Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an "Austrian-"British "philosopher who worked primarily in the areas of "logic, "philosophy of mathematics, "philosophy of mind, and "philosophy of language.
Described by his mentor and colleague "Bertrand Russell as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived, passionate, profound, intense, and dominating," Wittgenstein is considered by many to be the greatest philosopher of the 20th century. Instrumental in inspiring two of the century's principal philosophical movements, "logical positivism and "ordinary language philosophy, he is considered one of the most important figures in "analytic philosophy. According to an end of the century poll, professional philosophers rank both his "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921) and "Philosophical Investigations (1953) among the top five most important books in twentieth-century philosophy, the latter standing out as "the one crossover masterpiece in twentieth-century philosophy, appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations." Wittgenstein's influence has been felt in nearly every field of the "humanities and "social sciences, yet there are widely diverging interpretations of his thought.
Did you know...
- …that "Francisco de Vitoria (pictured), a "Spanish "Renaissance "Roman Catholic "theologian, was the founder of the tradition in philosophy known as the "School of Salamanca?
- ...that "Collective Intentionality is a topic in the "Philosophy of Mind that has been explored by "John Searle, "Margaret Gilbert, and "J. David Velleman, among others?
- …that a "2001 discovery of lost manuscripts by "Majorcan philosopher and writer "Ramon Llull showed that he had indeed discovered the "Borda count and "Condorcet criterion, and as a result he has been called the father of "computation theory?
- …that although the "paradox, "Buridan's ass, is named after "French priest "Jean Buridan, it had already been previously stated in De Caelo by "Aristotle?
- …that besides being a philosopher, "Gottfried Leibniz was an engineer, lawyer, "philologist, "sinophile, and a famed mathematician who co-invented "calculus?
- …that while most "Enlightenment scholars "criticized the Byzantine system of the "Eastern Roman Empire, "Konstantin Leontiev, a scholar from the "Russian Empire praised it for the very same reasons?
- …that "Marc Sautet started the philosophical cafe known as "Café Philosophique?
- …that "criteria of truth are standards and rules used to judge the accuracy of statements and claims?
- …that a "deductive fallacy is an "argument that has true premises, but may still have a false "conclusion?
- …that "Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers is the first dated book printed in England?
- …that Wikipedia has information on "everything?
- …that a successful "experimental system must be stable and reproducible enough for scientists to make sense of the system's behavior, but unpredictable enough that it can produce useful results?
- …that the ancient Chinese text "Huangdi Yinfujing, attributed to the mythical emperor Huangdi in the 3rd century BCE, may have been a forgery from the Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE)?
- …that Time magazine editor "Otto Fuerbringer was responsible for the controversial 1966 "Is God Dead? cover?
- …that alternative "theories of "speciation besides "natural selection include "Lamarckism and "orthogenesis?
- …that before the 17th century it was "believed that all organisms grew from miniature versions of themselves that had existed since the beginning of creation, a theory called "preformationism?
- …that children have trouble attributing "implicit meaning to aspect verbs implicating non-completion such as start, but find implicit meaning in degree modifiers such as half, as in half-finished?
- …that "Jagadguru Rāmabhadrācārya (pictured), a "blind "Hindu religious leader, has observed nine "Payovrata, a six-month diet of only milk and fruits, per the fifth verse of the Dohāvalī composed by "Tulasidāsa, which says that chanting the name of Rāma subsisting on a diet of milk and fruits for six months will result in all the auspiciousness and accomplishments in one's hand?