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The "North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) "French: Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord (OTAN), also called the (North) Atlantic Alliance, is a "military alliance established by the signing of the "North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. The NATO headquarters are in "Brussels, "Belgium, and the organization constitutes a system of "collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.

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"Gladio ("Italian: "sword) is a code name denoting the clandestine "NATO ""stay-behind" operation in "Italy after "World War II, intended to counter an eventual "Warsaw Pact invasion of Western Europe. Although Gladio specifically refers to the Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind organisations, "Operation Gladio" is used as an informal name for all stay-behind organisations, sometimes called "Super NATO".

Operating in many NATO and even some neutral countries, Gladio was first coordinated by the Clandestine Committee of the Western Union (CCWU), founded in 1948. After the creation of NATO in 1949, the CCWU was integrated into the Clandestine Planning Committee (CPC), founded in 1951 and overseen by the "SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe), transferred to Belgium after France’s official withdrawal from NATO's Military Committee in 1966 — which was not followed by the dissolution of the French stay-behind paramilitary movements.

The role of the "CIA in sponsoring Gladio and the extent of its activities during the "Cold War era, and its relationship to "terrorist attacks perpetrated in Italy during the "Years of Lead and other similar clandestine operations is the subject of ongoing debate and investigation. Italy, Switzerland and Belgium have had parliamentary inquiries into the matter.

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""French Army Cougar helicopter- Afghanistan.jpg
A "French helicopter lands during a NATO mission to train the "Afghan National Army.

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The "armed forces of "Portugal, commonly known as the "Portuguese Armed Forces (Forças Armadas Portuguesas) encompasses a "Navy (Marinha), an "Army (Exército) and an "Air Force (Força Aérea). The "President of Portugal is the formal Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces but in practice they answer to the "Portuguese Government via the National Defense Minister.

The Portuguese Armed Forces are charged with protecting Portugal and its overseas territories and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. They have a somewhat minor role in "NATO assignments.

Recent "operations have included wars in Afghanistan (2005), intervention in "East-Timor (1999) and in "Guinea-Bissau (1998) and ongoing peacekeeping responsibilities in the "Balkans and "Lebanon. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained at the island of "Madeira and the archipelago of "Azores.

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  • "June 22: The Turkish government has agreed to allow NATO "AWACS aircraft to operate from bases in Western Turkey providing better air traffic control and radar control over Afghanistan. Read more...
  • "June 18: During a farewell visit to Afghanistan, outgoing NATO Secretary-General "Jaap de Hoop Scheffer announced that the alliance would send an extra 8,000 to 10,000 troops to the country to provide additional security during August elections. Read mores...
  • "June 14: A warship from the NATO naval force off Somalia freed 14 Indian sailors held hostage by pirates. Read more...
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"Jakob Gijsbert "Jaap" de Hoop Scheffer (born 3 April 1948) is a "Dutch "politician and the current "NATO "Secretary General. Hoop served as the Dutch foreign minister, and was an important figure in the Dutch decision to participate in the "2003 invasion of Iraq. In 2004, Hoop was chosen as the 11th NATO Secretary General. "Read more...


  • The threats we face today are not unique to any of us – they are common across the globe, and none of our countries is immune to them. --"Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
  • Our unique partnership was born in common philosophies of freedom and democracy. It was forged during half a century's fight against tyranny. Now it stands as a beacon of democracy, toleration, plurality, openness and candor in a world menaced by extremism and instability. --"Lord Robertson

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