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Philosophy

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"The Thinker, a statue by "Auguste Rodin, is often used to represent philosophy.

There are at least two senses in which the term "philosophy is used. In the more formal sense, philosophy is an intellectual endeavor focusing on the fields of "metaphysics, "logic, "ethics, "epistemology, and "aesthetics. In the more informal sense, philosophy is a "way of life whose focus is resolving the "existential questions about the "human condition. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing these questions (such as mysticism or mythology) by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on "reasoned argument.

Philosophy is a general and comprehensive study of fundamental questions about the nature of "existence, "knowledge, "values, "reason, "mind, and "language. The word "philosophy" comes from the "Greek φιλοσοφία [philosophia], which literally means "love of wisdom".

Selected article

""Saint Thomas Aquinas.jpg

Saint Thomas Aquinas, "O.P. (also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino; ca. 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an "Italian priest of the "Catholic Church in the "Dominican Order, and an immensely influential "philosopher and "theologian in the tradition of "scholasticism, known as Doctor Angelicus (the Angelic Doctor) and Doctor Communis or Doctor Universalis (the Common or Universal Doctor).[1] He is frequently referred to as Thomas because "Aquinas" refers to his residence rather than his surname. He was the foremost classical proponent of "natural theology, and the father of the "Thomistic school of philosophy and theology. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived as a reaction against, or as an agreement with, "his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, "natural law and political theory.


Did you know...

""Portrait of Francisco de Vitoria

""Sebastian Petrycy's tomb effigy in Kraków

""Rāmabhadrācārya meditating on the banks of Mandakini river during a Payovrata. He is seated in the Sukhasana pose with fingers folded in the Chin Mudra.

  • …that "Jagadguru Rāmabhadrācārya (pictured), a "blind "Hindu religious leader, has observed nine "Payovrata, a six-month diet of only milk and fruits, per the fifth verse of the Dohāvalī composed by "Tulasidāsa, which says that chanting the name of Rāma subsisting on a diet of milk and fruits for six months will result in all the auspiciousness and accomplishments in one's hand?

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Academic Branches of Philosophy

Philosophy ponders the most fundamental questions humankind has been able to ask. These are increasingly numerous and over time they have been arranged into the overlapping branches of the philosophy tree:
  • "Aesthetics: What is art? What is beauty? Is there a standard of taste? Is art meaningful? If so, what does it mean? What is good art? Is art for the purpose of an end, or is "art for art's sake?" What connects us to art? How does art affect us? Is some art unethical? Can art corrupt or elevate societies?
  • "Epistemology: What are the nature and limits of knowledge? What is more fundamental to human existence, knowing (epistemology) or being (ontology)? How do we come to know what we know? What are the limits and scope of knowledge? How can we know that there are other minds (if we can)? How can we know that there is an external world (if we can)? How can we prove our answers? What is a true statement?
  • "Ethics: Is there a difference between ethically right and wrong actions (or values, or institutions)? If so, what is that difference? Which actions are right, and which wrong? Do divine commands make right acts right, or is their rightness based on something else? Are there standards of rightness that are absolute, or are all such standards relative to particular cultures? How should I live? What is happiness?
  • "Logic: What makes a good argument? How can I think critically about complicated arguments? What makes for good thinking? When can I say that something just does not make sense? Where is the origin of logic?
  • "Metaphysics: What sorts of things exist? What is the nature of those things? Do some things exist independently of our perception? What is the nature of space and time? What is the relationship of the mind to the body? What is it to be a person? What is it to be conscious? Do gods exist?
  • "Political philosophy: Are political institutions and their exercise of power justified? What is justice? Is there a 'proper' role and scope of government? Is democracy the best form of governance? Is governance ethically justifiable? Should a state be allowed? Should a state be able to promote the norms and values of a certain moral or religious doctrine? Are states allowed to go to war? Do states have duties against inhabitants of other states?

Related Academic Fields

Selected philosopher

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"Voltaire 1694 - 1778

François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the "pen name Voltaire, was a "French "Enlightenment "writer, "essayist, "deist and "philosopher.

Voltaire was known for his sharp "wit, philosophical writings, and defense of "civil liberties, including "freedom of religion and the right to a "fair trial. He was an outspoken supporter of social reform despite strict "censorship laws in France and harsh penalties for those who broke them. A satirical "polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize Church "dogma and the French institutions of his day...

Lists

Task Forces

Things to do

""SmallSocrates.png
"WikiProject Philosophy task list

  • "Optimism should have a separate page that focuses on the philosophical idea of optimism and distinguishes the philosophical view from "positive thinking" and other everyday uses of the word.
  • "Philosophy of social science, has some okay points but requires elaboration on Wittgenstein and Winch, perhaps other linguistic critiques, whether logical positivist or postmodernist.
  • "Exchange value needs to be redone, it shouldn't be under 'Marxist theory'- although it's an important component of Marxist theory it's also vital for all economics. That said the article's weight on Marx is also absurd.
  • "German Idealism and the articles related to it may need to be rewritten or expanded to avoid "undue weight on "Arthur Schopenhauer.
  • "Protected values first section confuses right action and values and needs a copy edit, moving and wikifying
  • "Quality (philosophy) needs a more clear explanation.
  • "Socratic dialogues could do with some tidying and clarification. See the talk page for one suggested change.
  • "Problem of universals: The introductory definition is (perhaps) fixed. But, the article is poor. Check out the German version.
  • "Teleology: the article is shallow and inconsistent.
  • "Existentialism: the quality of this article varies wildly and is in desperate need of expert attention.
  • "Analytic philosophy This is a very major topic, but still has several sections which are stubs, and several topics which are not covered.
  • "Lifeworld A philosophical concept that seems to have fallen exclusively into the hands of the sociologists. Could use some attention; it's a major and complex issue in phenomenology.
  • "Amorality This page needs great attention as it is currently totally uninformative and, in my opinion, risks more to confuse readers than inform them, as most people will come here with no knowledge of amoralism and worse, often with huge bias against it.
  • "Perception Needs the attention of philosophically minded Wikipedians. This is only the start of an overhaul of perception and related articles.

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  1. ^ See Pius XI, Studiorum Ducem 11 (29 June 1923), AAS, XV. The title Doctor Communis dates to the fourteenth century; the title Doctor Angelicus dates to the fifteenth century, see Walz, Xenia Thomistica, III, p. 164 n. 4. Tolomeo of Lucca writes in Historia Ecclesiastica (1317): “This man is supreme among modern teachers of philosophy and theology, and indeed in every subject. And such is the common view and opinion, so that nowadays in the University of Paris they call him the Doctor Communis because of the outstanding clarity of his teaching.” Historia Eccles. xxiii, c. 9.
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