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Metaphysics is the branch of "philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of "reality, "being, and the "world.[1] Its name derives from the "Greek words μετά (metá) (meaning "above" or "beyond") and φυσικά (physiká) (meaning "above or beyond physics"), "physics" referring to those works on matter by "Aristotle in antiquity.[2] Metaphysics addresses questions that have existed for as long as the human race - many still with no definitive answer. Examples are:

  • What is the "meaning of life?
  • What is the nature of "reality?
  • What is humanity's place in the "universe?
  • Does the world exist outside the mind?
  • What is the nature of objects, events, places?
  • Is there any existence of spirit, and can the spirit manifest itself without body?
  • What is consciousness?
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""The light bulb is a symbol of 'having an idea.'
In the most narrow sense, an idea is just whatever is before the "mind when one "thinks. Very often, ideas are construed as "representational images; i.e. images of some "object. In other contexts, ideas are taken to be "concepts, although "abstract concepts do not necessarily appear as images.[3] Many "philosophers consider ideas to be a fundamental "ontological "category of being.

The capacity to "create and "understand the "meaning of ideas is considered to be an essential and defining feature of "human beings. In a popular sense, an idea arises in a reflex, spontaneous manner, even without thinking or serious "reflection, for example, when we talk about the idea of a person or a place.

Selected biography

""George Berkeley by John Smibert.jpg
George Berkeley "/ˈbɑːrkli/ (12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, was a philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called ""immaterialism" (later referred to as ""subjective idealism" by others). This theory contends that individuals can only directly know "sensations and "ideas of "objects, not "abstractions such as ""matter." The theory also contends that ideas are dependent upon being perceived by minds for their very existence, a belief that became immortalized in the dictum, "Esse est percipi" (""To be is to be "perceived"). His most widely-read works are A "Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) and "Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous (1713), in which the characters Philonous and Hylas represent Berkeley himself and his contemporary "John Locke. In 1734, he published "The Analyst, a critique of the foundations of "infinitesimal calculus, which was influential in the development of mathematics.


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  1. ^ Geisler, Norman L. "Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics" page 446. Baker Books, 1999.
  2. ^ More specifically, the writings concerning what Aristotle called the "first philosophy" – and what is now called "metaphysics" – appeared after his articles on matter (on "physics"). Hence meta- ("above/beyond") physics ("matter").
  3. ^ Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy
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