"Europe is a "continent that comprises the westernmost part of "Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the "Arctic Ocean to the north, the "Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the "Mediterranean Sea to the south. To the east and southeast, Europe is generally considered as "separated from Asia by the "watershed divides of the "Ural and "Caucasus Mountains, the "Ural River, the "Caspian and "Black Seas, and the waterways of the "Turkish Straits. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to "classical antiquity—are arbitrary. The primarily "physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates "cultural and political elements whose discontinuities are not always reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about "fifty sovereign states of which the "Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a "total population of about 740 million (about 11% of "world population) as of 2012.
The "history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting the "European continent from "prehistory to the present. Some of the best-known civilizations of prehistoric Europe were the "Minoan and the "Mycenaean, which flourished during the "Bronze Age until they "collapsed in a short period of time around 1200 BC. The period known as "classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of "Ancient Greece. After ultimately checking the "Persian advance in Europe through the "Greco-Persian Wars in the 5th century BC, Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of "Alexander the Great, spreading throughout "Asia, Africa, and other parts of Europe. The "Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on "Roman law. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the "Western and "Eastern empires. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the "Germanic peoples of northern Europe grew in strength and repeated attacks led to the "Fall of the Western Roman Empire. AD 476 traditionally marks the end of the classical period and the start of the "Middle Ages.
The "culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the "European "cultural region. European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage".
As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth and it is the richest region as measured by assets under management with over $32.7 trillion compared to North America's $27.1 trillion in 2008. In 2009 Europe remained the wealthiest region. Its $37.1 trillion in assets under management represented one-third of the world's wealth. It was one of several regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis year-end peak. As with other continents, Europe has a large variation of wealth among its countries. The richer states tend to be in the "West; some of the "Central and Eastern European economies are still emerging from the "collapse of the Soviet Union and the "breakup of Yugoslavia.
is a "sour soup
popular in several "Eastern European
, including "Ukrainian
, and "Ashkenazi Jewish
cuisines. The variety most commonly associated with the name in English is of Ukrainian origin and includes "beetroots
as one of the main ingredients, which gives the dish a distinctive red color. It shares the name, however, with a wide selection of sour-tasting soups without beetroots, such as sorrel-based "green borscht
, rye-based "white borscht
and cabbage borscht.
Borscht derives from an ancient soup originally cooked from pickled stems, leaves and "umbels of "common hogweed, a herbaceous plant growing in damp meadows, which lent the dish its "Slavic name. With time, it evolved into a diverse array of tart soups, among which the beet-based red borscht has become the most popular. It is typically made by combining meat or bone "stock with "sautéed vegetables, which – as well as beetroots – usually include cabbage, carrots, onions, potatoes and tomatoes. Depending on the recipe, borscht may include meat or fish, or be purely vegetarian; it may be served either hot or cold; and it may range from a hearty one-pot meal to a clear broth or a smooth drink. It is often served with "smetana or "sour cream, hard-boiled eggs or potatoes, but there exists an ample choice of more involved "garnishes and side dishes, such as "uszka or "pampushky, that can be served with the soup.
A "portrait of "Antanas Smetona, the first "President of Lithuania, a signatory to the "Act of Independence of Lithuania, as well as the last President before the country's occupation by the "Soviet Union in "World War II. During his second term, he expanded the powers of the office and became an authoritarian head of state. Prior to the Soviet invasion, Smetona proposed armed resistance, but was overruled by his army. He fled the country, eventually emigrating to the "United States. Smetona died in "Cleveland, Ohio, in 1944. His remains are currently buried in "Chardon, Ohio.
"Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia
(November 15 ["O.S.
November 3] 1895 – July 17, 1918) was the eldest daughter of the last "Tsar
of the Russian Empire, "Emperor Nicholas II
, and of "Empress Alexandra of Russia
During her lifetime, Olga's future marriage was the subject of great speculation within Russia. Matches were rumored with "Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich of Russia, "Crown Prince Carol of Romania, "Edward, Prince of Wales, eldest son of Britain's "George V, and with "Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia. Olga herself wanted to marry a Russian and remain in her home country. During "World War I, Olga nursed wounded soldiers in a "military hospital until her own nerves gave out and, thereafter, oversaw administrative duties at the hospital.
Olga's murder following the "Russian Revolution of 1917 resulted in her "canonization as a "passion bearer by the "Russian Orthodox Church. In later years, when dozens of people made claims to be surviving members of the imperial family, a woman named "Marga Boodts claimed to be Grand Duchess Olga, but her claim was not taken seriously. Olga was assassinated along with her family at "Yekaterinburg. Her remains were identified through "DNA testing and were buried during a funeral ceremony in 1998 at "Peter and Paul Cathedral in "St. Petersburg along with those of her parents and two of her sisters.
is a "city
in the "ceremonial county
, England, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the "River Avon
, 97 miles (156 km) west of "London
and 11 miles (18 km) south-east of "Bristol
. The city became a "World Heritage Site
The city became a "spa with the "Latin name "Aquæ Sulis ("the waters of Sulis") c. AD 60 when the Romans built "baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although "hot springs were known even before then. "Bath Abbey was founded in the 7th century and became a religious centre; the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, and Bath became popular as a "spa town in the "Georgian era. "Georgian architecture, crafted from "Bath stone, includes the "Royal Crescent, "Circus, "Pump Room and "Assembly Rooms where "Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by "John Wood, the Elder, and in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. "Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century. Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the "Bath Blitz in World War II.