The 1950s or The Fifties was a decade that began on January 1, 1950 and ended on December 31, 1959. By its end, the world had largely recovered from World War II and the Cold War developed from its modest beginning in the late 1940s to a hot competition between the United States and the Soviet Union by the beginning of the 1960s. Clashes between communism and capitalism dominated the decade, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. The conflicts included the Korean War in the beginnings of the decade and the beginning of the Space Race with the launch of Sputnik I. Along with increased testing of nuclear weapons (such as RDS-37 and Upshot-Knothole), this created a politically conservative climate. In the United States, the Red Scare (fear of communism) caused public Congressional hearings by both houses in Congress and anti-communism was the prevailing sentiment in the United States throughout the decade. The beginning of decolonization in Africa and Asia occurred in this decade and accelerated in the following decade, the 1960s.
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The "1952 Winter Olympics took place in "Oslo, Norway, from 14 to 25 February. All of the venues for the games were located in Oslo's metropolitan area with the exception of the "alpine skiing events, which were held at "Norefjell, 113 km (70 mi) away. A new hotel was built for the press and dignitaries, along with three dormitories to house athletes and coaches, creating the first modern "Olympic Village. The games attracted 694 athletes representing 30 countries, who participated in four sports and 22 events. There was one "demonstration sport, "bandy, in which three Nordic countries competed. Women were allowed to compete in "cross-country skiing for the first time. Portugal and New Zealand competed at their first "Winter Olympics, and Japan and Germany competed for the first time since World War II. Norway won the overall medal count with sixteen medals, seven of which were gold. "Hjalmar Andersen from Norway was the most decorated athlete with three gold medals for "speed skating. The games closed with the presentation of a flag (pictured) by the city of Oslo to the "International Olympic Committee. The ""Oslo Flag" has been displayed in the host city during each subsequent winter games.
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