"Europe is a "continent that comprises the westernmost part of "Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the "Arctic Ocean to the north, the "Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the "Mediterranean Sea to the south. To the east and southeast, Europe is generally considered as "separated from Asia by the "watershed divides of the "Ural and "Caucasus Mountains, the "Ural River, the "Caspian and "Black Seas, and the waterways of the "Turkish Straits. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to "classical antiquity—are arbitrary. The primarily "physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates "cultural and political elements whose discontinuities are not always reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about "fifty sovereign states of which the "Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a "total population of about 740 million (about 11% of "world population) as of 2012.
The "history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting the "European continent from "prehistory to the present. Some of the best-known civilizations of prehistoric Europe were the "Minoan and the "Mycenaean, which flourished during the "Bronze Age until they "collapsed in a short period of time around 1200 BC. The period known as "classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of "Ancient Greece. After ultimately checking the "Persian advance in Europe through the "Greco-Persian Wars in the 5th century BC, Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of "Alexander the Great, spreading throughout "Asia, Africa, and other parts of Europe. The "Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on "Roman law. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the "Western and "Eastern empires. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the "Germanic peoples of northern Europe grew in strength and repeated attacks led to the "Fall of the Western Roman Empire. AD 476 traditionally marks the end of the classical period and the start of the "Middle Ages.
The "culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the "European "cultural region. European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage".
As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth and it is the richest region as measured by assets under management with over $32.7 trillion compared to North America's $27.1 trillion in 2008. In 2009 Europe remained the wealthiest region. Its $37.1 trillion in assets under management represented one-third of the world's wealth. It was one of several regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis year-end peak. As with other continents, Europe has a large variation of wealth among its countries. The richer states tend to be in the "West; some of the "Central and Eastern European economies are still emerging from the "collapse of the Soviet Union and the "breakup of Yugoslavia.
The "Great Stink
was an event in central London in July and August 1858 during which the hot weather exacerbated the smell of untreated "human waste
and industrial "effluent
that was present on the banks of the "River Thames
. The problem had been mounting for some years, with an ageing and inadequate sewer system that emptied directly into the Thames. The "miasma
from the effluent was thought to transmit contagious diseases, and three outbreaks of "cholera
prior to the Great Stink were blamed on the ongoing problems with the river.
The smell, and people's fears of its possible effects, prompted action from the local and national administrators who had been considering possible solutions for the problem. The authorities accepted a proposal from the "civil engineer "Joseph Bazalgette to move the effluent eastwards along a series of interconnecting sewers that sloped towards "outfalls beyond the metropolitan area. Work on high-, mid- and low-level systems for the new "Northern and "Southern Outfall Sewers started at the beginning of 1859 and lasted until 1875. To aid the drainage, "pumping stations were placed to lift the sewage from lower levels into higher pipes. Two of the more ornate stations, "Abbey Mills in "Stratford and "Crossness on the "Erith Marshes, are "listed for protection by "English Heritage. Bazalgette's plan introduced the three embankments to London in which the sewers ran—the "Victoria, "Chelsea and "Albert Embankments.
"Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia
(November 15 ["O.S.
November 3] 1895 – July 17, 1918) was the eldest daughter of the last "Tsar
of the Russian Empire, "Emperor Nicholas II
, and of "Empress Alexandra of Russia
During her lifetime, Olga's future marriage was the subject of great speculation within Russia. Matches were rumored with "Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich of Russia, "Crown Prince Carol of Romania, "Edward, Prince of Wales, eldest son of Britain's "George V, and with "Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia. Olga herself wanted to marry a Russian and remain in her home country. During "World War I, Olga nursed wounded soldiers in a "military hospital until her own nerves gave out and, thereafter, oversaw administrative duties at the hospital.
Olga's murder following the "Russian Revolution of 1917 resulted in her "canonization as a "passion bearer by the "Russian Orthodox Church. In later years, when dozens of people made claims to be surviving members of the imperial family, a woman named "Marga Boodts claimed to be Grand Duchess Olga, but her claim was not taken seriously. Olga was assassinated along with her family at "Yekaterinburg. Her remains were identified through "DNA testing and were buried during a funeral ceremony in 1998 at "Peter and Paul Cathedral in "St. Petersburg along with those of her parents and two of her sisters.
is a small village and "civil parish
within the "Borough of Maidstone
, England. The parish is approximately 7 miles (11 km) south of "the Swale
and 8 miles (13 km) east of "Maidstone
. The village of "Frinsted
lies 0.6 miles (1 km) to the east and "Bicknor 1 1⁄2
miles (2.4 km) to the north-west; while "Hollingbourne
is 3 miles (5 km) to the south-west. The village lies on an exposed high point of the "North Downs
, within the "Kent Downs
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
Archaeological and "toponymic evidence of Wormshill's existence predates its appearance in the "Domesday survey of 1086. The village contains a number of "heritage-listed buildings, which include a "Norman church, a "public house and one of the oldest surviving post office buildings in the United Kingdom. The fields and woodland surrounding Wormshill have changed little in the past 500 years, and the village itself remains rural with a low population density compared to the national average. The population of 200 is a mixture of agricultural workers employed by local farms and professional residents who commute to nearby towns.