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The Literature Portal

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"Literature is a term that does not have a universally accepted definition, but which has variably included all written work; writing that possesses literary merit; and language that foregrounds literariness, as opposed to "ordinary language. "Etymologically the term derives from "Latin literatura/litteratura "writing formed with letters", although some definitions include "spoken or sung texts. Literature can be classified according to whether it is "fiction or "non-fiction, and whether it is "poetry or "prose; it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the "novel, "short story or "drama; and works are often categorised according to historical periods, or according to their adherence to certain "aesthetic features or expectations ("genre).

Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), a category that may also include "polemical works, "biographies, and reflective essays, or it may consist of texts based on imagination (such as fiction, "poetry, or drama). Literature written in poetry emphasizes the aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as sound, symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, ordinary meanings, while literature written in prose applies ordinary grammatical structure and the natural flow of speech. Literature can also be classified according to historical periods, genres, and political influences. While the concept of genre has broadened over the centuries, in general, a genre consists of artistic works that fall within a certain central theme; examples of genre include "romance, "mystery, "crime, "fantasy, "erotica, and "adventure, among others.

More about "literature

Selected work

""The title page of an 1897 printing of La Cousine Bette
"La Cousine Bette is an 1846 novel by French author "Honoré de Balzac. Set in mid-19th century Paris, it tells the story of an unmarried middle-aged woman who plots the destruction of her extended family. Bette works with Valérie Marneffe, an unhappily married young lady, to seduce and torment a series of men. One of these is Baron Hector Hulot, husband to Bette's cousin Adeline. He sacrifices his family's fortune and good name to please Valérie, who leaves him for a tradesman named Crevel. The book is part of the Scènes de la vie parisienne section of Balzac's "novel sequence "La Comédie humaine ("The Human Comedy").

The novel's characters represent polarities of contrasting morality. The vengeful Bette and disingenuous Valérie stand on one side, with the merciful Adeline and her patient daughter Hortense on the other. The patriarch of the Hulot family, meanwhile, is consumed by his own sexual desire. Hortense's husband, the Polish exile Wenceslas Steinbock, represents artistic genius, though he succumbs to uncertainty and lack of motivation. Balzac based the character of Bette in part on his mother and the poet "Marceline Desbordes-Valmore. At least one scene involving Baron Hulot was likely based on an event in the life of Balzac's friend, the novelist "Victor Hugo.

Selected figure

""Chinua Achebe in 2008
"Chinua Achebe (born Albert Chinualumogu Achebe; 16 November 1930 – 21 March 2013) was a Nigerian "novelist, "poet, "professor, and "critic. He was best known for his first novel and magnum opus, "Things Fall Apart (1958), which is the most widely read book in modern "African literature.

Raised by his parents in the "Igbo town of "Ogidi in southeastern "Nigeria, Achebe excelled at school and won a scholarship for undergraduate studies. He became fascinated with world religions and traditional African cultures, and began writing stories as a university student. He gained worldwide attention for "Things Fall Apart in the late 1950s; his later novels include "No Longer at Ease (1960), "Arrow of God (1964), "A Man of the People (1966), and "Anthills of the Savannah (1987).

A titled Igbo "chieftain himself, Achebe's novels focus on the traditions of Igbo society, the effect of Christian influences, and the clash of Western and traditional African values during and after the colonial era. His style relies heavily on the Igbo oral tradition, and combines straightforward narration with representations of folk stories, proverbs, and oratory. He also published a number of short stories, children's books, and essay collections. From 2009 until his death, he served as a professor at "Brown University in the United States.

Selected excerpt


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Selected illustration

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Credit: "Albert Robida

"Scientific romance is an archaic term for the genre "science fiction, and now refers to the science fiction of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, primarily that of "Jules Verne, "H.G. Wells and "Arthur Conan Doyle. This illustration, from the french book Le Vingtième Siècle ("the Twentieth Century"), depicts a nineteenth-century conception of life in the twentieth century.

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Today in literature

"22 February


"Literature: "History of literature · "History of the book · "Literary criticism · "Literary theory · "Publishing
By genre: "Biography · "Comedy · "Drama · "Epic · "Erotic · "Fable · "Fantasy · "Historical fiction · "Horror · "Mystery · "Narrative nonfiction · "Nonsense · "Lyric · "Mythopoeia · "Poetry · "Romance · "Satire · "Science fiction · "Tragedy · "Tragicomedy · "more...
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Related portals

"Portals related to literature:

Concepts: "Books · "Library and information science · "Novels · "Poetry · "Theatre · "Writing
Genres: "Children and Young Adult · "Horror fiction · "Speculative fiction
Authors: "Charles Dickens · "Oscar Wilde · "Robert E. Howard · "Shakespeare. "Jane Austen.
Series: "Discworld · "Harry Potter · "James Bond · "King Arthur · "Middle-earth · "Oz · "Twilight
Regions: "French and Francophone
Religions: "Bible · "Quran · "Book of Mormon

Related WikiProjects

"WikiProjects related to "literature:

Concepts: "Biographies · "Books · "Comics · "Magazines · "Manga · "Novels · "Poetry · "Short stories · "Translation studies
Genres: "Alternate history · "Children's literature · "Crime · "Fantasy · "Horror · "Mythology · "Romance · "Science fiction
Authors: "Honoré de Balzac · "Roald Dahl · "William Shakespeare
Series: "Artemis Fowl · "Chronicles of Narnia · "Discworld · "Harry Potter · "His Dark Materials · "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy · "Inheritance Cycle · "James Bond · "King Arthur · "Middle-earth · "Percy Jackson · "Redwall · "A Series of Unfortunate Events · "Shannara · "Sherlock Holmes · "A Song of Ice and Fire · "Star Wars · "Sword of Truth · "Twilight · "Warriors · "Water Margin · "Wizard of Oz
Regions: "Australian literature · "Indian literature · "Persian literature

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The following "Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:






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