|Established||December 1, 1971
(first document posted)
|Size||Over 54,600 documents|
|Website||Project Gutenberg Home Page
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Project Gutenberg (PG) is a "volunteer effort to "digitize and archive "cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of "eBooks". It was founded in 1971 by "Michael S. Hart and is the oldest "digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of "public domain "books. The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, "open formats that can be used on almost any computer. As of 3 October 2015[update], Project Gutenberg reached 50,000 items in its collection.
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Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the "United States Declaration of Independence. Hart, a student at the "University of Illinois, obtained access to a "Xerox Sigma V "mainframe computer in the university's Materials Research Lab. Through friendly operators, he received an account with a virtually unlimited amount of computer time; its value at that time has since been variously estimated at $100,000 or $100,000,000. Hart has said he wanted to "give back" this gift by doing something that could be considered to be of great value. His initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge, and to do so by the end of the 20th century.
This particular computer was one of the 15 "nodes on "ARPANET, the computer network that would become the "Internet. Hart believed that computers would one day be accessible to the general public and decided to make works of literature available in electronic form for free. He used a copy of the "United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, and this became the first Project Gutenberg "e-text. He named the project after "Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the "movable type "printing press revolution.
By the mid-1990s, Hart was running Project Gutenberg from "Illinois Benedictine College. More volunteers had joined the effort. All of the text was entered manually until 1989 when "image scanners and "optical character recognition software improved and became more widely available, which made "book scanning more feasible. Hart later came to an arrangement with "Carnegie Mellon University, which agreed to administer Project Gutenberg's finances. As the volume of e-texts increased, volunteers began to take over the project's day-to-day operations that Hart had run.
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Italian volunteer Pietro Di Miceli developed and administered the first Project Gutenberg website and started the development of the Project online Catalog. In his ten years in this role (1994–2004), the Project web pages won a number of awards, often being featured in "best of the Web" listings, and contributing to the project's popularity.
Hart died on 6 September 2011 at his home in Urbana, Illinois at the age of 64.
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In July 2007, a new edition of the DVD was released containing over 17,000 books, and in April 2010, a dual-layer DVD was released, containing nearly 30,000 items.
The majority of the DVDs, and all of the CDs mailed by the project, were recorded on recordable media by volunteers. However, the new dual layer DVDs were manufactured, as it proved more economical than having volunteers burn them. As of October 2010[update], the project has mailed approximately 40,000 discs.
As of August 2015[update], Project Gutenberg claimed over 54,600 items in its collection, with an average of over 50 new "e-books being added each week. These are primarily works of "literature from the "Western cultural tradition. In addition to literature such as novels, poetry, short stories and drama, Project Gutenberg also has "cookbooks, "reference works and issues of periodicals. The Project Gutenberg collection also has a few non-text items such as audio files and music-notation files.
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In March 2004, a new initiative was begun by Michael Hart and John S. Guagliardo to provide low-cost intellectual properties. The initial name for this project was Project Gutenberg 2 (PG II), which created controversy among PG volunteers because of the re-use of the project's trademarked name for a commercial venture.
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