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The American Revolutionary War Portal

""Clockwise from top left: Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery at Quebec, Battle of Cowpens, "Moonlight Battle"
The "American Revolutionary War began as a war between the "Kingdom of Great Britain and "thirteen united former British colonies on the "North American continent, and ended in a "global war between several European "great powers. The war was the culmination of the political "American Revolution and intellectual "American Enlightenment, whereby the colonists rejected the "right of the "Parliament of Great Britain to govern them "without representation. In 1775, revolutionaries gained "control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up an alliance called the "Second Continental Congress, and formed a "Continental Army. "Petitions to the king to intervene with the parliament on their behalf resulted in "Congress being declared traitors and the states in rebellion the following year. The Americans responded by formally "declaring their "independence as a new "nation, the "United States of America, claiming "sovereignty and rejecting any "allegiance to the British monarchy. In 1777 the Continentals "captured a British army, leading to "France entering the war on the side of the Americans in early 1778, and evening the military strength with Britain. "Spain and the "Dutch Republic – French allies – also went to war with Britain over the next two years.

Throughout the war, the British were able to use their naval superiority to capture and occupy coastal cities, but control of the countryside (where 90% of the population lived) largely eluded them due to their relatively small land army. French involvement proved decisive, with a French naval "victory in the Chesapeake leading to the surrender of a second British army at "Yorktown in 1781. In 1783, the "Treaty of Paris ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by what is now Canada to the north, "Florida to the south, and the "Mississippi River to the west.

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""Fort Cumberland today
The "Battle of Fort Cumberland was an attempt by a small number of "militia commanded by "Jonathan Eddy to bring the "American Revolutionary War to "Nova Scotia in late 1776. With minimal logistical support from colonial "Massachusetts and four to five hundred volunteer militia and "Natives, Eddy attempted to besiege and storm "Fort Cumberland in central Nova Scotia (near the present-day border between Nova Scotia and "New Brunswick) in November 1776.

The fort's defenders, mostly provincial militia led by Joseph Goreham, a veteran of the "French and Indian War, successfully repelled several attempts by Eddy's militia to storm the fort, and the siege was ultimately relieved when reinforcements drove off the besiegers on November 29. In retaliation for the role of locals who supported the siege, numerous homes and farms were destroyed, and "Patriot sympathizers were driven out of the area. The successful defense of Fort Cumberland preserved the territorial integrity of the British "Maritime possessions, and Nova Scotia remained "loyal throughout the war.


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""Surrender of General Burgoyne.jpg
The Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga by John Trumbull
Credit: "Davepape
After the "Battles of Saratoga, "John Burgoyne surrendered to "Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777

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""Portrait of George Washington-transparent.png
"George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the first "President of the "United States, (1789–1797), after leading the "Continental Army to victory over the "Kingdom of Great Britain in the "American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).

Washington was chosen to be the "commander-in-chief of the American revolutionary forces in 1775. The following year, he forced the "British out of Boston, but was defeated when he "lost New York City later that year. He revived the patriot cause, however, by crossing the "Delaware River "in New Jersey and defeating the surprised enemy units. As a result of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured the two main British combat armies — "Saratoga and "Yorktown. Negotiating with Congress, the colonial states, and "French allies, he held together a tenuous army and a fragile nation amid the threats of disintegration and failure. Following the end of the war in 1783, Washington retired to his plantation on "Mount Vernon.

Washington became President of the United States in 1789 and established many of the customs and usages of the "new government's executive department. Although never officially joining the "Federalist Party, he supported its programs and was its inspirational leader. Washington's "farewell address was a primer on republican virtue and a stern warning against involvement in foreign wars.

Washington is seen as a symbol of the United States and "republicanism in practice. His devotion to "civic virtue made him an exemplary figure among early "American politicians. Washington died in 1799, and in his funeral oration, "Henry Lee said that of all Americans, he was "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." Washington has been consistently ranked by scholars as one of the "greatest U.S. Presidents.


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""Philadelphia on display at the National Museum of American History
"Philadelphia was a gunboat (referred to in contemporary documents as a "gundalow or gondola) of the "Continental Navy. Manned by "Continental Army soldiers, she was part of a fleet which, under the command of General "Benedict Arnold, fought in the "Battle of Valcour Island against a larger "Royal Navy fleet on "Lake Champlain in October 1776. Although many of the American boats in the battle were damaged in the October 11 battle, Philadelphia was one of the few that actually sank that day. In 1935 amateur military marine archaeologist Lorenzo Hagglund located her remains standing upright at the bottom of Lake Champlain, and had her raised. Bequeathed to the "Smithsonian Institution in 1961, Philadelphia and associated artifacts are part of the permanent collection of the "National Museum of American History, in "Washington, D.C. She is listed on the "National Register of Historic Places and is a "National Historic Landmark.


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From the "American Revolutionary War task force of the "Military history WikiProject:

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