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The Arts Portal

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"The arts is a vast subdivision of "culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than ""art", which, as a description of a field, usually means only the "visual arts. The arts encompass the "visual arts, the "literary arts and the "performing arts – "music, "theatre, "dance and "film, among others. This list is by no means comprehensive, but only meant to introduce the concept of the arts. For all intents and purposes, the history of the arts begins with the "history of art. The arts might have origins in early human evolutionary prehistory.

Ancient Greek art saw the veneration of the animal form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. "Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (e.g. "Jupiter's thunderbolt). In "Byzantine and "Gothic art of the "Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical and not material truths. Eastern art has generally worked in a style akin to Western medieval art, namely a concentration on surface patterning and local colour (meaning the plain colour of an object, such as basic red for a red robe, rather than the modulations of that colour brought about by light, shade and reflection). A characteristic of this style is that the local colour is often defined by an outline (a contemporary equivalent is the cartoon). This is evident in, for example, the art of "India, "Tibet and "Japan. Religious "Islamic art forbids iconography, and expresses religious ideas through geometry instead. The physical and rational certainties depicted by the 19th-century Enlightenment were shattered not only by new discoveries of relativity by "Einstein and of unseen psychology by "Freud, but also by unprecedented technological development. Paradoxically the expressions of new technologies were greatly influenced by the ancient tribal arts of Africa and Oceania, through the works of Paul Gauguin and the Post-Impressionists, Pablo Picasso and the Cubists, as well as the Futurists and others.

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""Joshua Reynolds's "Puck" was painted for Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery
The "Boydell Shakespeare Gallery was a three-part project initiated in November 1786 by "engraver and publisher "John Boydell in an effort to foster a "school of British "history painting. Boydell planned to focus on an illustrated edition of "William Shakespeare's plays and a folio of prints, but during the 1790s the "London gallery that showed the original paintings emerged as the project's most popular element. Boydell decided to publish a grand illustrated edition of Shakespeare's plays that would showcase the talents of British painters and engravers. He chose the noted scholar and Shakespeare editor "George Steevens to oversee the edition, which was released between 1791 and 1803. The press reported weekly on the building of Boydell's gallery, designed by "George Dance the Younger, on a site in "Pall Mall. Boydell commissioned works from famous painters of the day, such as "Joshua Reynolds, and the folio of engravings proved the enterprise's most lasting legacy. However, the long delay in publishing the prints and the illustrated edition prompted criticism. Because they were hurried, and many illustrations had to be done by lesser artists, the final products of Boydell's venture were judged to be disappointing. The project caused the Boydell firm to become insolvent, and they were forced to sell the gallery at a lottery.

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""Vanity Fair cover, June 1914Credit: Artist: "Ethel McClellan Plummer; Restoration: "Lise Broer

The cover to the June 1914 issue of "Vanity Fair, an American "magazine published from 1913 to 1936 by "Condé Montrose Nast, the first of many published by his company "Condé Nast Publications. Nast purchased a men's fashion magazine titled Dress in 1913 and renamed it Dress and Vanity Fair. In 1914, the title was shortened to Vanity Fair. During its run, it competed with "The New Yorker as the American establishment's top culture chronicle and featured writing by "Thomas Wolfe, "T. S. Eliot, "P. G. Wodehouse, and "Dorothy Parker. However, it became a casualty of the "Great Depression and declining advertising revenues, and it was folded into "Vogue in 1936. In 1983, Condé Nast revived the title as a "new publication.

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""Holkham Hall
"Matthew Brettingham (1699–1769) was an 18th-century "Englishman who rose from humble origins to supervise the construction of "Holkham Hall, and eventually became one of the country's better-known "architects of his generation. Much of his principal work has since been demolished, particularly his work in London, where he revolutionised the design of the grand "townhouse. As a result he is often overlooked today, remembered only for his "Palladian remodeling of numerous country houses, many of them situated in the "East Anglian area of "Britain. As Brettingham neared the pinnacle of his career, Palladianism began to fall out of fashion and "neoclassicism was introduced, championed by a young "Robert Adam. Brettingham was the second son of Launcelot Brettingham, a "bricklayer or stonemason from "Norwich, the "county town of "Norfolk, England.

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Movement V of Suite du Premier Ton (Suite in C major) from "Louis-Nicolas Clérambault's 1710 set of compositions, Livre d'Orgue, performed by Ashtar Moïra.


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