effect, the party supports minimally regulated markets, a less powerful "federal government, strong "civil liberties, "drug liberalization, "separation of church and state, "open immigration, "non-interventionism and "neutrality in diplomatic relations, "free trade and "free movement to all foreign countries, and a more representative republic.[28]

Green Party[edit]

In the "United States, the Green Party has been active as a "third party since the 1980s. The party first gained widespread public attention during "Ralph Nader's second presidential run in "2000. Currently, the primary national Green Party organization in the U.S. is the Green Party of the United States, which has eclipsed the earlier "Greens/Green Party USA.

The Green Party in the United States has won elected office mostly at the "local level; most winners of public office in the United States who are considered Greens have won "nonpartisan-ballot elections (that is, elections in which the candidates' party affiliations were not printed on the "ballot).[29] In 2005, the Party had 305,000 registered members in the District of Columbia and 20 states that allow party registration.[30] During the 2006 elections the party had "ballot access in 31 states.[31] In 2017, Ralph Chapman, a Representative in the Maine House of Representative switched his association from Unaffiliated to the Green Independent Party. [32]

The United States Green Party generally holds a left-wing ideology on most important issues. Greens emphasize "environmentalism, non-"hierarchical "participatory democracy, "social justice, respect for "diversity, "peace and "nonviolence.

Constitution Party[edit]

The Constitution Party is a small national "right-wing to "far-right political party in the United States. It was founded as the U.S. Taxpayers Party in 1992 by Howard Phillips. The party's official name was changed to the Constitution Party in 1999; however, some state affiliate parties are known under different names.

The Constitution Party is strongly pro-life (i.e. opposed to abortion), and supports gun rights, and restrictions on immigration. It calls for protectionist trade policies.

In 2006, "Rick Jore of "Montana became the first Constitution Party candidate elected to a state-level office,[33][34] though the Constitution Party of Montana had disaffiliated itself from the national party a short time before the election.

In 2010 former Congressman Tom Tancredo was the Constitution Party candidate for governor of Colorado coming in second with 617,030 votes, 36.4% and ahead of the Republican candidate, Dan Maes, with 11.1%.

The Constitution Party's 2012 presidential nominee was former Congressmen "Virgil Goode of Virginia.

Tennessee Attorney Darrell Castle was the 2016 Constitution Party nominee for President of the United States and Scott Bradley of Utah was the nominee for Vice President.

Issues[edit]

The following table lists some "political ideologies most often associated with the five U.S. political parties with the most members, as well the tendencies of the official party positions on a number of reformist "issues where positions diverge. Nuances may be found in the parties' respective "platforms. Because American political parties are more loosely organized than those in other countries, not all members of a party subscribe to all of its officially held positions, the usual degree of variation generally being higher for the larger parties. Party members may hold different views on legislation to be enacted at the state or federal levels. And an elected official once in office may act contradictory to many of his or her party's positions (this has led to terms such as ""Republican In Name Only"). Furthermore, the modern American "political spectrum, and the usage of "left–right politics, differs from the rest of the world. For example, the Democratic Party, the primary left-of-center party in the country, generally supports a "social liberal position rather than a "social democratic one.

Modern political party comparisons
Issues "Green "Democratic "Libertarian "Republican "Constitution
Primary related subjects
"Universal healthcare Yes[35] Yes[36] No[37] No[38] No[39]
"Wealth redistribution Yes[35] Yes[36] No[37] No[40] No[41]
"Open borders Yes[35] Yes[36] Yes[42] No[43] No[44]
"Drug liberalization Yes[45] Yes[46] Yes[47] No[48] No[49]
"Non-interventionism Yes[35] No[36] Yes[37] No[50] Yes[51]
"Gun control Yes[45] Yes[36] No[37] No[52] No[53]
"End capital punishment Yes[35] Yes[36] Yes[37] No[54] No[55]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Roy Franklin Nichols (1967). The invention of the American political parties. Macmillan. 
  2. ^ Robert J. Dinkin, Campaigning in America: A History of Election Practices. (Greenwood 1989) online version
  3. ^ Paul Kleppner, et al. The Evolution of American Electoral Systems (1983),
  4. ^ "The First Political Parties: Federalists and Anti-Federalists". Boundless Political Science. Boundless.com. May 26, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016. 
  5. ^ William B. Hesseltine, Third-Party Movements in the United States (1962)
  6. ^ Washington's Farewell Address "Wikisource has information on "Washington's Farewell Address#20"
  7. ^ Richard Hofstadter, The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780–1840 (1970)
  8. ^ Gordon S. Wood, Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (Oxford History of the United States)
  9. ^ William Nisbet Chambers, ed. The First Party System (1972)
  10. ^ George Dangerfield, The Era of Good Feelings (1952)
  11. ^ Using the definitions of: First Party System: 1796–1824, Second Party System: 1828–1852, Third Party System: 1856–1892, Fourth Party System: 1896–1928, Fifth Party System: 1932–1964, Sixth Party System: 1968–present
  12. ^ Daniel Feller, "Politics and Society: Toward a Jacksonian Synthesis," Journal of the Early Republic (1990) 10#2 pp. 135–61 in JSTOR
  13. ^ Paul Kleppner; Paul. The Third Electoral System 1853–1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures (1979), online edition
  14. ^ Robin Archer, Why Is There No Labor Party in the United States? (Princeton University Press, 2007)
  15. ^ Richard Jensen, "The Last Party System: Decay of Consensus, 1932–1980," in Paul Kleppner et al., The Evolution of American Electoral Systems (Greenwood, 1981), pp. 205–06.
  16. ^ Nicol C. Rae, The Decline and Fall of the Liberal Republicans: From 1952 to the Present (1989)
  17. ^ "Matthew Levendusky, The Partisan Sort: How Liberals Became Democrats and Conservatives Became Republicans (U Chicago Press, 2009)
  18. ^ Richard B. Morris, Encyclopedia of American History, revised edition, Harper & Row (New York), 1961, pp. 170–71
  19. ^ Witcover, Jules (2003). "1". Party of the People: A History of the Democrats. p. 3.  "The Democratic Party of the United States, the oldest existing in the world...."
  20. ^ "Micklethwait, John; Wooldridge, Adrian (2004). The Right Nation: Conservative Power in America. p. 15.  "The country possesses the world's oldest written constitution (1787); the Democratic Party has a good claim to being the world's oldest political party."
  21. ^ Neuhart, Al (January 22, 2004). "Why politics is fun from catbirds' seats". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  22. ^ Wolf, Richard (December 22, 2011). "Voters leaving Republican, Democratic parties in droves". USA Today. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  23. ^ "2016 Election News, Candidates & Polls". 
  24. ^ Libertarian Party:Our History, LP.org
  25. ^ Winger, Richard (27 July 2017). "New Voter Registration Nation Totals". ballot-access.org. Retrieved 27 July 2017. 
  26. ^ "Elected Officials". Retrieved 6 July 2015. 
  27. ^ "Republicans Who've Jumped Ship to Support Libertarian Gary Johnson for President". 27 July 2016. 
  28. ^ "The Libertarian Option". The Libertarian Party. Libertarian National Committee, Inc. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  29. ^ Green elected officials
  30. ^ "Green Party Ballot Status and Voter Registration Totals (United States)". Greens.org. Retrieved April 12, 2006.
  31. ^ "Greens Win Ballot Access in 31 States, Up From 17 in January". Green Party press release, September 5, 2006.
  32. ^ https://bangordailynews.com/2017/09/22/politics/lawmakers-party-switch-gives-greens-a-seat-in-the-maine-house/
  33. ^ "State Legislature results", Missoulian, November 8, 2006, retrieved November 8, 2006
  34. ^ Control of state Legislature unclear, Helena Independent Record
  35. ^ a b c d e "Green Party 2004 Platform" (PDF). "Green Party. 2004. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f "The 2012 Democratic Party Platform: Moving America forward". "Democratic Party. 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  37. ^ a b c d e "Libertarian Party Platform". "Libertarian Party. 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  38. ^ "2008 Republican Platform: Health Care". Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2015. 
  39. ^ "Constitution Party Platform (Health Care and Government)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  40. ^ Republican 2008 Platform: Government Reform
  41. ^ "Constitution Party Platform (Taxes)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  42. ^ "Immigration". Libertarian Party. Retrieved 6 July 2015. 
  43. ^ Republican 2008 Platform: National Security
  44. ^ "Constitution Party Platform (Immigration)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  45. ^ a b "II. SOCIAL JUSTICE". Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  46. ^ "Democrats.org". 
  47. ^ "LP Monday Message: 20 Obama problems, 20 Libertarian solutions". Libertarian National Committee. 25 April 2011. 
  48. ^ "2012 GOP Platform" (PDF). 
  49. ^ "Constitution Party Platform (Drug Abuse)". Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  50. ^ "2016 GOP Platform" (PDF). 
  51. ^ "Constitution Party Platform (Foreign Policy)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-02-12. 
  52. ^ "2008 Republican Platform: Values". Archived from the original on 11 September 2008. 
  53. ^ "Constitution Party Platform (Gun Control)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-02-12. 
  54. ^ Republican 2008 Platform: Crime
  55. ^ "Constitution Party Platform (Crime)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-02-12. We favor the right of states and localities to execute criminals convicted of capital crimes and to require restitution for the victims of criminals. 

Further reading[edit]

) )