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Liberalism (from the Latin liberalis, "of freedom") is the belief in the importance of "liberty and "equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but most liberals support such fundamental ideas as "constitutions, "liberal democracy, "free and fair elections, "human rights, "democratic capitalism, "free trade, "secular society, and the "market economy. These ideas are often accepted even among political groups that do not openly profess a liberal "ideological orientation. Liberalism first became a distinct "political movement during the "Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among philosophers and economists in the "Western world. Liberalism rejected the prevailing social and political "norms of "hereditary privilege, "state religion, "absolute monarchy and the "Divine Right of Kings. Leaders in the "Glorious Revolution of 1688, the "American Revolution of 1776 and the "French Revolution of 1789 used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of royal "tyranny. Liberalism encompasses several "intellectual trends and traditions, but the dominant variants are "classical liberalism, which became popular in the 18th century, and "social liberalism, which became popular in the 20th century. In the United States, "liberal" generally refers specifically to "social liberalism. "Neoliberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with "laissez-faire economic liberalism.
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""Eleanor Roosevelt holding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the "United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948 at the "Palais de Chaillot in "Paris. The Declaration represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are entitled. It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional "human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws. The "International Bill of Human Rights consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its two Optional Protocols.

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Norberto Bobbio (Italian: "[norˈbɛrto ˈbɔbbjo]; 18 October 1909 – 9 January 2004) was an "Italian "philosopher of law and "political sciences and a historian of political thought. He also wrote regularly for the "Turin-based daily "La Stampa. Bobbio was a "liberal socialist in the tradition of "Piero Gobetti, "Carlo Rosselli, Guido Calogero, and "Aldo Capitini. He was also strongly influenced by "Hans Kelsen and "Vilfredo Pareto.

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""Prince of Orange lands at Torbay
Credit: Hopepark

The Glorious Revolution was the overthrow of King "James II of England by a union of English "Parliamentarians with the "Dutch "stadtholder William III, "Prince of Orange. King James's policies of religious tolerance after 1685 met with increasing opposition from members of leading political circles, who were troubled by the king's Catholicism and his close ties with France. The crisis facing the king came to a head in 1688, with the birth of the king's son, "James Francis Edward Stuart, on 10 June (Julian calendar). This changed the existing line of succession by displacing the heir presumptive with young James Francis Edward as heir apparent. After consolidating political and financial support, William, crossed the "North Sea and "English Channel with a large invasion fleet in November 1688, landing at "Torbay. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as "William III of England jointly with his wife, "Mary II, James's daughter, after the "Declaration of Right, leading to the "Bill of Rights 1689.


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