Self is broadly defined as the essential qualities that make a person distinct from all others. The task in "philosophy is defining what these qualities are, and there have been a number of different approaches. The "self" is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic "consciousness. Moreover, this self is the "agent "responsible for the thoughts and actions of an individual to which they are ascribed. It is a "substance, which therefore endures through time; thus, the thoughts and actions at different moments of time may pertain to the same self. As the notion of "subject, the "self" has been harshly "criticized by Nietzsche at the end of the 19th century, on behalf of what "Gilles Deleuze would call a "becoming-other".
Martin Heidegger (26 September 1889 – 26 May 1976) (German pronunciation: "[ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪ̯dɛɡɐ]) was an influential "German "philosopher. His best known book, "Being and Time, is generally considered to be one of the most important philosophical works of the 20th century. Heidegger remains controversial due to his involvement with "Nazism.
Heidegger claimed that "Western philosophy has, since "Plato, misunderstood what it means for something "to be," tending to approach this question in terms of a being, rather than asking about being itself. In other words, Heidegger believed all investigations of being have historically focused on particular entities and their properties, or have treated being itself as an entity, or "substance, with properties. A more authentic analysis of being would, for Heidegger, investigate "that on the basis of which beings are already understood," or that which underlies all particular entities and allows them to show up as entities in the first place. But since philosophers and scientists have overlooked the more basic, pre-theoretical ways of being from which their theories derive, and since they have incorrectly applied those theories universally, they have confused our understanding of being and human existence. To avoid these deep-rooted misconceptions, Heidegger believed philosophical inquiry must be conducted in a new way, through a process of retracing the steps of the history of philosophy.