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The American Revolutionary War Portal

""Clockwise from top left: Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery at Quebec, Battle of Cowpens, "Moonlight Battle"
The "American Revolutionary War began as a war between the "Kingdom of Great Britain and "thirteen united former British colonies on the "North American continent, and ended in a "global war between several European "great powers. The war was the culmination of the political "American Revolution and intellectual "American Enlightenment, whereby the colonists rejected the "right of the "Parliament of Great Britain to govern them "without representation. In 1775, revolutionaries gained "control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up an alliance called the "Second Continental Congress, and formed a "Continental Army. "Petitions to the king to intervene with the parliament on their behalf resulted in "Congress being declared traitors and the states in rebellion the following year. The Americans responded by formally "declaring their "independence as a new "nation, the "United States of America, claiming "sovereignty and rejecting any "allegiance to the British monarchy. In 1777 the Continentals "captured a British army, leading to "France entering the war on the side of the Americans in early 1778, and evening the military strength with Britain. "Spain and the "Dutch Republic – French allies – also went to war with Britain over the next two years.

Throughout the war, the British were able to use their naval superiority to capture and occupy coastal cities, but control of the countryside (where 90% of the population lived) largely eluded them due to their relatively small land army. French involvement proved decisive, with a French naval "victory in the Chesapeake leading to the surrender of a second British army at "Yorktown in 1781. In 1783, the "Treaty of Paris ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by what is now Canada to the north, "Florida to the south, and the "Mississippi River to the west.

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""KingsMountain DeathOfFerguson Chappel.jpg
The "Battle of Kings Mountain was a "decisive battle between the "Patriot and "Loyalist militias in the "Southern campaign of the "American Revolutionary War. It took place on 7 October 1780 near "Kings Mountain in "North Carolina, where the Patriot militia defeated the Loyalist forces commanded by British Major "Patrick Ferguson of the "71st Foot.

Major Ferguson had recruited a company of Loyalists in the North Carolina hills, but had sparked a spontaneous rising of Patriot militia when he made aggressive threats against local Patriots. The Patriot force, led by a coalition of commanders, surprised the Loyalists at Kings Mountain, inflicting heavy casualties, killing Ferguson. The battle was a pivotal moment in the Southern campaign; the surprising victory over the Loyalist American militia came after a string of rebel defeats at the hands of "Lord Cornwallis, and greatly raised morale among the Patriots. With Ferguson dead and his militia destroyed, Cornwallis was forced to abandon plans to occupy North Carolina and retreated into South Carolina.


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""Boston, 1775bsmall1.png
Credit: "Durova
A 1777 map showing the British fortifications in the 1775 "Siege of Boston.

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""Lord Cornwallis.jpg
"Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquis Cornwallis (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805) was a "British military commander and colonial governor. In the "United States, he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the "American Revolutionary War. Born into an aristocratic family with a history of public service, he first saw military action in the "Seven Years' War. He was politically opposed to the American Revolutionary War, but agreed to serve when it became clear that Britain would require a significant military presence in the "Thirteen Colonies. First arriving in May 1776, he participated in the "Battle of Sullivan's Island, before joining the main army under General "William Howe. He played a notable role in the partially-successful "New York and New Jersey campaign when "George Washington successfully eluded him after the "Battle of the Assunpink Creek and inflicted a decisive defeat on troops left at his rear in the "Battle of Princeton.

Cornwallis was also involved in the "Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778), leading a wing of Howe's army, before he became one of the leading figures of the British "southern strategy" to gain control of the southern colonies. In that role he successfully led troops that gained a measure of control and influence in "South Carolina before heading into "North Carolina. There, despite successes like his victory at the "Battle of Camden, which burnished his reputation, wings of his army were decisively defeated at "Kings Mountain and "Cowpens. After a Pyrrhic "victory at Greensboro, North Carolina, Cornwallis moved his battered army to "Wilmington to rest and resupply.

From Wilmington, Cornwallis, in a move that became a subject of contemporary and historical debate, led his army into "Virginia, where he joined with other British troops that had been raiding economic and military targets in that colony. Ineffectually opposed by a smaller "Continental Army under the "Marquis de Lafayette, he was eventually ordered to establish a well-defended port by General "Henry Clinton. Poor communications in the British establishment and French naval superiority over the "Chesapeake Bay led him to become entrapped at "Yorktown without the possibility of reinforcement; he surrendered after three weeks of siege, on October 17, 1781. He was released on parole, and returned to England in December of that year. He and his superior in New York, General "Henry Clinton, engaged in a highly public exchange after the 1781 campaign in which each sought to deflect blame for its failure.

Following his North American service, "Cornwallis was posted to India in 1786, where, as governor-general and commander in chief, he reformed the "British East India Company operations, promulgated civil, criminal, and judicial reforms, and introduced land taxation reforms known as the "Permanent Settlement that had long-term ramifications. After guiding British forces to victory in the "Third Anglo-Mysore War, he returned to England. In 1798 he was "posted to Ireland, where he oversaw the aftermath of the "Irish Rebellion, promoted the "union of the British and Irish crowns, and argued for "Catholic emancipation. In 1805 he was again posted to India, where he died a few months after his arrival.


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""Cannon at Washington Crossing Park, Pennsylvania
The "4th Continental Artillery Regiment, also known as Proctor's Continental Artillery Regiment, was an American military unit during the "American Revolutionary War. The regiment became part of the "Continental Army on 10 June 1777 as Colonel "Thomas Proctor's Continental Artillery Regiment. It was made up of eight artillery companies from eastern Pennsylvania. At the time of the regiment's formation, two companies were already in existence, one from as early as October 1775. One company served at "Trenton in December 1776 where it performed well in action. In February 1777, Pennsylvania expanded its two-company battalion into an eight-company regiment. After officially joining the Continental Army, the regiment saw much fighting in the "Philadelphia campaign in late 1777. Elements of Proctor's Regiment fought at "Monmouth in June 1778 and joined the "Sullivan Expedition to upstate "New York in summer 1779. In January 1781 the regiment was sent south with General "Anthony Wayne, where it participated in the "Yorktown campaign, culminating in the October 1781 "Siege of Yorktown. The regiment was disbanded in November 1783.


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