"Europe is a "continent that comprises the westernmost part of "Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the "Arctic Ocean to the north, the "Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the "Mediterranean Sea to the south. To the east and southeast, Europe is generally considered as "separated from Asia by the "watershed divides of the "Ural and "Caucasus Mountains, the "Ural River, the "Caspian and "Black Seas, and the waterways of the "Turkish Straits. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to "classical antiquity—are arbitrary. The primarily "physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates "cultural and political elements whose discontinuities are not always reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about "fifty sovereign states of which the "Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a "total population of about 740 million (about 11% of "world population) as of 2012.
The "history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting the "European continent from "prehistory to the present. Some of the best-known civilizations of prehistoric Europe were the "Minoan and the "Mycenaean, which flourished during the "Bronze Age until they "collapsed in a short period of time around 1200 BC. The period known as "classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of "Ancient Greece. After ultimately checking the "Persian advance in Europe through the "Greco-Persian Wars in the 5th century BC, Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of "Alexander the Great, spreading throughout "Asia, Africa, and other parts of Europe. The "Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on "Roman law. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the "Western and "Eastern empires. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the "Germanic peoples of northern Europe grew in strength and repeated attacks led to the "Fall of the Western Roman Empire. AD 476 traditionally marks the end of the classical period and the start of the "Middle Ages.
The "culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the "European "cultural region. European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage".
As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth and it is the richest region as measured by assets under management with over $32.7 trillion compared to North America's $27.1 trillion in 2008. In 2009 Europe remained the wealthiest region. Its $37.1 trillion in assets under management represented one-third of the world's wealth. It was one of several regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis year-end peak. As with other continents, Europe has a large variation of wealth among its countries. The richer states tend to be in the "West; some of the "Central and Eastern European economies are still emerging from the "collapse of the Soviet Union and the "breakup of Yugoslavia.
Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna Göteborg
, commonly known as "IFK Göteborg
or simply Göteborg
, is a Swedish professional "football club
based in "Gothenburg
. Founded on 4 October 1904, it is the only club in the Nordic countries that has won a pan-European competition, as the club won the "UEFA Cup
. IFK is affiliated with "Göteborgs Fotbollförbund
and play all their home games at "Gamla Ullevi
since the start of the 2009 season. The club colours are blue and white, colours shared both with the sports society—"Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna
—which the club originated from, and with the home town of Gothenburg.
Besides the two UEFA Cup titles, they have won 18 "Swedish championship titles, second most in Swedish football after "Malmö FF, and have the third most "national cup titles with seven. The team has qualified for four group stages of the "UEFA Champions League, and reached the semi-finals of the "1985–86 European Cup. IFK Göteborg is the only Swedish club team in any sport to have won the "Radiosportens Jerringpris—an award for best sports performance of the year voted by the Swedish people—for the 1982 UEFA Cup victory. IFK is one of the most popular football clubs in Sweden, with diverse country-wide support.They currently play in the highest Swedish league, "Allsvenskan, where they have played for the majority of their history. They have played top-flight football in Sweden continuously since 1977, which currently is the longest top-flight tenure of any club in Sweden—the second longest is "Helsingborgs IF, since 1993.
"Annelies Marie Frank
( 12 June 1929 – February or March 1945) was a German-born diarist and writer. One of the most discussed Jewish victims of "the Holocaust
, she gained fame posthumously following the publication of her diary, "The Diary of a Young Girl
(originally Het Achterhuis
; English: The Secret Annex
), which documents her life in hiding from 1942 to 1944, during the "German occupation of the Netherlands
in "World War II
. It is one of the world's most widely known books and has been the basis for several plays and films.
Born in "Frankfurt, Germany, she lived most of her life in or near Amsterdam, Netherlands, having moved there with her family at the age of four-and-a-half when the "Nazis gained control over Germany. Born a German national, Frank lost her citizenship in 1941 and thus became "stateless. By May 1940, the Franks were trapped in Amsterdam by the German occupation of the Netherlands. As "persecutions of the Jewish population increased in July 1942, the family went into hiding in some "concealed rooms behind a bookcase in the building where Anne's father worked. From then until the family's arrest by the "Gestapo in August 1944, Anne kept a diary she had received as a birthday present, and wrote in it regularly. Following their arrest, the Franks were transported to "concentration camps. In October or November 1944, Anne and her sister, "Margot, were transferred to "Bergen-Belsen concentration camp from "Auschwitz, where they died (probably of "typhus) a few months later. They were originally estimated by the "Red Cross to have died in March, with Dutch authorities setting 31 March as their official date of death, but research by the Anne Frank House in 2015 suggests they more likely died in February.
is the "capital
and "largest city
. It is located at the confluence of the "Sava
rivers, where the "Pannonian Plain
meets the "Balkans
. Its name translates to "White city". The urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.34 million, while over 1.65 million people live within its administrative limits. One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the "Vinča culture
, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, "Thraco
inhabited the region, and after 279 BC "Celts
conquered the city, naming it "Singidūn
.It was "conquered by the Romans
during the reign of "Augustus
, and awarded "city rights
in the mid-2nd century. It was settled by the "Slavs
in the 520s, and changed hands several times between the "Byzantine Empire
, "Frankish Empire
, "Bulgarian Empire
and "Kingdom of Hungary
before it became the capital of "Serbian king
(1282–1316). In 1521, Belgrade was conquered by the "Ottoman Empire
and became the seat of the "Sanjak of Smederevo
.It frequently passed from Ottoman to "Habsburg
rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the "Austro-Ottoman wars
. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841. "Northern Belgrade
remained the southernmost "Habsburg
post until 1918, when the city was reunited. As a strategic location, the city was battled over in 115 wars and razed to the ground 44 times.