The American Revolutionary War Portal
The "American Revolutionary War
began as a war between the "Kingdom of Great Britain
and "thirteen united former British colonies
on the "North American continent
, and ended in a "global war
between several European "great powers
. The war was the culmination of the political "American Revolution
and intellectual "American Enlightenment
, whereby the colonists rejected the "right
of the "Parliament of Great Britain
to govern them "without representation
. In 1775, revolutionaries gained "control of each of the thirteen colonial governments
, set up an alliance called the "Second Continental Congress
, and formed a "Continental Army
. "Petitions to the king
to intervene with the parliament on their behalf resulted in "Congress being declared traitors and the states in rebellion
the following year. The Americans responded by formally "declaring
as a new "nation
, the "United States of America
, claiming "sovereignty
and rejecting any "allegiance
to the British monarchy. In 1777 the Continentals "captured a British army
, leading to "France
entering the war on the side of the Americans in early 1778, and evening the military strength with Britain. "Spain
and the "Dutch Republic
– French allies – also went to war with Britain over the next two years.
Throughout the war, the British were able to use their naval superiority to capture and occupy coastal cities, but control of the countryside (where 90% of the population lived) largely eluded them due to their relatively small land army. French involvement proved decisive, with a French naval "victory in the Chesapeake leading to the surrender of a second British army at "Yorktown in 1781. In 1783, the "Treaty of Paris ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by what is now Canada to the north, "Florida to the south, and the "Mississippi River to the west.
In September 1775, early in the "American Revolutionary War
, Colonel "Benedict Arnold
led a force of 1,100 "Continental Army
troops on an expedition from "Cambridge, Massachusetts
to the gates of "Quebec City
. Part of a two-pronged "invasion
of the British "Province of Quebec
, his expedition passed through the wilderness of what is now "Maine
. The other expedition, led by "Richard Montgomery
, invaded Quebec from "Lake Champlain
Unanticipated problems beset the expedition as soon as it left the last significant colonial outposts in Maine. The "portages up the "Kennebec River proved grueling, and the boats frequently leaked, ruining "gunpowder and spoiling food supplies. More than a third of the men turned back before reaching the "height of land between the Kennebec and "Chaudière rivers. The areas on either side of the height of land were swampy tangles of lakes and streams, and the traversal was made more difficult by bad weather and inaccurate maps. Many of the troops lacked experience handling boats in "white water, which led to the destruction of more boats and supplies in the descent to the "Saint Lawrence River via the fast-flowing Chaudière.
By the time Arnold reached the French settlements above the Saint Lawrence River in November, his force was reduced to 600 starving men. They had traveled about 350 miles (560 km) through poorly charted wilderness, twice the distance they had expected to cover. Assisted by the local French-speaking "Canadiens, Arnold's troops crossed the Saint Lawrence on November 13 and 14 and attempted to put Quebec City under siege. Failing in this, they withdrew to "Point-aux-Trembles until Montgomery arrived to lead an "unsuccessful attack on the city. Arnold was rewarded for his effort in leading the expedition with a promotion to "brigadier general.
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(1739 – October 22, 1813) was an "American
who served as "Governor of Kentucky
from 1808 to 1812. Orphaned at an early age, Scott participated in the "French and Indian War
, serving under "Edward Braddock
and "George Washington
. He again served under Washington during the "Revolutionary War
, weathering the winter at "Valley Forge
and serving as Washington's chief of intelligence during later campaigns.
Following the revolution, Scott moved to "Kentucky where he participated in a number of "skirmishes with the "Indians, including the decisive "Battle of Fallen Timbers. He parlayed his military success into political gain, serving as a "presidential elector in "1793, "1801, and "1809, and serving as Kentucky's fourth governor from 1808 to 1812. His most significant achievement as governor was preparing the state militia to participate in the "War of 1812, including the elevation of "William Henry Harrison to command the militia. During his first year in office, Scott was injured in a fall and left on crutches for the remainder of his life; consequently, he relied heavily on "Jesse Bledsoe, his "secretary of state, to perform the routine duties of the office.
Scott retired to "Canewood," his home in "Clark County, following his term as governor. He died there on October 22, 1813, and was buried in a family plot before being re-interred at "Frankfort in 1854. Counties in "Kentucky and "Indiana are named for him, as is "Scottsville, Virginia.