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1980s

The "1980s, spoken as "the Nineteen Eighties" or abbreviated as "the Eighties" or "the '80s", was the decade that began on January 1, 1980, and ended on December 31, 1989. This was the ninth decade of the "20th century.

The time period saw great social, economic, and general change as wealth and production migrated to newly industrializing economies. As "economic liberalization increased in the developed world, multiple "multinational corporations associated with the manufacturing industry relocated to "Thailand, "Malaysia, "Mexico, "South Korea, "Taiwan, and the "People's Republic of China. Developed countries such as the "United States, "Japan, the "United Kingdom, and "West Germany continued to enjoy rapid economic growth during the decade. "Glasnost and "Perestroika in the "Soviet Union, and the "fall of the Berlin Wall, paved the way for "its dissolution in the early "1990s, and transition from the bipolar world of the "Cold War.

The 80s also represented a significant technological and cultural transition, as "computing expanded from a primarily business and academic phenomenon into the home with the advent of the "personal computer, accompanied by the growth of the "software industry, ultimately paving the way for the "World Wide Web on the "Internet.

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""IDF soldier checking a car at a road block near Jabalia during the first intifada.
The "First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada was a "Palestinian "uprising against the "Israeli "occupation of the "West Bank and "Gaza, which lasted from December 1987 until the "Madrid Conference in 1991, though some date its conclusion to 1993, with the signing of the "Oslo Accords. The uprising began on 9 December, in the "Jabalia "refugee camp after a traffic incident when an Israeli Defense Forces' (IDF) truck collided with a civilian car, killing four Palestinians. In the wake of the incident, a protest movement arose, involving a two-fold strategy of resistance and "civil disobedience, consisting of "general strikes, "boycotts of "Israeli Civil Administration institutions in the "Gaza Strip and the "West Bank, an economic "boycott consisting of refusal to work in "Israeli settlements on Israeli products, refusal to pay taxes, refusal to drive Palestinian cars with Israeli licenses, "graffiti, "barricading. The global diffusion of images of soldiers beating adolescents with clubs then led to the adoption of firing semi-lethal plastic bullets. In the intifada's first year, Israeli security forces killed 311 Palestinians, of which 53 were under the age of 17. Over the first two years, according to "Save the Children, an estimated 7% of all Palestinians under 18 years of age suffered injuries from shootings, beatings, or tear gas. Over six years the IDF killed an estimated 1,162–1,204 Palestinians. Between 23,600-29,900 Palestinian children required medical treatment from IDF beatings in the first 2 years. 100 Israeli civilians and 60 IDF personnel were killed often by militants outside the control of the Intifada’s "UNLU, and more than 1,400 Israeli civilians and 1,700 soldiers were injured. Intra-Palestinian violence was also a prominent feature of the Intifada, with widespread executions of an estimated 822 Palestinians killed as alleged Israeli "collaborators,(1988–April 1994). At the time Israel reportedly obtained information from some 18,000 Palestinians who had been compromised, although fewer than half had any proven contact with the Israeli authorities.
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""Men Without Hats performing at the Burlington Music Festival
Credit: Tabercil

"Men Without Hats performing at the Burlington Music Festival.

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""General Secretary of the CPSU CC M. Gorbachev
"Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former "Soviet statesman. He was the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, having served as "General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991 when the party was dissolved. He served as the country's head of state from 1988 until "its dissolution in 1991 (titled as Chairman of the "Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1989, as Chairman of the "Supreme Soviet from 1989 to 1990, and as "President of the Soviet Union from 1990 to 1991). He was the only general secretary in the history of the Soviet Union to have been born after the "October Revolution.

Gorbachev was born in "Stavropol Krai into a peasant "Ukrainian–"Russian family, and in his teens operated "combine harvesters on "collective farms. He graduated from "Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law. While he was at the university, he joined the Communist Party, and soon became very active within it. In 1970, he was appointed the First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Regional Committee, First Secretary to the Supreme Soviet in 1974, and appointed a member of the "Politburo in 1979. Within three years of the death of Soviet leader "Leonid Brezhnev, following the brief "interregna" of "Andropov and "Chernenko, Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo in 1985.

Gorbachev's policies of "glasnost and "perestroika and his reorientation of Soviet strategic aims contributed to the end of the "Cold War. He removed the constitutional role of the Communist Party in governing the state, and inadvertently led to the "dissolution of the Soviet Union. He was awarded the "Otto Hahn Peace Medal in 1989, the "Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 and the "Harvey Prize in 1992, as well as "honorary doctorates from various universities.

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Did you know...

...that in 1982, "Canada gained official independence from the "United Kingdom?
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