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The American Revolutionary War Portal

""Clockwise from top left: Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery at Quebec, Battle of Cowpens, "Moonlight Battle"
The "American Revolutionary War began as a war between the "Kingdom of Great Britain and "thirteen united former British colonies on the "North American continent, and ended in a "global war between several European "great powers. The war was the culmination of the political "American Revolution and intellectual "American Enlightenment, whereby the colonists rejected the "right of the "Parliament of Great Britain to govern them "without representation. In 1775, revolutionaries gained "control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up an alliance called the "Second Continental Congress, and formed a "Continental Army. "Petitions to the king to intervene with the parliament on their behalf resulted in "Congress being declared traitors and the states in rebellion the following year. The Americans responded by formally "declaring their "independence as a new "nation, the "United States of America, claiming "sovereignty and rejecting any "allegiance to the British monarchy. In 1777 the Continentals "captured a British army, leading to "France entering the war on the side of the Americans in early 1778, and evening the military strength with Britain. "Spain and the "Dutch Republic – French allies – also went to war with Britain over the next two years.

Throughout the war, the British were able to use their naval superiority to capture and occupy coastal cities, but control of the countryside (where 90% of the population lived) largely eluded them due to their relatively small land army. French involvement proved decisive, with a French naval "victory in the Chesapeake leading to the surrender of a second British army at "Yorktown in 1781. In 1783, the "Treaty of Paris ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by what is now Canada to the north, "Florida to the south, and the "Mississippi River to the west.

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""ArnoldExpeditionRouteMarked.jpg
In September 1775, early in the "American Revolutionary War, Colonel "Benedict Arnold led a force of 1,100 "Continental Army troops on an expedition from "Cambridge, Massachusetts to the gates of "Quebec City. Part of a two-pronged "invasion of the British "Province of Quebec, his expedition passed through the wilderness of what is now "Maine. The other expedition, led by "Richard Montgomery, invaded Quebec from "Lake Champlain.

Unanticipated problems beset the expedition as soon as it left the last significant colonial outposts in Maine. The "portages up the "Kennebec River proved grueling, and the boats frequently leaked, ruining "gunpowder and spoiling food supplies. More than a third of the men turned back before reaching the "height of land between the Kennebec and "Chaudière rivers. The areas on either side of the height of land were swampy tangles of lakes and streams, and the traversal was made more difficult by bad weather and inaccurate maps. Many of the troops lacked experience handling boats in "white water, which led to the destruction of more boats and supplies in the descent to the "Saint Lawrence River via the fast-flowing Chaudière.

By the time Arnold reached the French settlements above the Saint Lawrence River in November, his force was reduced to 600 starving men. They had traveled about 350 miles (560 km) through poorly charted wilderness, twice the distance they had expected to cover. Assisted by the local French-speaking "Canadiens, Arnold's troops crossed the Saint Lawrence on November 13 and 14 and attempted to put Quebec City under siege. Failing in this, they withdrew to "Point-aux-Trembles until Montgomery arrived to lead an "unsuccessful attack on the city. Arnold was rewarded for his effort in leading the expedition with a promotion to "brigadier general.


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""Declaration of Independence (1819), by John Trumbull.jpg
"Declaration of Independence
Credit: "John Trumbull

The "United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the "Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the "thirteen American colonies then at war with "Great Britain were now independent states, and thus no longer a part of the "British Empire. Written primarily by "Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration is a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to "declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the "American Revolutionary War. The birthday of the "United States of America—"Independence Day—is celebrated on July 4, the day the wording of the Declaration was approved by Congress.

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""Charles Scott.jpg
"Charles Scott (1739 – October 22, 1813) was an "American "soldier and "politician who served as "Governor of Kentucky from 1808 to 1812. Orphaned at an early age, Scott participated in the "French and Indian War, serving under "Edward Braddock and "George Washington. He again served under Washington during the "Revolutionary War, weathering the winter at "Valley Forge and serving as Washington's chief of intelligence during later campaigns.

Following the revolution, Scott moved to "Kentucky where he participated in a number of "skirmishes with the "Indians, including the decisive "Battle of Fallen Timbers. He parlayed his military success into political gain, serving as a "presidential elector in "1793, "1801, and "1809, and serving as Kentucky's fourth governor from 1808 to 1812. His most significant achievement as governor was preparing the state militia to participate in the "War of 1812, including the elevation of "William Henry Harrison to command the militia. During his first year in office, Scott was injured in a fall and left on crutches for the remainder of his life; consequently, he relied heavily on "Jesse Bledsoe, his "secretary of state, to perform the routine duties of the office.

Scott retired to "Canewood," his home in "Clark County, following his term as governor. He died there on October 22, 1813, and was buried in a family plot before being re-interred at "Frankfort in 1854. Counties in "Kentucky and "Indiana are named for him, as is "Scottsville, Virginia.


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""Concorde engages the French ship Engageante in 1794
"HMS Concorde was a 32-gun "fifth-rate "frigate of the "Royal Navy. She had previously served in the "French Navy under the name Concorde. Built in "France in 1777, she entered service with the French early in the "American War of Independence, and was soon in action, capturing "HMS Minerva in the "West Indies. In 1781 she carried vital dispatches between France, North America and the Caribbean that made the "Yorktown campaign a success. She remained in French service almost until the end of the war, but was captured by HMS Magnificent in 1783. Not immediately brought into service due to the draw-down in the navy after the end of the war, she underwent repairs and returned to active service under the "White Ensign with the outbreak of war with France in 1793. She saw service throughout the "French Revolutionary Wars and the "Napoleonic Wars before being broken up in 1811.


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