"Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquis Cornwallis
(31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805) was a "British
military commander and colonial governor. In the "United States
, he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the "American Revolutionary War
. Born into an aristocratic family with a history of public service, he first saw military action in the "Seven Years' War
. He was politically opposed to the American Revolutionary War, but agreed to serve when it became clear that Britain would require a significant military presence in the "Thirteen Colonies
. First arriving in May 1776, he participated in the "Battle of Sullivan's Island
, before joining the main army under General "William Howe
. He played a notable role in the partially-successful "New York and New Jersey campaign
when "George Washington
successfully eluded him after the "Battle of the Assunpink Creek
and inflicted a decisive defeat on troops left at his rear in the "Battle of Princeton
Cornwallis was also involved in the "Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778), leading a wing of Howe's army, before he became one of the leading figures of the British "southern strategy" to gain control of the southern colonies. In that role he successfully led troops that gained a measure of control and influence in "South Carolina before heading into "North Carolina. There, despite successes like his victory at the "Battle of Camden, which burnished his reputation, wings of his army were decisively defeated at "Kings Mountain and "Cowpens. After a Pyrrhic "victory at Greensboro, North Carolina, Cornwallis moved his battered army to "Wilmington to rest and resupply.
From Wilmington, Cornwallis, in a move that became a subject of contemporary and historical debate, led his army into "Virginia, where he joined with other British troops that had been raiding economic and military targets in that colony. Ineffectually opposed by a smaller "Continental Army under the "Marquis de Lafayette, he was eventually ordered to establish a well-defended port by General "Henry Clinton. Poor communications in the British establishment and French naval superiority over the "Chesapeake Bay led him to become entrapped at "Yorktown without the possibility of reinforcement; he surrendered after three weeks of siege, on October 17, 1781. He was released on parole, and returned to England in December of that year. He and his superior in New York, General "Henry Clinton, engaged in a highly public exchange after the 1781 campaign in which each sought to deflect blame for its failure.
Following his North American service, "Cornwallis was posted to India in 1786, where, as governor-general and commander in chief, he reformed the "British East India Company operations, promulgated civil, criminal, and judicial reforms, and introduced land taxation reforms known as the "Permanent Settlement that had long-term ramifications. After guiding British forces to victory in the "Third Anglo-Mysore War, he returned to England. In 1798 he was "posted to Ireland, where he oversaw the aftermath of the "Irish Rebellion, promoted the "union of the British and Irish crowns, and argued for "Catholic emancipation. In 1805 he was again posted to India, where he died a few months after his arrival.
The "4th Continental Artillery Regiment
, also known as Proctor's Continental Artillery Regiment
, was an American military unit during the "American Revolutionary War
. The regiment became part of the "Continental Army
on 10 June 1777 as Colonel "Thomas Proctor's
Continental Artillery Regiment. It was made up of eight artillery companies from eastern Pennsylvania. At the time of the regiment's formation, two companies were already in existence, one from as early as October 1775. One company served at "Trenton
in December 1776 where it performed well in action. In February 1777, Pennsylvania expanded its two-company battalion into an eight-company regiment. After officially joining the Continental Army, the regiment saw much fighting in the "Philadelphia campaign
in late 1777. Elements of Proctor's Regiment fought at "Monmouth
in June 1778 and joined the "Sullivan Expedition
to upstate "New York
in summer 1779. In January 1781 the regiment was sent south with General "Anthony Wayne
, where it participated in the "Yorktown campaign
, culminating in the October 1781 "Siege of Yorktown
. The regiment was disbanded in November 1783.