Powered by
TTSReader
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia


Ptah
""Ptah standing.svg
Ptah, in the form of a mummified man, standing on the symbol for Ma'at, holding a scepter or staff that bears the combined ankh-djed-was symbols
Name in "hieroglyphs
p
t
H A40
Major cult center "Memphis
Symbol the "djed pillar, the bull
Consort "Sekhmet and "Bast
Offspring "Nefertem, "Maahes
Parents none (self-created or un-created)

In "Egyptian mythology, Ptah ("/pəˈtɑː/;[1] "Ancient Egyptian: ptḥ, probably vocalized as Pitaḥ in ancient Egyptian)[2] is the "demiurge of "Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects. In the triad of "Memphis, he is the spouse of "Sekhmet and the father of "Nefertum. He was also regarded as the father of the sage "Imhotep.

Contents

Origin and symbolism[edit]

""
""
Statue of Ptah - "Egyptian Museum of Turin

Ptah is an Egyptian "deity and considered the "demiurge who existed before all other things and, by his will, thought the world into existence. It was first conceived by Thought, and realized by the Word: Ptah conceives the world by the thought of his heart and gives life through the magic of his Word. That which Ptah commanded was created, with which the constituents of nature, fauna, and flora, are contained. He also plays a role in the preservation of the world and the permanence of the royal function.

In the "Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, the "Nubian pharaoh "Shabaka would transcribe on a "stela known as the "Shabaka Stone, an old theological document found in the archives of the library of the temple of the god at Memphis. This document has been known as the Memphite Theology, and shows the god Ptah, the deity responsible for the creation of the universe by thought and by the word.

Ptah is the patron of craftsmanship, metalworking, carpenters, shipbuilders, and sculpture. From the "Middle Kingdom onwards, he was one of five major Egyptian deities with "Ra, "Isis, "Osiris and "Amun.

He bears many "epithets that describe his role in "ancient Egyptian religion and its importance in society at the time:

Representations and hypostases[edit]

Like many deities of "ancient Egypt he takes many forms, through one of his particular aspects or through "syncretism of ancient deities of the Memphite region. Sometimes represented as a dwarf, naked and deformed, his popularity would continue to grow during the "Late Period. Frequently associated with the god "Bes, his worship then exceeded the borders of the country and was exported throughout the eastern "Mediterranean. Through dissemination by the "Phoenicians, we find figures of Ptah in "Carthage.

Ptah is generally represented in the guise of a man with green skin, contained in a shroud sticking to the skin, wearing the divine beard, and holding a sceptre combining three powerful symbols of ancient Egyptian religion:

These three combined symbols indicate the three creative powers of the god: power (was), life (ankh) and stability (djed).

""
""
"Stucco relief of Ptah holding a staff that bears the combined ankh and djed symbols, "Late Period or "Ptolemaic Dynasty, 4th to 3rd century BC

From the "Old Kingdom, he quickly absorbs the appearance of "Sokar and "Tatenen, ancient deities of the Memphite region. His form of Sokar is found contained in its white shroud wearing the "Atef crown, an attribute of Osiris. In this capacity, he represents the patron deity of the necropolis of "Saqqara and other famous sites where the royal pyramids were built. Gradually he formed with Osiris a new deity called Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. Systematically, statuettes representing the human form, half-human, half-hawk, or simply in its falcon form of the new deity, began to be placed in tombs to accompany and protect the dead on their journey to the West.

His Tatenen form is represented by a young and vigorous man wearing a crown with two tall plumes that surround the solar disk. He thus embodies the underground fire that rumbles and raises the earth. As such, he was particularly revered by metalworkers and blacksmiths, but he was equally feared because it was he who caused earthquakes and tremors of the earth's crust. In this form also, Ptah is the master of ceremonies for "Heb Sed, a ceremony traditionally attesting to the first thirty years of the pharaoh's reign.

The god Ptah could correspond with the sun deities "Re or "Aten during the "Amarna period, where he embodied the divine essence with which the sun god was fed to come into existence, that is to say to be born, according to the Memphite mythological/theological texts. In the holy of holies of his "temple in Memphis, as well as in his great sacred boat, he drove in procession to regularly visit the region during major holidays. Ptah was also symbolized by two birds with human heads adorned with solar disks, symbols of the souls of the god Re: the "Ba. The two Ba are identified as the twin gods "Shu and "Tefnut and are associated with the djed pillar of Memphis.[3]

Finally, Ptah is embodied in the sacred bull, "Apis. Frequently referred to as a herald of Re, the sacred animal is the link with the god "Re from the "New Kingdom. He even received worship in Memphis, probably at the heart of the great temple of Ptah, and upon the death of the animal, was buried with all the honours due to a living deity in the "Serapeum of Saqqara.

""
""
Pooh, Phoh, Loh (Lunus, le dieu-Lune, Sélène), N372.2, "Brooklyn Museum

Development of the cult[edit]

""
""
Colossal statue of the god Ptah-Tatenen holding hands with "Ramses II found at Memphis - "Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, "Copenhagen

As god of craftsmen, the "cult of the god Ptah quickly spread throughout Egypt. With the major royal projects of the Old Kingdom, the "high priests of Ptah were particularly sought after and worked in concert with the "vizier, filling the role of chief architect and master craftsman, responsible for the decoration of the royal funerary complexes.

In the New Kingdom, the cult of the god would develop in different ways, especially in Memphis, his homeland, but also in "Thebes, where the workers of the royal tomb honoured him as patron of craftsmen. For this reason, the oratory of Ptah who listens to prayers was built near the site of "Deir el-Medina, the village where the workers and craftsmen were housed. At Memphis, the role of intercessor with humans was particularly visible in the appearance of the enclosure that protected the sanctuary of the god. Large ears were carved on the walls, symbolizing his role as god who listens to prayers.

With the "Nineteenth Dynasty, his cult grew and he became one of the four great deities of the empire of Ramses. He was worshipped at "Pi-Ramesses as master of ceremonies and coronations.

With the "Third Intermediate Period, Ptah returned to the centre of the monarchy where the coronation of the "Pharaoh was held again in his temple. The "Ptolemies continued this tradition, and the high priests of Ptah were then increasingly associated with the royal family, with some even marrying princesses of royal blood, clearly indicating the prominent role they played in the Ptolemaic court.

Main places of worship[edit]

Temple dedicated to Location
Ptah "Pi-Ramses
Ptah "Memphis
Ptah who listens to prayers Memphis
Ptah who is south of his Wall Memphis
Ptah-Sokar "Abydos
Ptah-Sokar "Kom el-Hettan ("Thebes)
Ptah who listens to prayers "Deir el-Medina (Thebes)
Ptah "Karnak (Thebes)
Ptah "Gerf Hussein ("Nubia)
Ptah lord of truth "Abu Simbel (Nubia)

Photographs[edit]

Legacy[edit]

The English name "Egypt derives from an ancient Egyptian name for "Memphis, Hikuptah, which means "Home of the Soul of Ptah". This word entered "Ancient Greek as Αἴγυπτος (Aiguptos), which entered "Latin as Aegyptus, and which developed into English as, Egypt.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ptah" in the American Heritage Dictionary Archived 2012-10-25 at the "Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Ancient Egyptian, a linguistic introduction, pg 34
  3. ^ Cf. J. Berlandini, Contribution à l'étude du pilier-djed memphite, p.23-33 et pl. 1 A & pl. 2 A

Literature[edit]

) ) WikipediaAudio is not affiliated with Wikipedia or the WikiMedia Foundation.