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""Clockwise from top left: Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery at Quebec, Battle of Cowpens, "Moonlight Battle"
The "American Revolutionary War began as a war between the "Kingdom of Great Britain and "thirteen united former British colonies on the "North American continent, and ended in a "global war between several European "great powers. The war was the culmination of the political "American Revolution and intellectual "American Enlightenment, whereby the colonists rejected the "right of the "Parliament of Great Britain to govern them "without representation. In 1775, revolutionaries gained "control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up an alliance called the "Second Continental Congress, and formed a "Continental Army. "Petitions to the king to intervene with the parliament on their behalf resulted in "Congress being declared traitors and the states in rebellion the following year. The Americans responded by formally "declaring their "independence as a new "nation, the "United States of America, claiming "sovereignty and rejecting any "allegiance to the British monarchy. In 1777 the Continentals "captured a British army, leading to "France entering the war on the side of the Americans in early 1778, and evening the military strength with Britain. "Spain and the "Dutch Republic – French allies – also went to war with Britain over the next two years.

Throughout the war, the British were able to use their naval superiority to capture and occupy coastal cities, but control of the countryside (where 90% of the population lived) largely eluded them due to their relatively small land army. French involvement proved decisive, with a French naval "victory in the Chesapeake leading to the surrender of a second British army at "Yorktown in 1781. In 1783, the "Treaty of Paris ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by what is now Canada to the north, "Florida to the south, and the "Mississippi River to the west.

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The "Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn or the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, fought on August 27, 1776, was the first major "battle in the "American Revolutionary War following the "United States Declaration of Independence. It was the largest battle of the entire conflict, and the first battle in which an army of the "United States was engaged.

In July 1776, following their departure from Boston at the end of "the siege there, the British Army, under the command of General "William Howe, landed on "Staten Island, where, over the next six weeks, their forces grew to 32,000 men. Believing "Manhattan would be the first target, "George Washington moved most of the "Continental Army there.

On August 22, the British landed on "Long Island. After waiting five days of, the British attacked American defenses on the Guana Heights. However, unknown to the Americans, Howe had brought his main army around their rear and attacked their flank soon after. The Americans panicked, although a stand by 250 Maryland troops prevented most of the army from being captured. The remainder of the army fled to the main defenses on "Brooklyn Heights. The British dug in for a "siege but on the night of August 29, Washington evacuated the entire army to Manhattan without the loss of a single life.

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""Battle of bunker hill by percy moran.jpg
Battle of Bunker Hill, by Percy Moran
Credit: "Sebastian Wallroth
In this depiction of the "Battle of Bunker Hill, "British Army ranks are advancing on the "Breed's Hill "redoubt

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""Benedict arnold illustration.jpg
"Benedict Arnold V (January 14, 1741 ["O.S. January 3, 1740] – June 14, 1801) was a "general during the "American Revolutionary War who first fought for the American "Continental Army but switched sides to the "British Empire in 1780. He distinguished himself early in the war through acts of cunning and bravery. His many successful actions included the "Capture of Fort Ticonderoga in 1775, successful defensive and delaying tactics while losing the "Battle of Valcour Island on "Lake Champlain in 1776, the "Battle of Ridgefield, "Connecticut (after which he was promoted to Major General), and the pivotal "Battles of Saratoga in 1777, in which he suffered leg injuries that effectively ended his combat career for several years.

In spite of his success, Arnold was passed over for promotion by the "Continental Congress while other general officers took credit for his many accomplishments. Charges of corruption were brought by political adversaries, and Congress investigated his accounts, finding he owed it money after he had spent much of his own money on the war effort. Frustrated, bitter, and strongly opposed to the new American alliance with "France, Arnold decided to change sides in 1779. In July 1780, he sought and obtained command of "West Point in order to surrender it to the British. Arnold's scheme was exposed when American forces captured British Major "John André carrying papers that revealed the plot. Upon learning of André's capture, Benedict Arnold escaped down the "Hudson River to the British "sloop-of-war "Vulture, narrowly avoiding capture by the forces of "General Washington, who was arriving the same day to inspect West Point and to meet and dine with Arnold.

Arnold received a commission as a "brigadier general in the "British Army, and led British forces at "Blanford, Virginia, and "Groton, Connecticut, before the war effectively came to an end with the "Siege of Yorktown. In the winter of 1782, Arnold moved to "London with his second wife, "Margaret "Peggy" Shippen Arnold. He was well received by "King George III and the "Tories but frowned upon by the "Whigs. In 1787, he entered into mercantile business with his sons Richard and Henry in "Saint John, New Brunswick, but returned to London to settle permanently in 1791, where he died ten years later.

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""Concorde engages the French ship Engageante in 1794
"HMS Concorde was a 32-gun "fifth-rate "frigate of the "Royal Navy. She had previously served in the "French Navy under the name Concorde. Built in "France in 1777, she entered service with the French early in the "American War of Independence, and was soon in action, capturing "HMS Minerva in the "West Indies. In 1781 she carried vital dispatches between France, North America and the Caribbean that made the "Yorktown campaign a success. She remained in French service almost until the end of the war, but was captured by HMS Magnificent in 1783. Not immediately brought into service due to the draw-down in the navy after the end of the war, she underwent repairs and returned to active service under the "White Ensign with the outbreak of war with France in 1793. She saw service throughout the "French Revolutionary Wars and the "Napoleonic Wars before being broken up in 1811.

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