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Liberalism (from the Latin liberalis, "of freedom") is the belief in the importance of "liberty and "equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but most liberals support such fundamental ideas as "constitutions, "liberal democracy, "free and fair elections, "human rights, "democratic capitalism, "free trade, "secular society, and the "market economy. These ideas are often accepted even among political groups that do not openly profess a liberal "ideological orientation. Liberalism first became a distinct "political movement during the "Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among philosophers and economists in the "Western world. Liberalism rejected the prevailing social and political "norms of "hereditary privilege, "state religion, "absolute monarchy and the "Divine Right of Kings. Leaders in the "Glorious Revolution of 1688, the "American Revolution of 1776 and the "French Revolution of 1789 used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of royal "tyranny. Liberalism encompasses several "intellectual trends and traditions, but the dominant variants are "classical liberalism, which became popular in the 18th century, and "social liberalism, which became popular in the 20th century. In the United States, "liberal" generally refers specifically to "social liberalism. "Neoliberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
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Classical liberalism is a "political ideology, a branch of "liberalism which advocates "civil liberties under the "rule of law with an emphasis on "economic freedom. It is closely related to "libertarianism and to "free market capitalism.

Classical liberalism developed in the early 19th century, building on ideas from the previous century. It was a response to urbanization, and to the "Industrial Revolution in "Europe and the "United States. Notable individuals whose ideas contributed to classical liberalism include "John Locke, "Jean-Baptiste Say, "Thomas Malthus and "David Ricardo. It drew on the economics of "Adam Smith and on a belief in "natural law, "utilitarianism and "progress.

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""Picture of Isaiah Berlin
Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, "philosopher and "historian of ideas. In its obituary of the scholar, the "Independent stated that "Isaiah Berlin was often described, especially in his old age, by means of superlatives: the world's greatest talker, the century's most inspired reader, one of the finest minds of our time [...] there is no doubt that he showed in more than one direction the unexpectedly large possibilities open to us at the top end of the range of human potential".

An annual Isaiah Berlin Lecture is held at the Hampstead Synagogue, at "Wolfson College, Oxford, at the British Academy, and in Riga. Berlin's work on "liberal theory and on "value pluralism has had a lasting influence.

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""John Dewey
— "John Dewey, Liberalism and Social Action, 1935.

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""Prince of Orange lands at Torbay
Credit: Hopepark

The Glorious Revolution was the overthrow of King "James II of England by a union of English "Parliamentarians with the "Dutch "stadtholder William III, "Prince of Orange. King James's policies of religious tolerance after 1685 met with increasing opposition from members of leading political circles, who were troubled by the king's Catholicism and his close ties with France. The crisis facing the king came to a head in 1688, with the birth of the king's son, "James Francis Edward Stuart, on 10 June (Julian calendar). This changed the existing line of succession by displacing the heir presumptive with young James Francis Edward as heir apparent. After consolidating political and financial support, William, crossed the "North Sea and "English Channel with a large invasion fleet in November 1688, landing at "Torbay. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as "William III of England jointly with his wife, "Mary II, James's daughter, after the "Declaration of Right, leading to the "Bill of Rights 1689.


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