The American Civil War Portal
The "American Civil War (1861–1865) was a sectional "rebellion against the "United States of America by the "Confederate States, formed of eleven "southern states' "governments which moved to "secede from the "Union after the "1860 election of "Abraham Lincoln as "President of the United States. The Union's victory was eventually achieved by leveraging advantages in "population, "manufacturing and "logistics and through a "strategic "naval "blockade denying the Confederacy access to the world's "markets.
In many ways, the conflict's central "issues – the "enslavement of African Americans, the role of "constitutional "federal government, and the "rights of states – are still not completely resolved. Not surprisingly, the "Confederate army's surrender at "Appomattox on April 9, 1865 did little to change many "Americans' attitudes toward the potential powers of "central government. The passage of the "Thirteenth, "Fourteenth and "Fifteenth "amendments to the Constitution in the years immediately following the war did not change the "racial prejudice prevalent among Americans of the day; and the process of "Reconstruction did not heal the deeply personal wounds inflicted by four brutal years of war and more than 970,000 casualties – 3 percent of the population, including approximately 560,000 deaths. As a result, controversies affected by the war's unresolved social, political, economic and racial tensions continue to shape contemporary American thought. The "causes of the war, the reasons for the outcome, and even "the name of the war itself are subjects of much discussion even today.
The "Battle of Shiloh
, also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing
, was a major battle in the "Western Theater
of the "American Civil War
, fought on April 6 and April 7, 1862, in southwestern "Tennessee
forces under Generals "Albert Sidney Johnston
and "P. G. T. Beauregard
launched a surprise attack against the "Union Army
of "Maj. Gen.
"Ulysses S. Grant
and came very close to defeating his army.
On the first day of battle, the Confederates struck with the intention of driving the Union defenders away from the "Tennessee River and into the swamps of Owl Creek to the west, hoping to defeat Grant's "Army of the Tennessee before it could link up with Maj. Gen. "Don Carlos Buell's "Army of the Ohio. The Confederate battle lines became confused during the fierce fighting, and Grant's men instead fell back in the direction of Pittsburg Landing to the northeast. A position on a slightly sunken road, nicknamed the "Hornet's Nest", defended by the men of "Brig. Gens. "Benjamin M. Prentiss's and "W. H. L. Wallace's divisions, provided critical time for the rest of the Union line to stabilize under the protection of numerous artillery batteries. Gen. Johnston was killed during the first day's fighting, and Beauregard, his second in command, decided against assaulting the final Union position that night. Reinforcements from Gen. Buell arrived in the evening and turned the tide the next morning, when he and Grant launched a counterattack along the entire line. The Confederates were forced to retreat from the bloodiest battle in "United States history up to that time, ending their hopes that they could block the Union invasion of northern "Mississippi.
Grand Parade of the States
began the war as a territory, but the process of achieving full statehood in was expedited by the events of war. Union sympathizers were so eager to gain statehood for Nevada that they rushed to send the entire state constitution by "telegraph
to the "United States Congress
in order to ensure its arrival before the presidential election as they did not believe that sending it by train would guarantee that it would arrive on time. The constitution was sent on October 31, just eight days before the election on November 7, 1864. The Nevada state constitution remains the largest and costliest transmission by telegraph. It had less than 40,000 inhabitants when it gained statehood (territories needed 60,000 to petition for statehood), far fewer than the initial population of any other state. "President of the United States
wanted an additional Northern state that would presumably vote for his reelection, and help force pro-Northern ideas into new amendments to the "United States Constitution
. In total, Nevada sent 1,200 men to fight for the Union.
Nevada's main contribution to the war was the $400 million worth of silver mined from the "Comstock Lode, which financed the Union "Civil War effort to defeat the Confederacy. A common belief is that Nevada achieved early statehood due to its silver; however, as the Union already had the right to claim Nevada's silver as it held Nevada as its territory, Nevada's achieving statehood was due to political concerns, not economic.
"John Milton Chivington
(January 27, 1821 – October 4, 1892) was a 19th century "United States Army
officer noted for his role in the "New Mexico Campaign
of the "American Civil War
and in the "Colorado War
. He was celebrated as the hero of the 1862 "Battle of Glorieta Pass
, and later became infamous for his role in the 1864 "Sand Creek Massacre
Chivington was born in "Lebanon, Ohio. Drawn to "Methodism, Chivington decided to become a minister and was ordained in 1844. During 1853, he worked in a Methodist "missionary expedition to the "Wyandot people in "Kansas. Because of his outspoken hatred of "slavery, Chivington received a threatening letter from pro-slavery members in his congregation in 1856. As a result the Methodist Church transferred Chivington to a parish in "Omaha, Nebraska. In 1860 Chivington moved with his family to "Denver, Colorado, having been made the presiding elder of the "Rocky Mountain District of the Methodist Church.
When war broke out the following year, Colorado territorial governor "William Gilpin offered him a commission as a chaplain, but Chivington refused it, saying he wanted to fight. Thus, he was made a "major in the "1st Colorado Volunteers under Colonel "John P. Slough. During Henry Hopkins Sibley's Texan offensive on the "New Mexico Territory, Chivington led a 418-strong detachment to victory at Apache Canyon, and later captured Sibley's entire supply train during the "Battle of Glorieta Pass. Chivington had completely reversed the result of the battle and Sibley's men reluctantly retreated all the way to Texas, never again to threaten New Mexico.