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|"History of Italy|
The prehistory of Italy began in the "Paleolithic, when the "Homo species colonized for the first time the Italian territory and ends in the "Iron Age, when the first written records appeared in the "peninsula and in the "islands.
In prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from how it is now. During "glaciations, for example, the sea level was lower and the islands of "Elba and "Sicily were connected to the mainland. The "Adriatic Sea began at what is now the "Gargano Peninsula, and what is now its surface up to "Venice was a fertile plain with a humid climate.
The presence of "Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings dating to c. 50,000 years ago (late "Pleistocene). There are some twenty such sites, the most important being that of the Grotta Guattari at "San Felice Circeo, on the "Tyrrhenian Sea south of Rome. Other are the grotta di Fumane ("province of Verona) and the Breuil grotto, also in San Felice.
The first "Cro Magnon inhabitants of Italy moved across the peninsula, establishing themselves in small settlements far from each one, most on high areas. In November 2011 tests conducted at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit in England on what were previously thought to be Neanderthal baby teeth, which had been unearthed in 1964 from the "Grotta del Cavallo, dated teeth from between 43,000 and 45,000 years ago.
In 2011 it has been discovered the most ancient Sardinian complete human skeleton (called Amsicora) at Pistoccu, in Marina di "Arbus; scientists date it to 8500 years ago (the transition period between the "Mesolithic and "Neolithic).
"Cardium Pottery is a "Neolithic decorative style that gets its name from the imprinting of the clay with the shell of the "Cardium edulis, a marine "mollusk. The alternative name Impressed Ware is given by some archaeologists to define this culture, because impressions can be with sharp objects other than Cardium shell, such as a nail or comb.
Since the Late-Neolithic, "Aosta Valley, "Piedmont, "Liguria, "Tuscany and "Sardinia in particular were involved in the pan-Western European "Megalithic phenomenon. Later, in the Bronze Age, megalithic structures were built also in Latium, Puglia and Sicily. This latter region, around the end of the third millennium B.C. imported from Sardinia typical cultural aspects of Atlantic world, including the Culture of small dolmen-shaped structures that reached all over the Mediterranean basin.
The "Remedello, "Rinaldone and "Gaudo cultures are late Neolithic cultures of "Italy, traces of which are primarily found in the present-day regions of "Lombardy, "Tuscany, "Latium and "Campania. They are sometimes described as "Eneolithic cultures, due to their use of primitive copper tools. Other importants eneolithic cultures of the peninsula and the islands, often related to those previously mentioned, are the "Laterza culture in "Apulia and "Basilicata, the "Abealzu-Filigosa culture in "Sardinia, the Conelle-Ortucchio culture in "Abruzzo and "Marche, the Serraferlicchio culture in "Sicily, and the Spilamberto group in "Emilia-Romagna.
The earliest "Statue menhirs, frequently depicting weapons, were erected by the populations of "northern Italy and "Sardinia during this period. This sculptural tradition of possible "steppe origin ("Yamna culture), lasted in some regions well into the Bronze Age and even into the Iron Age.
The "Beaker culture marks the transition between the Eneolitichic and the early Bronze Age.
The Polada Culture (a location near "Brescia) was a cultural horizon extended from eastern Lombardy and Veneto to Emilia and Romagna, formed in the first half of "2nd millennium BC perhaps for the arrival of new people from the transalpine regions of "Switzerland and Southern "Germany.
The settlements were usually made up of "stilt houses; the economy was characterized by agricultural and pastoral activities, hunting and fishing were also practiced as well as the metallurgy of copper and bronze (axes, daggers, pins etc.). Pottery was coarse and blackish.
It was followed in the Middle Bronze Age by the "facies of the pile dwellings and of the dammed settlements.
Located in "Sardinia (with ramifications in southern "Corsica), the "Nuragic civilization, who lasted from the early "Bronze Age (18th century B.C.) to the second century A.D. when the island was already Romanized, evolved during the "Bonnanaro period from the preexisting megalithic cultures that built "dolmens, "menhirs, more than 2,400 "Domus de Janas and also the imponent altar of "Monte d'Accoddi.
It takes its name from the characteristic "Nuraghe. The nuraghe towers are unanimously considered the best-preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. Their effective use is still debated; while most scholars considered them as fortresses, others see them as temples.
A warrior and mariner people, the ancient Sardinians held flourishing trades with the other Mediterranean peoples. This is shown by numerous remains contained in the nuraghe, such as amber coming from the "Baltic Sea, small bronze figures portraying African beasts, "Oxhide ingots and weapons from Eastern Mediterranean, "Mycenaean ceramics. It has been hypothesized that the ancient Sardinians, or part of them, could be identified with the "Sherden, one of the so-called "People of the Sea who attacked "ancient Egypt and other regions of eastern Mediterranean.
Other original elements of the Sardinian civilization include the temples known as ""Holy wells", dedicated to the cult of the "holy waters, the "Giants' graves, the Megaron temples, several structures for juridical and leisure functions and numerous "bronze statuettes, which were discovered even in "Etruscan tombs, suggesting a strong relationships between the two peoples. Another important element of this civilization are the "Giants of Mont'e Prama, perhaps the oldest "anthropomorphic statues of the western Mediterranean sea.
Among the most important cultural expressions born in Sicily during the Bronze Age the cultures of "Castelluccio (Ancient Bronze Age) and of "Thapsos (Middle Bronze Age) are worth noting. Both originated in the southeastern part of the island. In these cultures, in particular in the Castelluccio phase, there are obvious influences from the "Aegean Sea, where the "Helladic civilization was flourishing.
Belonging to a western (Iberian-Sardinian) type is the "Bell Beaker culture known from sites on the northwestern and southwestern coasts of Sicily, previously occupied by the Conca d'Oro culture, while in the late Bronze Age there are signs in northeastern Sicily of cultural osmosis with the people of the peninsula that led to the appearance of "Proto-Villanovan culture at "Milazzo, perhaps linked to the arrival of "Sicels.
Palma Campania culture takes shape at the end of the third millennium BC and is representative of the Early Bronze Age of "Campania. It owes its name to the locality of "Palma Campania where the first findings were made.
The Apennine culture is a cultural complex of central and southern Italy that, in its broadest sense (including the preceding Protoapennine B and following Subapennine facies), spans the Bronze Age. In the narrower sense more commonly used today, it refers only to the later phase of the Middle Bronze Age in the 15th and 14th centuries BCE.
The people of the Apennine culture were, at least in part, cattle herdsmen grazing their ungulates over the meadows and groves of mountainous central Italy, including on the "Capitoline Hill at "Rome, as shown by the presence of their pottery in the earliest layers of occupation. The primary picture is of a population that lived in small hamlets located in defensible places. There is evidence that herdsmen, when traveling between summer pastures, built temporary camps or lived in caves and rock shelters. However, their range was not confined to the hills, nor was their culture confined to herding cattle, as shown by sites like "Coppa Nevigata, a well-defended and somewhat sizeable coastal site where a variety of subsistence strategies were practiced alongside advanced industries such as "dye production.
The Terramare was a Middle and Recent "Bronze Age culture, between the 16th and the 12th centuries B.C., in the area of what is now "Pianura Padana (specially along the "Panaro river, between "Modena and "Bologna). Their total population probably reached an impressive peak of more than 120,000 individuals near the beginning of the Recent Bronze Age. In the early period they lived in villages with an average population of about 130 people living in wooden "stilt houses: they had a square shape, built on land but generally near a stream, with roads that crossed each other at "right angles. Over the lifetime of the Terramare culture, these settlements developed into stratified zones with larger settlements of up to 15-20Ha (approximately 1500-2000 people) surrounded by smaller villages. Especially in the later period, the proportion of settlements that were fortified approaches 100%.
It has been suggested that the Terramare of "Emilia acted as stores and starting points for trades of the Baltic amber and the "tin from "Erzgebirge through the Val Camonica and the "Po River, towards the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and "Greece.["citation needed]
Around the 12th century BC the Terramare system collapsed, the settlements were abandoned and the populations moved southward, where they mingled with the Apennine peoples. The influence of this population abandoning the Po valley and moving south may have formed the basis of the "Tyrrhenian culture, ultimately leading to the historic "Etruscans, based on a surprising level of correspondence between archeological evidence and early legends recorded by the Greeks.
The Castellieri civilization developed in "Istria during the Mid-"Bronze Age, and later expanded into "Friuli, the modern "Venezia Giulia, "Dalmatia and the neighbouring areas. It lasted for more than a millennium, from the 15th century BC until the Roman conquest in the 3rd century BC. It takes its name from the fortified boroughs (Castellieri, "Friulian cjastelir) which characterized the culture.
The ethnicity of the Castellieri civilization is uncertain, although it was most likely of Pre-Indoeuropean stock, coming from the sea. The first castellieri were indeed built along the Istrian coasts and present the same Megalithic appearance characterizing in the "Mycenaean civilization at the time. Hypotheses about an "Illyrian origin of the people are not confirmed.
The Castellieri were fortified boroughs, usually located on hills or mountains or, more rarely (such as in Friuli), in plains. They were constituted by one or more concentric series of walls, of rounded or elliptical shape in Istria and Venezia Giulia, or quadrangular in Friuli, within which was the inhabited area.
Some hundred castellieri have been discovered in Istria, Friuli, and Venezia Giulia, such as that of "Leme, in west-central Istria, of "Elerji, near "Muggia, of Monte Giove near Prosecco ("Trieste) and San Polo, not far from "Monfalcone. However, the largest castelliere was perhaps that of "Nesactium, in southern Istria, not far from "Pula.
The Canegrate culture developed from the mid-Bronze Age (13th century BC) till the Iron Age in the "Pianura Padana, in what is now western "Lombardy, eastern "Piedmont and "Ticino. It takes its name from the township of "Canegrate where, in the 20th century, some fifty tombs with ceramics and metal objects were found. It represents the first migratory wave of the proto-"Celtic population from the northwest part of the Alps that, through the "Alpine passes, had already penetrated and settled in the western "Po valley between "Lake Maggiore and "Lake Como ("Scamozzina culture). They brought a new "funerary practice—"cremation—which supplanted "inhumation.
Canegrate terracotta is very similar to that known from the same period north to the Alps (Provence, Savoy, Isère, "Valais, the area of "Rhine-"Switzerland-eastern France). The members of the culture have been described as a warrior population who had descended to "Pianura Padana from the Swiss Alps passes and the Ticino.
It was a culture of the end of the Bronze Age (12th-10th century BC), widespread in much of the "Italian peninsula and north-eastern "Sicily (including the "Aeolian Islands), characterized by the funeral ritual of "incineration. The ashes of the deceased were placed into biconical urns decorated with geometric patterns. Their settlements were often located on the top of the hills and protected by stone walls.
The Luco-Meluno culture originated in the transition period between the Bronze Age and the Iron Age and occupied "Trentino and part of "South Tyrol. It was succeeded, in the Iron Age, from the "Fritzens-Sanzeno culture.
The name of this "Iron Age civilization derives from a locality in the "frazione Castenaso of "Bologna, in "Emilia, where a necropolis was discovered by "Giovanni Gozzadini in 1853-1856. It succeeded the "Proto-Villanovan culture during the Iron Age in the territory of Tuscany and northern Lazio and spread in parts of "Romagna, Campania and "Fermo in the "Marche
The main characteristic of the Villanovans (with some similarities with the so-called protovillanovian epoch of the late Bronze Age) were the incinerated sepultures, in which the dead's ashes were housed in double-cone shaped urns and buried. The burial characteristics relate the Villanovan culture to the Central European "Urnfield culture (c. 1300–750 BC), and "Hallstatt culture (which succeeded the Urnfield culture).
The Villanovan were initially devoted to agriculture and breeding, with a simplified social order. Later, specialized craftsmanship activities such as metallurgy and ceramics created an accumulation of richness, which caused the appearance of social stratification.
The Golasecca culture developed starting from the early "Iron Age in the northwestern "Po plain. It takes its name from Golasecca, a locality next to the "Ticino where, in the early 19th century, abbot Giovanni Battista Giani excavated its first findings (some fifty tombs with ceramics and metal objects). Remains of the Golasecca culture span an area of c. 20,000 square kilometers south to the Alps, between the Po, "Sesia and "Serio rivers, dating from the 9th to the 4th century BC.
Their origins can be directly traced from that of Canegrate and to the so-called Proto-Golasecca culture (12th-10th centuries BC). The Golasecca culture traded with the "Etruscans and the "Halstatt culture on the north, later reaching the Greek world (oil, wine, bronze objects, ceramics and others) and northern Europe (tin and amber from the "Baltic coast).
The "Camuni were an ancient people of uncertain origin (according to "Pliny the Elder, they were "Euganei; according to "Strabo, they were "Rhaetians) who lived in "Val Camonica – in what is now northern "Lombardy – during the "Iron Age, although human groups of hunters, shepherds and farmers are known to have lived in the area since the "Neolithic.
They reached the height of their power during the Iron Age due to the presence of numerous iron mills in Val Camonica. Their historical importance is, however, mostly due to their legacy of carved rocks, c. 300,000 in number, which date from the Palaeolithic to the "Middle Ages.
Among the populations of pre-Roman Italy, the most notable were the "Etruscans who, starting from the 8th century BC, created a refined civilization which largely influenced Rome and the Latin world. The "origins of this non-Indo-European people, which first settled on the "Tyrrhenian coast of central Italy and later expanded to "northern Italy (Emilia in particular) and "Campania, are uncertain.
Other peoples living in northern Italy include the "Ligurians (an Indo-European people who lived in what is now "Liguria, southern "Piedmont and the southern French coast), the "Lepontii, "Insubres, "Orobii and other "Celtic tribes in Piedmont and "Lombardy, the "Veneti of north-eastern Italy. In the peninsula, alongside the Etruscans, lived numerous tribes, mostly of Indo-European origin: the Umbri in "Umbria and northern "Abruzzo, the "Latins, who created the "Roman civilization, Sabellians, "Falisci, "Volsci and "Aequi in the "Latium; "Piceni in the "Marche and north-east "Abruzzo; "Samnites in southern Abruzzo, "Molise and Campania; "Daunians, "Messapii and "Peucetii (forming the Apulian or "Iapygian confederation) in "Apulia; "Lucani and "Bruttii in the southern tips of the peninsula. In "Sicily lived the "Sicels, "Elymians and "Sicani while "Sardinia was still inhabited by the Nuragic peoples.
Later, other peoples settled in the Italian territory, cohabiting with the previous inhabitants: new tribes of "Celts in the north ("Senones, "Boii, "Lingones etc.), the "Greeks and the "Phoenicians in the south and in part of Sicily and Sardinia.