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Demonstration against the President of Iran "Mahmoud Ahmadinejad during the "Rio+20 conference in "Brazil, June 2012
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March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
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A "working class political protest in "Greece calling for the boycott of a bookshop after an employee was fired, allegedly for her political activism
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"Anti-nuclear Power Plant Rally on 19 September 2011 at "Meiji Shrine complex in Tokyo. Sixty thousand people marched chanting "Sayonara nuclear power" and waving banners, to call on Japan's government to abandon nuclear power, following the "Fukushima nuclear disaster.[1]

A protest (also called a remonstrance, remonstration or demonstration) is an expression of bearing witness on behalf of an express cause by words or actions with regard to particular events, policies or situations. Protests can take many different forms, from individual statements to mass "demonstrations. Protesters may organize a protest as a way of publicly making their opinions heard in an attempt to influence "public opinion or "government policy, or they may undertake "direct action in an attempt to directly enact desired changes themselves.[2] Where protests are part of a systematic and peaceful campaign to achieve a particular objective, and involve the use of pressure as well as persuasion, they go beyond mere protest and may be better described as cases of "civil resistance or "nonviolent resistance.[3]

Various forms of self-expression and protest are sometimes restricted by "governmental policy (such as the requirement of "protest permits),[4] economic circumstances, religious orthodoxy, social structures, or "media "monopoly. One state reaction to protests is the use of "riot police. Observers have noted an increased "militarization of protest policing, with police deploying armored vehicles and snipers against the protesters. When such restrictions occur, protests may assume the form of open "civil disobedience, more subtle forms of resistance against the restrictions, or may spill over into other areas such as "culture and "emigration.

A protest itself may at times be the subject of a "counter-protest. In such a case, counter-protesters demonstrate their support for the person, "policy, action, etc. that is the subject of the original protest. In some cases, these protesters can violently clash.

Contents

Historical notions[edit]

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Protesters against "big government fill the West Lawn of the "U.S. Capitol and the "National Mall on September 12, 2009.
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An artist's depiction of a prototypical angry mob protesting with the threat of violence

Unaddressed protests may grow and widen into "civil resistance, "dissent, "activism, "riots, "insurgency, "revolts, and political and/or social "revolution. Some examples of protests include:

Forms[edit]

A protest can take many forms.[5] The Dynamics of Collective Action project and the Global Nonviolent Action Database [6] are two of the leading data collection efforts attempting to capture protest events. The [7] Dynamics of Collective Action project considers the repertoire of protest tactics (and their definitions) to include:

The Global Nonviolent Action database uses Gene Sharp's classification of 198 methods of nonviolent action. There is considerable overlap with the Dynamics of Collective Action repertoire, although the GNA repertoire includes more specific tactics. Together, the two projects help define tactics available to protesters and document instances of their use.

Typology[edit]

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March next to the "Benito Juárez Hemicycle; August 27, 1968. Mexico City.

Thomas Ratliff and Lori Hall[8] have devised a typology of six broad activity categories of the protest activities described in the Dynamics of Collective Action project.

Some forms of "direct action listed in this article are also "public demonstrations or rallies.

Written demonstration[edit]

Written evidence of political or economic power, or democratic justification may also be a way of protesting.

Civil disobedience demonstrations[edit]

Any protest could be "civil disobedience if a “ruling authority” says so, but the following are usually civil disobedience demonstrations:

As a residence[edit]

Destructive[edit]

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"Black bloc members spray graffiti during an "Iraq War Protest in Washington D.C.[15]

Non-destructive[edit]

Direct action[edit]

Against a government[edit]

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The "District of Columbia issues license plates protesting the ""taxation without representation" that occurs due to its "special status.

Against a military shipment[edit]

By government employees[edit]

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Protest in "Wisconsin State Capitol.

Job action[edit]

In sports[edit]

During a "sporting event, under certain circumstances, one side may choose to play a game "under protest", usually when they feel the rules are not being correctly applied. The event continues as normal, and the events causing the protest are reviewed after the fact. If the protest is held to be valid, then the results of the event are changed. Each sport has different rules for protests.

By management[edit]

By tenants[edit]

By consumers[edit]

Information[edit]

Civil disobedience to censorship[edit]

By Internet and social networking[edit]

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Protesters in "Zuccotti Park who are part of "Occupy Wall Street using the Internet to get out their message over social networking as events happen, September 2011

Blogging and social networking have become effective tools to register protest and grievances. Protests can express views, news and use viral networking to reach out to thousands of people. With protests on the rise from the election season of 2016 going into 2017, protestors became aware that using their social media during protest could make them an easier target for government surveillance.[18]

Literature, art and culture[edit]

Against religious or ideological institutions[edit]

Economic effects against companies[edit]

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Protest march in "Palmerston North, New Zealand.
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Protesters outside the "Oireachtas in "Dublin, "Republic of Ireland.

A study of 342 US protests covered by "The New York Times newspaper from 1962 to 1990 showed that such public activities usually affected the company's publicly traded "stock price. The most intriguing aspect of the study's findings revealed that the amount of media coverage the event received was of the most importance to this study. Stock prices fell an average of one-tenth of a percent for every paragraph printed about the event.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Thousands march against nuclear power in Tokyo". USA Today. September 2011. 
  2. ^ St. John Barned-Smith, "How We Rage: This Is Not Your Parents' Protest," Current (Winter 2007): 17-25.
  3. ^ "Adam Roberts, Introduction, in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 2-3, where a more comprehensive definition of "civil resistance" may be found.
  4. ^ Daniel L. Schofield, S.J.D. (November 1994). "Controlling Public Protest: First Amendment Implications". in the "FBI's "Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrieved 2009-12-16. 
  5. ^ Kruszewski, Brent Baldwin, Jackie. "Why They Keep Fighting: Richmond Protesters Explain Their Resistance to Trump's America". Style Weekly. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  6. ^ Global Nonviolent Action Database
  7. ^ Dynamics of Collective Action Project
  8. ^ Ratliff, Thomas (2014). "Practicing the Art of Dissent: Toward a Typology of Protest Activity in the United States". Humanity & Science. 38 (3): 268–294. 
  9. ^ Mcgrath, Ben (November 13, 2006). "Holy Rollers". 
  10. ^ "Critical Mass London". "Urban75. 2006. 
  11. ^ "Pittsburgh Critical Mass". 
  12. ^ "Critical Mass: Over 260 Arrested in First Major Protest of RNC". Democracy Now!. August 30, 2004. 
  13. ^ Seaton, Matt (October 26, 2005). "Critical crackdown". London: The Guardian. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  14. ^ Rosi-Kessel, Adam (August 24, 2004). "[*BCM*] Hong Kong Critical Mass News". 
  15. ^ https://www.flickr.com Image of black bloc members during Iraq War Protest in Washington, D.C., March 21, 2009.
  16. ^ D. Parvaz , Iran's Silent Protests
  17. ^ "Adam Roberts and "Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. "ISBN 978-0-19-955201-6.[1]
  18. ^ Newman, Lily Hay. "How to Use Social Media at a Protest Without Big Brother Snooping". WIRED. Retrieved 2017-02-09. 
  19. ^ "Deseret Morning News, 13 Nov. 2007 issue, p. E3, Coverage of protests hurts firms, Cornell-Y. study says, Angie Welling
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