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"Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the "motion picture industry. Films are produced by "recording images from the world with "cameras, or by creating images using "animation techniques or "special effects.

Film is an important "art form; films entertain, educate, enlighten, and inspire audiences. The visual elements of cinema need no "translation, giving the motion picture a universal power of communication. Films are also artifacts created by specific "cultures, which reflect those cultures, and in turn, affect them.

Traditional films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between "frames due to a combination of physiological and psychological effects. One is known as "persistence of vision—whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers also perceive motion due to psychological effects called "beta movement and the "phi phenomenon.

The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that "photographic film (also called "film stock) has historically been the primary "medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture; picture show; photo-play; flick; and most commonly, movie. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen; the silver screen; the cinema; and the movies.

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""Movie poster for The Raven (1963)
The term "B movie originally referred to a "motion picture made on a low or modest budget and intended for distribution as the less-publicized, bottom half of a "double feature during the so-called "Golden Age of Hollywood. Although the U.S. production of movies intended as second features largely ceased by the end of the 1950s, the term B movie continues to be used in a broader sense, referring to any low-budget, commercial motion picture meant neither as an "arthouse film nor as "pornography. In its post–Golden Age usage, there is ambiguity on both sides: on the one hand, many B movies display a high degree of craft and aesthetic ingenuity; on the other, the primary interest of many inexpensive "exploitation films is prurient. In some cases, both are true. In either usage, most B movies represent a particular "genre. Early B movies were often part of series in which the star repeatedly played the same character. Almost always shorter than the top-billed films they were paired with, many had running times of 70 minutes or less. The term connoted a general perception that B movies were inferior to the more handsomely budgeted headliners; individual B films were often ignored by critics. Latter-day B movies still sometimes inspire multiple "sequels, but series are less common. As the average running time of top-of-the-line films increased, so did that of B pictures.

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""Buster Keaton
Credit: Bain News Service

"Buster Keaton (born Joseph Frank Keaton, October 4, 1895 – February 1, 1966) was an "American "silent film comic actor and filmmaker. His trademark was physical comedy with a "stoic, "deadpan expression on his face.

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""Satyajit Ray
"Satyajit Ray ("Bengali: সত্যজিৎ রায় Shottojit Rae) (May 2, 1921 – April 23, 1992) was an "Indian "filmmaker who is widely regarded as one of the greatest "auteurs of 20th century "cinema. A prolific and versatile filmmaker, Ray directed 37 films, including feature films, "documentaries and "shorts. Ray's first film, "Pather Panchali won 11 international prizes, including Best Human Document at "Cannes. Along with "Aparajito and "Apur Sansar, the film forms the "Apu trilogy—widely regarded as Ray's "magnum opus. Ray worked extensively on an array of tasks, including "scripting, casting, "scoring, "cinematography, "art direction, editing and designing his own credit titles and publicity material. Apart from making films, he was a fiction writer, publisher, illustrator, graphic designer and film critic. Ray received many "major awards in his illustrious career, including an "Academy Award for lifetime achievement in 1991.

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""David Bowie
"David Bowie (born David Robert Jones) was a British musician and actor. He began his singing career under the name David Bowie in 1966 and won his first "award in 1969, when he won an "Ivor Novello Award for the song ""Space Oddity". Bowie's first hit album was "Hunky Dory in 1971 which reached number three in the "UK Albums Chart. Despite his next eleven studio albums all making the UK Top 10—including four number one albums—he did not receive any more music awards or nominations until the early 1980s. He has since won eleven awards for his music, including: two "BRIT Awards—Best British Male Solo Artist at the 1984 BRIT Awards and an Outstanding Contribution Award at the 1996 BRIT Awards; two "Grammy Awards—"Best Video, Short Form for the David Bowie video at the "1985 Grammy Awards and a "Lifetime Achievement Award at the "2006 Grammy Awards; and three "MTV Video Music Awards—"Best Male Video for ""China Girl" and a "Video Vanguard Award at the "1984 MTV Video Music Awards, and "Best Overall Performance in a Video for ""Dancing in the Street" at the "1986 MTV Video Music Awards. Bowie began his acting career in the 1967 "short film The Image. His first leading role was in the 1976 "science fiction film "The Man Who Fell to Earth, a role for which he won a "Saturn Award for "Best Actor at the 1976 Saturn Awards. He has also had an innovative presence on the Internet which led to his being awarded a lifetime achievement "Webby Award in 2007 for "pushing the boundaries of art and technology with his digital empire". He has won 14 awards from 40 nominations.



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""Stanley Kubrick
I have always enjoyed dealing with a slightly surrealistic situation and presenting it in a realistic manner. I've always liked fairy tales and myths, magical stories. I think they are somehow closer to the sense of reality one feels today than the equally stylized "realistic" story in which a great deal of selectivity and omission has to occur in order to preserve its "realist" style.

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Terms - "Animation • "Beta movement • "Camera • "Cult film • "Digital cinema • "Documentary film • "Dubbing • "Experimental film • "Fan film • "Film crew • "Film criticism • "Film festival • "Film frame • "Film genre • "Film journals and magazines • "Film industry • "Film manifesto • "Film stock • "Film theory • "Filmmaking • "History of film • "Independent film • "Lost film • "Movie star • "Narrative film • "Open content film • "Persistence of vision • "Photographic film • "Propaganda • "Recording medium • "Special effect • "Subtitles • "Sound stage • "Web film • "World cinema

Lists - "List of basic film topics • "List of film topics • "List of films • "List of film festivals • "List of film formats • "List of film series • "List of film techniques • "List of highest-grossing films • "List of longest films by running time • "List of songs based on a film or book • "Lists of film source material • "List of open content films

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