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A prime minister is the head of a "cabinet and the leader of the "ministers in the "executive branch of "government, often in a "parliamentary or "semi-presidential system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and "chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in "semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the "civil service and execute the directives of the "head of state.

In parliamentary systems fashioned after the "Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual "head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the "head of state or the head of state's official representative (often the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with "reserve powers.

The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the "legislature. In some "monarchies the monarch may also exercise executive powers (known as the "royal prerogative) that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament.

As well as being head of government, a prime minister may have other roles or posts—the "Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is also "First Lord of the Treasury and "Minister for the Civil Service.[1] Prime ministers may take other ministerial posts. For example, during the Second World War, "Winston Churchill was also "Minister of Defence (although there was then no "Ministry of Defence) and in the "current cabinet of Israel, "Benjamin Netanyahu also serves as "Minister of Communications, "Foreign Affairs, "Regional Cooperation, "Economy and "Interior.

Contents

Etymology[edit]

""
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The prime ministers of five members of the "Commonwealth of Nations at the 1944 "Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference.

The term prime minister in its French form, premier ministre, is attested in 17th Century sources referring to "Cardinal Richelieu[2] after he was named to head the royal council in 1624. The title was however informal and used alongside the equally informal "principal ministre d'État ("chief minister of the state") more as a job description. After 1661, "Louis XIV and his descendants refused to allow one of their ministers to be more important than the others, so the term was not in use.[3]

The term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to "Sir Robert Walpole. During the whole of the 18th Century, Britain was involved in a prolonged conflict with France, periodically bursting into all-out war, and Britons took outspoken pride in their "Liberty" as contrasted to the "Tyranny" of French Absolute Monarchy; therefore, being implicitly compared with Richelieu was no compliment to Walpole. Over time, however, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century.[4]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

The monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were "Thomas Cromwell under "Henry VIII; "William Cecil, Lord Burghley under "Elizabeth I; "Clarendon under "Charles II and "Godolphin under "Queen Anne. These ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were commonly known as "the minister", the "chief minister", the "first minister" and finally the "prime minister".

The power of these ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. Although there was a "cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, and the monarch usually presided over its meetings.

When the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse: Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful. Late in Anne's reign, for example, the "Tory ministers "Harley and "St John shared power.

Development[edit]

In the mid 17th century, after the "English Civil War (1642–1651), Parliament strengthened its position relative to the monarch then gained more power through the "Glorious Revolution of 1688 and passage of the "Bill of Rights in 1689.[5] The monarch could no longer establish any law or impose any tax without its permission and thus the House of Commons became a part of the government. It is at this point that a modern style of prime minister begins to emerge.[6][7]

A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of "George I to the throne. George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in "Hanover, and had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government. In these circumstances it was inevitable that the king's first minister would become the de facto head of the government.

From 1721 this was the "Whig politician "Robert Walpole, who held office for twenty-one years. Walpole chaired cabinet meetings, appointed all the other ministers, dispensed the royal patronage and packed the "House of Commons with his supporters. Under Walpole, the doctrine of cabinet solidarity developed. Walpole required that no minister other than himself have private dealings with the king, and also that when the cabinet had agreed on a policy, all ministers must defend it in public, or resign. As a later prime minister, "Lord Melbourne, said, "It matters not what we say, gentlemen, so long as we all say the same thing."

Walpole always denied that he was "prime minister", and throughout the 18th century parliamentarians and legal scholars continued to deny that any such position was known to the Constitution. "George II and "George III made strenuous efforts to reclaim the personal power of the monarch, but the increasing complexity and expense of government meant that a minister who could command the loyalty of the Commons was increasingly necessary. The long tenure of the wartime prime minister "William Pitt the Younger (1783–1801), combined with the mental illness of George III, consolidated the power of the post. The title was first referred to on government documents during the administration of "Benjamin Disraeli but did not appear in the formal British "Order of precedence until 1905.

The prestige of British institutions in the 19th century and the growth of the "British Empire saw the British model of cabinet government, headed by a prime minister, widely copied, both in other European countries and in British colonial territories as they developed self-government.[8][9][10] In some places alternative titles such as "premier", "chief minister", "first minister of state", "president of the council" or "chancellor" were adopted, but the essentials of the office were the same.

Modern usage[edit]

By the late 20th century,[11][12] the majority of the world's countries had a prime minister or equivalent minister, holding office under either a "constitutional monarchy or a ceremonial president. The main exceptions to this system have been the United States and the presidential republics in Latin America modelled on the U.S. system, in which the president directly exercises executive authority.

"Bahrain's prime minister, "Sheikh "Khalifah bin Sulman Al Khalifah has been in the post since 1970, making him the longest serving non-elected prime minister.

In republics and in monarchies[edit]

The post of prime minister may be encountered both in constitutional "monarchies (such as "Belgium, "Denmark, "Japan, "Luxembourg, the "Netherlands, "Norway, "Malaysia, "Morocco, "Spain,[13] "Sweden, "Thailand, "Canada, "Australia, "New Zealand, and the "United Kingdom), and in "parliamentary republics in which the head of state is an elected official (such as "Finland, the "Czech Republic, "France, "Greece, "Hungary, "India, "Indonesia (1945-1959), "Ireland, "Pakistan, "Portugal, "Montenegro, "Croatia, "Bulgaria, "Romania, "Serbia and "Turkey). See also ""First Minister", ""Premier", ""Chief Minister", ""Chancellor", ""Taoiseach", ""Statsminister" and ""Secretary of State": alternative titles usually equivalent in meaning to, or translated as, "prime minister".

This contrasts with the "presidential system, in which the "president (or equivalent) is both the head of state and the head of the government. In some "presidential or "semi-presidential systems, such as those of "France, "Russia or "South Korea, the prime minister is an official generally appointed by the president but usually approved by the legislature and responsible for carrying out the directives of the president and managing the civil service. The head of government of the "People's Republic of China is referred to as the "Premier of the State Council and the premier of the "Republic of China (Taiwan) is also appointed by the "president, but requires no approval by the legislature.

Appointment of the prime minister of France requires no approval by the parliament either, but the parliament may force the resignation of the government. In these systems, it is possible for the president and the prime minister to be from different political parties if the legislature is controlled by a party different from that of the president. When it arises, such a state of affairs is usually referred to as (political) "cohabitation.

Entry into office[edit]

In parliamentary systems a prime minister may enter into office by several means.

While in practice most prime ministers under the "Westminster system (including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, "Malaysia, India and the United Kingdom) are the leaders of the largest party or "coalition in parliament, technically the appointment of the prime minister is a prerogative exercised by the head of state. In India, the Prime Ministerial candidate must be a member of parliament either Lok Sabha (Lower House) or Rajya Sabha (Upper House). No parliamentary vote takes place on who is forming a government.
However as the government will have to outline its legislative programme to parliament in, for example, the "Speech from the Throne, the speech is sometimes used to test parliamentary support. A defeat of the Speech is taken to mean a "loss of confidence and so requires either a new draft, resignation, or a request for a dissolution of parliament. Until the early 20th century governments when defeated in a general election remained in power until their Speech from the Throne was defeated and then resigned. No government has done so for one hundred years, though "Edward Heath in 1974 did delay his resignation while he explored whether he could form a government with "Liberal party support.
In such systems unwritten (and unenforceable) constitutional conventions often outline the order in which people are asked to form a government. If the prime minister resigns after a general election, the monarch usually asks the leader of the opposition to form a government. Where however a resignation occurs during a parliament session (unless the government has itself collapsed) the monarch will ask another member of the government to form a government. While previously the monarch had some leeway in whom to ask, all British political parties now elect their leaders (until 1965 the "Conservatives chose their leader by informal consultation). The last time the monarch had a choice over the appointment occurred in 1963 when the "Earl of Home was asked to become Prime Minister ahead of "Rab Butler.
During the period between the time it is clear that the incumbent government has been defeated at a general election, and the actual swearing-in of the new prime minister by the monarch, governor-general, or president, that person is referred to as the "prime minister-elect" or "prime minister-designate". Neither term is strictly correct from a constitutional point of view, but they have wide acceptance. In a situation in which a ruling party elects or appoints a new leader, the incoming leader will usually be referred as "prime minister-in-waiting". An example or this situation was in 2016 in the United Kingdom when "Theresa May was elected leader of the "Conservative Party while "David Cameron was still prime minister.

Constitutions[edit]

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"Statue of "John A. Macdonald (1815–1891), first Canadian prime minister.

The position, power and status of prime ministers differ depending on the age of the constitution.

Australia's "constitution makes no mention of a "Prime Minister of Australia and the office only exists by convention, based on the British model.

Bangladesh's "constitution clearly outlines the functions and powers of the "Prime Minister, and also details the process of his/her appointment and dismissal.

The People's Republic of China "constitution set a "premier just one place below the "National People's Congress in China. Premier read as ("Simplified Chinese: 总理; "pinyin: Zŏnglĭ) in Chinese.

Canada's "constitution, being a 'mixed' or hybrid constitution (a constitution that is partly formally codified and partly uncodified) originally did not make any reference whatsoever to a prime minister, with her or his specific duties and method of appointment instead dictated by "convention". In the "Constitution Act, 1982, passing reference to a ""Prime Minister of Canada" is added, though only regarding the composition of "conferences of federal and provincial "first ministers.

Czech Republic's "constitution clearly outlines the functions and powers of the "Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, and also details the process of his/her appointment and dismissal.

Germany's "Basic Law (1949) lists the powers, functions and duties of the federal "chancellor.

Greece's "constitution (1975) lists the powers, functions and duties of the "Prime Minister of Greece.

India's "constitution (1950) lists the powers, functions and duties of the "Prime Minister of India.

Ireland's "constitution (1937), provides for the office of "Taoiseach in detail, listing powers, functions and duties.

Italy's "constitution (1948) lists the powers, functions and duties of the "President of the Council of Ministers.

Japan's "constitution (1946) lists the powers, functions and duties of the "Prime Minister of Japan.

The Republic of Korea's "constitution (1987) sections 86-87 list the powers, functions and duties of the "Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea.

Malta's "constitution (1964) lists the powers, functions and duties of the "Prime Minister of Malta.

Malaysia's "constitution (1957) lists the powers, functions and duties of the "Prime Minister of Malaysia.

Norway's "constitution (1814) lists the powers, functions and duties of the "Prime Minister of Norway

Pakistan's "constitution (1973) lists the powers, functions and duties of the "Prime Minister of Pakistan.

Spain's "constitution (1978) regulates the appointment, dismissal, powers, functions and duties of the "President of the Government.

Thailand's "constitution (1932) lists the powers, functions and duties of the "Prime Minister of Thailand.

The United Kingdom's "constitution, being "uncodified and largely unwritten, makes no mention of a "prime minister. Though it had "de facto existed for centuries, its first mention in official state documents did not occur until the first decade of the twentieth century. Accordingly, it is often said "not to exist", indeed there are several instances of parliament declaring this to be the case. The prime minister sits in the cabinet solely by virtue of occupying another office, either "First Lord of the Treasury (office in commission), or more rarely "Chancellor of the Exchequer (the last of whom was "Balfour in 1905).

Ukraine's "constitution (1996) lists the powers, functions and duties of the "Prime Minister of Ukraine.

Exit from office[edit]

Most prime ministers in "parliamentary systems are not appointed for a specific term in office and in effect may remain in power through a number of "elections and parliaments. For example, "Margaret Thatcher was only ever appointed prime minister on one occasion, in 1979. She remained continuously in power until 1990, though she used the assembly of each "House of Commons after a "general election to "reshuffle her cabinet.

Some states, however, do have a term of office of the prime minister linked to the period in office of the parliament. Hence the "Irish "Taoiseach is formally 'renominated' after every general election. (Some "constitutional experts have questioned whether this process is actually in keeping with the provisions of the Irish constitution, which appear to suggest that a "taoiseach should remain in office, without the requirement of a renomination, unless s/he has clearly lost the general election.) The position of prime minister is normally chosen from the political party that commands majority of seats in the lower house of parliament.

In parliamentary systems, "governments are generally required to have the confidence of the "lower house of parliament (though a small minority of parliaments, by giving a right to block "supply to "upper houses, in effect make the "cabinet responsible to both houses, though in reality upper houses, even when they have the power, rarely exercise it). Where they lose a "vote of confidence, have a "motion of no confidence passed against them, or where they lose supply, most "constitutional systems require either:

  1. a letter of resignation or
  2. a request for parliamentary dissolution.

The latter in effect allows the government to appeal the "opposition of parliament to the "electorate. However, in many "jurisdictions a head of state may refuse a parliamentary dissolution, requiring the resignation of the prime minister and his or her government. In most modern parliamentary systems, the prime minister is the person who decides when to request a parliamentary dissolution.

Older constitutions often vest this power in the "cabinet. In the United Kingdom, for example, the tradition whereby it is the prime minister who requests a dissolution of parliament dates back to 1918. Prior to then, it was the entire government that made the request. Similarly, though the modern 1937 Irish constitution grants to the Taoiseach the right to make the request, the earlier 1922 "Irish Free State Constitution vested the power in the "Executive Council (the then name for the Irish cabinet).

In "Australia, the Prime Minister is expected to step down if s/he loses the majority support of his/her party under a "spill motion as have many such as "Tony Abbott, "Julia Gillard and "Kevin Rudd.

Titles[edit]

In "the Russian constitution the prime minister is actually titled Chairman of the government while the Irish prime minister is called the "Taoiseach (which is rendered into English as prime minister), and in "Israel he is Rosh HaMemshalah meaning "head of the government". In many cases, though commonly used, "prime minister" is not the official title of the office-holder; the Spanish prime minister is the "President of the Government (Presidente del Gobierno).

Other common forms include "president of the council of ministers (for example in Italy, Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri), "President of the Executive Council, or "Minister-President. In the Nordic countries the prime minister is called Statsminister, meaning "Minister of State". In "federations, the head of government of "subnational entities such as "provinces is most commonly known as the "premier, "chief minister, "governor or "minister-president.

The convention in the English language is to call nearly all national heads of government "prime minister" (sometimes modified to the equivalent term of "premier"), regardless of the correct title of the head of government as applied in his or her respective country. The few exceptions to the rule are Germany and Austria, whose heads of government titles are almost always translated as Chancellor; Monaco, whose head of government is referred to as the Minister of State; and Vatican City, for which the head of government is titled the Secretary of State. In the case of Ireland, the head of government is occasionally referred to as the Taoiseach by English speakers. A stand-out case is the President of Iran, who is not actually a head of state, but the head of the government of Iran. He is referred to as "president" in both the "Persian and English languages.

In non-Commonwealth countries the prime minister may be entitled to the style of "Excellency like a president. In some Commonwealth countries prime ministers and former prime ministers are styled "Right Honourable due to their position, for example in the "Prime Minister of Canada. In the United Kingdom the prime minister and former prime ministers may appear to also be styled "Right Honourable, however this is not due to their position as head of government but as a "privilege of being current members of "Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council.[14]

In the UK, where devolved government is in place, the leaders of the "Scottish, "Northern Irish and "Welsh Governments are styled "First Minister. Between 1921 and 1972, when Northern Ireland was a Majority Rule Parliament the head of government would be known as the "Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.In India, the Prime Minister is referred to as Pradhan Mantri, meaning "prime minister".["clarification needed] In Pakistan, the prime minister is referred to as Wazir-e-Azam, meaning "Grand Vizier".

Organisational structure[edit]

The Prime Minister's executive office is usually called the Office of the Prime Minister in the case of the Canada and other Commonwealth countries, it is called "Cabinet Office in United Kingdom. Some Prime Minister's office do include the role of Cabinet. In other countries, it is called the Prime Minister's Department or the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet as for Australia. In Israel, the Prime Minister's executive office is officially titled the "Prime Minister's Office" in English, but the original Hebrew term can also be translated as the Prime Minister's Ministry.

Description of the role[edit]

"Wilfried Martens, who served as Prime Minister of Belgium, described his role as follows:

First of all the Prime Minister must listen a lot, and when deep disagreements occur, he must suggest a solution to the matter. This can be done in different ways. Sometimes during the discussion, I note the elements of the problem and think of a proposal I can formulate to the Council (cabinet), the Secretary taking notes. The Ministers then insist on changing game ages. The Prime Minister can also make a proposal which leaves enough room for amendments in order to keep the current discussion on the right tracks. When a solution must be found in order to reach a consensus, he can force one or two Ministers to join or resign.["citation needed]

Lists of prime ministers[edit]

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Countries with prime ministers (blue) and those that formerly had that position (dark red).

The following table groups the list of past and present prime ministers and details information available in those lists.

Government List starts Parties
shown
Term given by
years or dates
Incumbent
"Abkhazia 1995 - dates "Beslan Bartsits
"Afghanistan 1927 - years "Abdullah Abdullah
"Albania ("List) 1912 - years "Edi Rama
"Algeria 1962 yes years "Ahmed Ouyahia
"Andorra 1982 - years "Antoni Martí
"Angola 1975 - dates (Post abolished)
"Anguilla 1976 yes dates "Victor Banks
"Antigua and Barbuda 1981 - years "Gaston Browne
"Argentina 1993 yes dates "Marcos Peña
"Armenia 1918 yes dates "Karen Karapetyan
"Aruba 1986 - dates "Mike Eman
"Australia ("List) 1901 yes dates "Malcolm Turnbull
"Austria 1918 yes years "Christian Kern
"Azerbaijan 1918 yes dates "Artur Rasizade
"Bahamas 1967 - dates "Hubert Minnis
"Bahrain 1970 - years "Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa
"Bangladesh 1971 yes dates "Sheikh Hasina
"Barbados 1954 yes dates "Freundel Stuart
"Belarus 1919 - dates "Andrei Kobyakov
"Belgium 1831 yes dates "Charles Michel
"Belize 1973 yes years "Dean Barrow
"Benin 1957 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Bermuda 1968 yes dates "Edward David Burt
"Bhutan 1952 - dates "Tshering Tobgay
"Bosnia and Herzegovina 1943 - dates "Denis Zvizdić
"Botswana 1965 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Brazil 1847 yes dates (Post abolished)
"British Virgin Islands 1967 yes dates "Orlando Smith
"Brunei 1984 no dates "Hassanal Bolkiah
"Bulgaria 1879 yes dates "Boyko Borisov
"Burkina Faso 1971 - dates "Paul Kaba Thieba
"Burundi 1961 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Cambodia 1945 - years "Hun Sen
"Cameroon 1960 - dates "Philémon Yang
"Canada ("List) 1867 yes dates "Justin Trudeau
"Cape Verde 1975 - dates "Ulisses Correia e Silva
"Cayman Islands 1992 yes dates "Alden McLaughlin
"Central African Republic 1958 - dates "Simplice Sarandji
"Chad 1978 - dates "Albert Pahimi Padacké
"People's Republic of China ("List) 1949 - dates "Li Keqiang
"Comoros 1957 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Congo (Brazzaville) 1957 yes dates "Clément Mouamba
"Congo (Kinshasa) ("List) 1960 yes dates "Bruno Tshibala
"Cook Islands 1965 yes dates "Henry Puna
"Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) 1957 yes dates "Amadou Gon Coulibaly
"Croatia 1939 - dates "Andrej Plenković
"Cuba 1940 - dates "Raúl Castro
"Curaçao 2010 - dates "Eugene Rhuggenaath
"Northern Cyprus 1983 yes dates "Hüseyin Özgürgün
"Czech Republic 1993 - years "Bohuslav Sobotka
"Denmark ("List) 1848 - years "Lars Løkke Rasmussen
"Djibouti 1977 - dates "Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed
"Dominica 1960 - dates "Roosevelt Skerrit
"East Timor 2002 - dates "Mari Alkatiri
"Egypt ("List) 1878 - years "Sherif Ismail
"Equatorial Guinea 1963 - dates "Francisco Pascual Obama Asue
"Estonia 1918 - dates "Jüri Ratas
"Ethiopia 1942 yes dates "Hailemariam Desalegn
"Faroe Islands 1946 - years "Aksel V. Johannesen
"Fiji 1966 - dates "Frank Bainimarama
"Finland 1917 yes years "Juha Sipilä
"France ("List) 1589 - years "Édouard Philippe
"Gabon 1957 yes dates "Emmanuel Issoze-Ngondet
"The Gambia 1961 - dates (Post abolished)
"Georgia 1918 yes dates "Giorgi Kvirikashvili
"Germany ("List) 1871/1949 yes dates "Angela Merkel
"Ghana 1957 - dates (Post abolished)
"Gibraltar 1964 yes dates "Fabian Picardo
"Greece ("List) 1833 - dates "Alexis Tsipras
"Greenland 1979 - years "Kim Kielsen
"Grenada 1954 - years "Keith Mitchell
"Guernsey 2007 - dates "Gavin St Pier
"Guinea 1972 - dates "Mamady Youla
"Guinea-Bissau 1973 - dates "Umaro Sissoco Embaló
"Guyana 1953 - dates "Moses Nagamootoo
"Haiti 1988 - dates "Jack Guy Lafontant
"Hungary ("List) 1848 - dates "Viktor Orbán
"Iceland 1904 - dates "Bjarni Benediktsson
"India ("List) 1947 yes dates "Narendra Modi
"Indonesia 1945 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Iran ("List) 1824 - years (Post abolished)
"Iraq 1920 - years "Haider al-Abadi
"Ireland 1937 yes dates "Leo Varadkar
"Israel ("List) 1948 - years "Benjamin Netanyahu
"Italy ("List) 1861 - years "Paolo Gentiloni
"Jamaica 1959 - years "Andrew Holness
"Japan ("List) 1885 - dates "Shinzō Abe
"Jersey 2005 - dates "Ian Gorst
"Jordan 1944 - dates "Hani Al-Mulki
"Kazakhstan 1920 - years "Bakhytzhan Sagintayev
"Kenya 1963 - dates (Post abolished)
"North Korea 1948 - years "Pak Pong-ju
"South Korea ("List) 1948 - years "Lee Nak-yeon
"Kosovo 1945 yes dates "Ramush Haradinaj
"Kuwait 1962 yes dates "Sheikh Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah
"Kyrgyzstan 1924 - dates "Sapar Isakov
"Laos 1941 - years "Thongloun Sisoulith
"Latvia 1918 yes dates "Māris Kučinskis
"Lebanon 1926 - dates "Saad Hariri
"Lesotho 1965 yes dates "Tom Thabane
"Libya 1951 - dates "Abdullah al-Thani / "Fayez al-Sarraj
"Liechtenstein 1921 yes dates "Adrian Hasler
"Lithuania 1918 yes dates "Saulius Skvernelis
"Luxembourg 1959 - years "Xavier Bettel
"Macedonia 1943 yes dates "Zoran Zaev
"Madagascar 1833 - dates "Olivier Mahafaly Solonandrasana
"Malawi 1963 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Malaysia 1957 yes years "Najib Razak
"Mali 1957 yes dates "Abdoulaye Idrissa Maïga
"Malta 1921 yes years "Joseph Muscat
"Isle of Man 1986 - years "Howard Quayle
"Mauritania 1957 yes dates "Yahya Ould Hademine
"Mauritius 1961 yes dates "Pravind Jugnauth
"Moldova 1990 - dates "Pavel Filip
"Monaco 1911 n/a dates "Serge Telle
"Mongolia 1912 yes dates "Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh
"Montenegro 1879 yes dates "Duško Marković
"Montserrat 1960 yes dates "Donaldson Romeo
"Morocco 1955 yes years "Saadeddine Othmani
"Mozambique 1974 yes dates "Carlos Agostinho do Rosário
"Myanmar (Burma) 1948 yes dates "Aung San Suu Kyi
"Nagorno-Karabakh 1992 no dates "Arayik Harutyunyan
"Namibia 1990 yes dates "Saara Kuugongelwa
"Nepal 1953 - dates "Sher Bahadur Deuba
"Netherlands ("List) 1848 yes dates "Mark Rutte
"New Zealand ("List) 1856 yes dates "Bill English
"Newfoundland 1855 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Niger 1958 yes dates "Brigi Rafini
"Nigeria 1960 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Niue 1974 - dates Sir "Toke Talagi
"Norfolk Island 1896 2015 dates (Post abolished)
"Norway 1814 yes years "Erna Solberg
"Pakistan ("List) 1947 yes dates "Shahid Khaqan Abbasi
"Palestinian National Authority 2003 yes dates "Rami Hamdallah
"Papua New Guinea 1975 yes years "Peter O'Neill
"Peru 1975 yes dates "Mercedes Aráoz
"Philippines 1899 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Poland ("List) 1918 - dates "Beata Szydło
"Portugal ("List) 1834 yes dates "António Costa
"Qatar 1970 - dates "Sheikh Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani
"Romania 1862 - years "Mihai Tudose
"Russia ("List) 1864/1905 yes dates "Dmitry Medvedev
"Rwanda 1960 yes dates "Édouard Ngirente
"Saint Kitts and Nevis 1960 - dates "Timothy Harris
"Saint Lucia 1960 - dates "Allen Chastanet
"Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1956 - dates "Ralph Gonsalves
"Samoa 1875 yes dates "Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi
"São Tomé and Principe 1974 yes dates "Patrice Trovoada
"Saudi Arabia 1953 no dates "Salman
"Senegal 1957 yes dates "Mohamed Dionne
"Serbia 1805 yes years "Ana Brnabić
"Seychelles 1970 yes years (Post abolished)
"Sierra Leone 1954 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Singapore 1959 - dates "Lee Hsien Loong
"Sint Maarten 2010 - dates "William Marlin
"Slovakia 1993 - dates "Robert Fico
"Slovenia 1943 yes years "Miro Cerar
"Solomon Islands 1949 yes dates "Manasseh Sogavare
"Somalia 1949 yes dates "Hassan Ali Khayre
"South Africa 1910 - dates (Post abolished)
"South Ossetia 1991 - dates "Domenty Kulumbegov
"Spain ("List) 1705 yes years "Mariano Rajoy
"Sri Lanka ("List) 1948 - dates "Ranil Wickremesinghe
"Sudan 1952 yes dates "Bakri Hassan Saleh
"Suriname 1949 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Swaziland 1967 - years "Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini
"Sweden ("List) 1876 yes years "Stefan Löfven
"Syria 1920 - dates "Imad Khamis
"Taiwan (Republic of China) ("List) 1911 - dates "William Lai
"Tajikistan 1924 - dates "Kokhir Rasulzoda
"Tanzania 1960 yes dates "Kassim Majaliwa
"Thailand ("List) 1932 yes dates "Prayut Chan-o-cha
"Togo 1956 yes dates "Komi Sélom Klassou
"Tokelau 1992 - dates "Siopili Perez
"Tonga 1876 - years "ʻAkilisi Pōhiva
"Transnistria 2012 yes dates "Aleksandr Martynov
"Trinidad and Tobago 1956 - dates "Keith Rowley
"Tunisia 1969 - dates "Youssef Chahed
"Turkey ("List) 1920 yes dates "Binali Yıldırım
"Turkmenistan 1924 - dates (Post abolished)
"Turks and Caicos Islands 1976 yes dates "Sharlene Cartwright-Robinson
"Tuvalu 1975 n/a dates "Enele Sopoaga
"Uganda 1961 yes dates "Ruhakana Rugunda
"Ukraine ("List) 1917 - dates "Volodymyr Groysman
"United Arab Emirates 1971 - years "Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
"United Kingdom ("List) 1721 yes dates "Theresa May
"Uruguay No List (post established 1919) - - (post abolished)
"Uzbekistan 1924 - dates "Abdulla Aripov
"Vanuatu 1980 yes dates "Charlot Salwai
"Vatican 1644 - years "Cardinal Pietro Parolin
"Vietnam 1976 yes dates "Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
"Yemen 1990 yes years "Ahmed Obeid bin Daghr
"Western Sahara 1976 no years "Abdelkader Taleb Oumar
"Zambia 1964 yes dates (Post abolished)
"Zimbabwe 1923 - dates (Post abolished)

See also[edit]

Lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ Contrary to popular perception, the two posts are separate and need not be held by the one person. The last prime minister not to be First Lord of the Treasury was Lord Salisbury at the turn of the 20th century. "10 Downing Street is actually the First Lord's residence, not the Prime Minister's. As Salisbury was not First Lord, he had to live elsewhere as prime minister.
  2. ^ Testament Politique du Cardinal Duc de Richelieu, Premier Ministre de France sous le Règne de Louïs XIII
  3. ^ Ancien Régime in Encyclopédie Larousse ("Après 1661, Louis XIV impose une nouvelle formule, qui joue à la fois sur les ministres et sur les conseils, sans accepter la primauté d'un ministre.")
  4. ^ "Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  5. ^ "Britain's unwritten constitution". British Library. Retrieved 27 November 2015. The key landmark is the Bill of Rights (1689), which established the supremacy of Parliament over the Crown.... The Bill of Rights (1689) then settled the primacy of Parliament over the monarch’s prerogatives, providing for the regular meeting of Parliament, free elections to the Commons, free speech in parliamentary debates, and some basic human rights, most famously freedom from ‘cruel or unusual punishment’. 
  6. ^ Dr Andrew Blick and Professor George Jones — No 10 guest historian series, Prime Ministers and No. 10 (1 January 2012). "The Institution of Prime Minister". Government of the United Kingdom: History of Government Blog. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  7. ^ Carter, Byrum E. (2015) [1955]. "The Historical Development of the Office of Prime Minister". Office of the Prime Minister. Princeton University Press. "ISBN "9781400878260. 
  8. ^ Seidle, F. Leslie; Docherty, David C. (2003). Reforming parliamentary democracy. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 3. "ISBN "9780773525085. 
  9. ^ Johnston, Douglas M.; Reisman, W. Michael (2008). The Historical Foundations of World Order. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 571. "ISBN "9047423933. 
  10. ^ Fieldhouse, David; Madden, Frederick (1990). Settler self-government, 1840-1900 : the development of representative and responsible government (1. publ. ed.). New York: Greenwood Press. p. xxi. "ISBN "9780313273261. 
  11. ^ Julian Go (2007). "A Globalizing Constitutionalism?, Views from the Postcolony, 1945-2000". In Arjomand, Saïd Amir. Constitutionalism and political reconstruction. Brill. pp. 92–94. "ISBN "9004151745. 
  12. ^ "How the Westminster Parliamentary System was exported around the World". University of Cambridge. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  13. ^ Although the roles of the Spanish head of government coincide with the definition of a 'prime minister', in Spain the position is in fact referred to as 'the Presidency of the Government'
  14. ^ "Privy Council Members". The Privy Council Office. Retrieved 19 Sep 2009. 

Further reading[edit]

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