The "United Nations (UN) is an "international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in "international law, "international security, "economic development, social progress, and "human rights issues. It was founded in "1945 with the signing of the "United Nations Charter by 51 countries.
The UN was founded after the end of "World War II (24 October 1945) by the victorious "Allied Powers in the hope that it would act to intervene in conflicts between nations and thereby avoid war. The organization's structure still reflects in some ways the political power-structure of when it was founded. The five permanent members of the "UN Security Council, each of which has "veto power on any Security Council resolution, are the main victors of World War II or their "successor states: the "People's Republic of China (formerly the "Republic of China), "France, "Russia (formerly the "Soviet Union), the "United Kingdom, and the "United States.
There are currently 193 "United Nations member states, including the majority of "internationally recognized independent "states. From its "headquarters in "New York City, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout each year. The United Nations is divided into five major administrative organs: the "General Assembly, the "Security Council, the "Secretariat, the "International Court of Justice, and the "Economic and Social Council. Additional bodies deal with the governance of all other "United Nations system organizations, such as the "World Health Organization (WHO) and "United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The UN's most visible public figure is the "Secretary-General, currently "António Guterres of "Portugal, who took office on 1 January 2017. The newest Member State is "South Sudan, admitted in July 2011.
The "United Nations Charter is the "treaty that forms and establishes the "international organization called the "United Nations. While this document is occasionally misconstrued as a "constitution it is, in fact, an agreement between states and not a compact among the individual peoples to create a "government. It was signed at the "United Nations Conference on International Organization in "San Francisco, "California, "United States, in 1945, by 50 of the 51 original member countries ("Poland, the other original member, which was not represented at the conference, signed it later). It entered into force on October 24, 1945, after being ratified by the five permanent members of the "Security Council—the "Republic of China (later replaced by the "People's Republic of China), "France, the "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (later replaced by the "Russian Federation), the "United Kingdom, and the "United States—and a majority of the other signatories.