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The terms radical centrism, radical center (or radical centre), and radical middle refer to a "political philosophy that arose in the Western nations, predominantly the "United States and the "United Kingdom, in the late 20th century. At first it was defined in a variety of ways, but at the beginning of the 21st century a number of texts and "think tanks gave the philosophy a more developed cast.[1][2]

The "radical" in the term refers to a willingness on the part of most radical centrists to call for fundamental reform of institutions.[3] The "centrism" refers to a belief that genuine solutions require realism and "pragmatism, not just idealism and emotion.[4] Thus one radical centrist text defines radical centrism as ""idealism without "illusions",[5] a phrase originally from "John F. Kennedy.[6]

Most radical centrists borrow what they see as good ideas from "left, "right, and wherever else they may be found, often melding them together.[1] Most support "market-based solutions to "social problems with strong governmental oversight in the "public interest.[7] There is support for increased global engagement and the growth of an empowered "middle class in "developing countries.[8] Many radical centrists work within the major political parties, but also support "independent or "third-party initiatives and candidacies.[9]

Criticism of radical centrist policies and strategies has mounted as the political philosophy has developed. One common criticism is that radical centrist policies are only marginally different from conventional "centrist policies.[10] Another criticism is that the radical centrist penchant for third parties is naive and self-defeating.[10] Some observers see radical centrism as primarily a process of catalyzing dialogue and fresh thinking among polarized people and groups.[11]


Influences and precursors[edit]

Some influences on radical centrist political philosophy are not directly political. "Robert C. Solomon, a philosopher with radical-centrist interests,[12] identifies a number of philosophical concepts supporting balance, reconciliation, or synthesis, including "Confucius's concept of "ren, "Aristotle's concept of the "mean, "Erasmus's and "Montaigne's humanism, "Vico's evolutionary vision of history, "William James's and "John Dewey's pragmatism,[nb 1] and "Aurobindo Ghose's integration of opposites.[14][nb 2]

""Woman in glasses waving documents in air.
Urban theorist and activist "Jane Jacobs (1916–2006) in 1961. She has been described as "proto-radical middle".[16]

However, most commonly cited influences and precursors are from the political realm. For example, British radical-centrist politician "Nick Clegg considers himself an heir to political theorist "John Stuart Mill, former Liberal Prime Minister "David Lloyd George, economist "John Maynard Keynes, social reformer "William Beveridge, and former Liberal Party leader "Jo Grimond.[17] In his book Independent Nation (2004), "John Avlon discusses precursors of 21st-century U.S. political centrism, including President "Theodore Roosevelt, Supreme Court Justice "Earl Warren, Senator "Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Senator "Margaret Chase Smith, and African-American Senator "Edward W. Brooke.[18] Radical centrist writer "Mark Satin points to political influences from outside the electoral arena, including "communitarian thinker "Amitai Etzioni, magazine publisher "Charles Peters, management theorist "Peter Drucker, city planning theorist "Jane Jacobs, and futurists "Heidi and Alvin Toffler.[19][nb 3] Satin calls "Benjamin Franklin the radical middle's favorite Founding Father since he was "extraordinarily practical", "extraordinarily creative", and managed to "get the warring factions and wounded egos [at the U.S. Constitutional Convention] to transcend their differences".[22]

Late 20th century groundwork[edit]

Initial definitions[edit]

One of the first uses of the term "radical middle" in a political context came in 1962, when cartoonist "Jules Feiffer employed it to mock what he saw as the timid and pretentious outlook of the American political class.[23][24][nb 4] One of the first people to develop a positive definition was "Renata Adler, a staff writer for "The New Yorker. In the introduction to her second collection of essays, Toward a Radical Middle (1969), she presented radical centrism as a healing radicalism.[26] It rejected the violent posturing and rhetoric of the 1960s, she said, in favor of such "corny" values as "reason, decency, prosperity, human dignity, [and human] contact".[27] She called for the "reconciliation" of the white working class and "African-Americans.[27]

In the 1970s, sociologist Donald I. Warren described the radical center as consisting of those "middle American radicals" who were suspicious of big government, the national media, and academics, as well as rich people and predatory corporations. Although they might vote for Democrats or Republicans, or for populists like "George Wallace, they felt politically homeless and were looking for leaders who would address their concerns.[28][nb 5]

Former "Independence Party of Minnesota Governor "Jesse Ventura helped define radical centrism in the 1990s.[30]

In the 1980s and 1990s, several authors contributed their understandings to the concept of the radical center. For example, futurist "Marilyn Ferguson added a "holistic dimension to the concept when she said, "[The] Radical Center ... is not neutral, not middle-of-the-road, but a view of the whole road".[31][nb 6] Sociologist "Alan Wolfe located the creative part of the political spectrum at the center: "The extremes of right and left know where they stand, while the center furnishes what is original and unexpected."[33] African-American theorist "Stanley Crouch upset many political thinkers when he pronounced himself a "radical pragmatist".[34] He explained, "I affirm whatever I think has the best chance of working, of being both inspirational and unsentimental, of reasoning across the categories of false division and beyond the decoy of race".[35]

In the 1990s, political independents "Jesse Ventura, "Angus King, and "Lowell Weicker became governors of American states. According to John Avlon, they pioneered the combination of fiscal prudence and social tolerance that has served as a model for radical centrist governance ever since.[30] They also developed a characteristic style, a combination of "common sense and maverick appeal".[36][nb 7]

In his influential[39] 1995 "Newsweek cover story, "Stalking the Radical Middle", journalist "Joe Klein described radical centrists as angrier and more frustrated than conventional Democrats and Republicans. He said they share four broad goals: getting money out of politics, balancing the budget, restoring civility, and figuring out how to run government better. He also said their concerns were fueling "what is becoming a significant intellectual movement, nothing less than an attempt to replace the traditional notions of liberalism and conservatism".[40] [nb 8] [nb 9]

Relations to "Third Way"[edit]

In 1998, British sociologist "Anthony Giddens claimed that the radical center is synonymous with the "Third Way.[44] For Giddens, an advisor to former "British Prime Minister "Tony Blair, and for many other European political actors, the Third Way is a reconstituted form of "social democracy.[38][45]

Some radical centrist thinkers do not equate radical centrism with the Third Way. In Britain, many do not see themselves as social democrats. Most prominently, British radical-centrist politician "Nick Clegg has made it clear he does not consider himself an heir to Tony Blair,[17] and "Richard Reeves, Clegg's longtime advisor, emphatically rejects social democracy.[46]

In the United States, the situation is different because the term Third Way was adopted by the "Democratic Leadership Council and other moderate Democrats.[47] However, most U.S. radical centrists also avoid the term. Ted Halstead and Michael Lind's introduction to radical centrist politics fails to mention it,[48] and Lind subsequently accused the organized moderate Democrats of siding with the "center-right" and "Wall Street.[29] Radical centrists have expressed dismay with what they see as "split[ting] the difference",[40] ""triangulation",[29][49] and other supposed practices of what some of them call the "mushy middle".[50][51][nb 10]

Twenty-first century overviews[edit]

"Michael Lind (left) and "Ted Halstead (right) were co-authors of the book The Radical Center: The Future of American Politics (2001).[52]
Early-21st-century radical centrist authors included former Green activist "Mark Satin (left) and former Republican activist "John Avlon (right).

The first years of the 21st century saw publication of four introductions to radical centrist politics: "Ted Halstead and "Michael Lind's The Radical Center (2001), "Matthew Miller's The Two Percent Solution (2003), "John Avlon's Independent Nation (2004), and "Mark Satin's Radical Middle (2004).[53][54] These books attempted to take the concept of radical centrism beyond the stage of "cautious gestures"[55] and journalistic observation and define it as a political philosophy.[1][2]

The authors came to their task from diverse political backgrounds: Avlon had been a speechwriter for New York Republican Mayor "Rudolph Giuliani;[56] Miller had been a business consultant before serving in President "Bill Clinton's budget office;[57] Lind had been an exponent of "Harry Truman-style "national liberalism";[58] Halstead had run a think tank called Redefining Progress;[59] and Satin had co-drafted the "U.S. Green Party's foundational political statement, "Ten Key Values".[60] There is, however, a "generational bond: all these authors were between 31 and 41 years of age when their books were published (except for Satin, who was nearing 60).

While the four books do not speak with one voice, among them they express assumptions, analyses, policies, and strategies that helped set the parameters for radical centrism as a 21st-century political philosophy:



Policies (in general)[edit]

"Matthew Miller wrote The Two Percent Solution: Fixing America's Problems in Ways Liberals and Conservatives Can Love (2003).[78]


Idea creation and dissemination[edit]

Along with publication of the four overviews of radical centrist politics, the first part of the 21st century saw a rise in the creation and dissemination of radical centrist "policy ideas.[1][2]

Think tanks and mass media[edit]

""Four people seated at a panel discussion.
Panel discussion at the "New America think tank, Washington, D.C., 2015.

Several "think tanks are developing radical centrist ideas more thoroughly than was done in the overview books. Among them are "Demos, in Britain; the "Cape York Institute for Policy and Leadership, in Australia; and "New America (formerly the New America Foundation) in the United States. New America was started by authors "Ted Halstead and "Michael Lind, and two others, to bring radical centrist ideas to Washington, D.C. journalists and policy researchers.[59][nb 12]

A radical centrist perspective can also be found in major periodicals. In the United States, for example, "The Washington Monthly was started by early radical centrist thinker "Charles Peters,[103][104][nb 13] and many large-circulation magazines publish articles by New America fellows.[106] Columnists who write from a radical centrist perspective include "John Avlon at "The Daily Beast,[107] "Thomas Friedman at "The New York Times,[108] "Joe Klein at "Time magazine,[109] and "Matthew Miller at "The Washington Post.[110] Prominent journalists "James Fallows and "Fareed Zakaria have been identified as radical centrist.[1]

In Britain, the news magazine "The Economist positions itself as radical centrist. An editorial ("leader") in 2012 declared, in bolded type, "A new form of radical centrist politics is needed to tackle inequality without hurting economic growth."[111] An essay on "The Economist 's website the following year, introduced by the editor, argues that the magazine had always "com[e] ... from what we like to call the radical centre".[112]

Books on specific topics[edit]

""Young man on swivel chair before huge global map.
"Parag Khanna speaks on his book How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance (2011).[113]

Many books are offering radical centrist perspectives and policy proposals on specific topics. Some examples:

Foreign policy. In Ethical Realism (2006), British liberal "Anatol Lieven and U.S. conservative "John Hulsman advocate a foreign policy based on modesty, principle, and seeing ourselves as others see us.[114]

Environmentalism. In Break Through (2007), environmental strategists "Ted Nordhaus and "Michael Shellenberger of the "Breakthrough Institute call on activists to become more comfortable with pragmatism, high-technology, and aspirations for human greatness.[115]

Underachievement among minorities. In Winning the Race (2005), linguist "John McWhorter says that many "African Americans are negatively affected by a cultural phenomenon he calls "therapeutic alienation".[116]

Economics. In The Origin of Wealth (2006), Eric Beinhocker of the "Institute for New Economic Thinking portrays the economy as a dynamic but imperfectly self-regulating evolutionary system, and suggests policies that could support benign socio-economic evolution.[117]

International relations. In How to Run the World (2011), scholar "Parag Khanna argues that the emerging "world order should not be run from the top down, but by a galaxy of "nonprofit, nation-state, corporate, and individual actors cooperating for their mutual benefit.[113]

Defining others as enemies. In The Righteous Mind (2012), psychologist "Jonathan Haidt attempts to explain "why good people are divided by politics and religion".[118]

Political organizing. In Voice of the People (2008), conservative activist "Lawrence Chickering and liberal attorney James Turner attempt to lay the groundwork for a grassroots ""transpartisan" movement across the U.S.[119]

What one person can do. In his memoir Radical Middle: Confessions of an Accidental Revolutionary (2010), South African journalist "Denis Beckett tries to show that one person can make a difference in a situation many might regard as hopeless.[120]

Ideas into action[edit]

Ross Perot[edit]

Some commentators identify "Ross Perot's 1992 U.S. Presidential campaign as the first radical middle national campaign.[40][121] However, many radical centrist authors are not enthusiastic about "Ross Perot. Matthew Miller acknowledges that Perot had enough principle to support a gasoline tax hike,[122] Halstead and Lind note that he popularized the idea of balancing the budget,[123] and John Avlon says he crystallized popular distrust of partisan extremes.[124] But none of those authors examines Perot's ideas or campaigns in depth, and Mark Satin does not mention Perot at all.

Joe Klein mocks one of Perot's campaign gaffes and says he was not a sufficiently substantial figure.[40] Miller characterizes Perot as a rich, self-financed lone wolf.[125] By contrast, what most radical centrists say they want in political action terms is the building of a grounded political movement.[126][127]

By the decade of the 2010s, radical centrists were engaged in a variety of actions in the English-speaking nations:


In the 2010s, advocates of radical centrism included "Aboriginal Australian leader "Noel Pearson (left) and British politician "Nick Clegg.

Following the 2010 election, "Nick Clegg, then leader of the "Liberal Democrats (Britain's third-largest party at the time), had his party enter into a "Conservative – Liberal Democrat coalition agreement to form a majority government.[128] In a speech to party members in the spring of 2011, Clegg declared that he considers himself and his party to be radical centrist:

For the left, an obsession with the state. For the right, a worship of the market. But as liberals, we place our faith in people. People with power and opportunity in their hands. Our opponents try to divide us with their outdated labels of left and right. But we are not on the left and we are not on the right. We have our own label: Liberal. We are liberals and we own the freehold to the centre ground of British politics. Our politics is the politics of the radical centre.[129]

In the autumn of 2012, Clegg's longtime policy advisor elaborated on the differences between Clegg's identity as a "radical liberal" and traditional "social democracy.[46]


In Australia, "Aboriginal lawyer "Noel Pearson is building an explicitly radical centrist movement among Aborigines.[130] The movement is seeking more assistance from the Australian state, but is also seeking to convince individual Aborigines to take more responsibility for their lives.[131]

United States[edit]

In the U.S., the radical centrist movement is being played out in the national media. In 2010, for example, The New York Times columnist "Thomas Friedman called for "a "Tea Party of the radical center", an organized national pressure group.[132] At The Washington Post, columnist "Matthew Miller was explaining "Why we need a third party of (radical) centrists".[133][nb 14]

""Round black seal with green and white lettering.
Insignia of the "No Labels organization.

In 2011 Friedman championed "Americans Elect, an insurgent group of radical centrist Democrats, Republicans and independents who were hoping to run an independent Presidential candidate in 2012.[108] Meanwhile, Miller offered "The third-party stump speech we need".[137] In his book The Price of Civilization (2011), "Columbia University economist "Jeffrey Sachs called for the creation of a third U.S. party, an "Alliance for the Radical Center".[138]

While no independent radical-centrist Presidential candidate emerged in 2012, John Avlon emphasized the fact that independent voters remain the fastest-growing portion of the electorate.[107]

In late 2015, the "No Labels organization, co-founded by Avlon,[139] called a national "Problem Solver" convention to discuss how to best reduce political polarization and promote political solutions that could bridge the left-right divide.[140] A lengthy article in The Atlantic about the convention conveys the views of leaders of a new generation of beyond-left-and-right (or both-left-and-right) organizations, including "Joan Blades of Living Room Conversations, "David Blankenhorn of Better Angels, "Carolyn Lukensmeyer of the National Institute for Civil Discourse, and "Steve McIntosh of the Institute for Cultural Evolution.[140] Following the 2016 Presidential election, prominent U.S. commentator "David Brooks praised No Labels and other such groups and offered them advice, including this: "deepen a positive national vision that is not merely a positioning between left and right".[141]

Beyond the English-speaking nations[edit]

""Woman and man in intense conversation at conference table.
Chile's "Michelle Bachelet and Brazil's "Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva: the radical center in South America.

Explicitly radical centrist ideas and activities are largely confined to majority-English-speaking nations. However, analogous political perspectives are arising in other parts of the world.

In India, for example, there is interest in an outlook sometimes called ""socio-capitalism".[142] In China, ""New Confucianism" is making an appearance.[143][144] In Latin America, people speak of a "new pragmatism" pioneered by leaders like Brazil's "Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Chile's "Ricardo Lagos and "Michelle Bachelet, despite the left-wing position of their own parties.[145][146]

Zack Taylor, conflict specialist for Europe and the "Commonwealth of Independent States at the "United Nations Development Programme, is convinced that inequality, elitism, corruption, and cronyism are pushing many middle class Eurasians toward "constitutional liberalism" – which Taylor calls the "radical middle".[147]


Even before the 21st century, some observers were speaking out against what they saw as radical centrism.[nb 15] In 1998, for example, Belgian political theorist "Chantal Mouffe argued that passionate and often bitter conflict between left and right is a necessary feature of any "democracy.[149][nb 16]

Objections to ideas and attitudes[edit]

Some 21st century commentators argue that radical centrist ideas are not substantially different from conventional "centrist ideas.[10][151] For example, U.S. economist "Robert Kuttner says there already is a radical centrist party – "It's called the Democrats".[152] Social theorist "Richard Kahlenberg says that "Ted Halstead and "Michael Lind's book Radical Center, in particular, is too skeptical about the virtues of "labor unions, and too ardent about the virtues of the market.[153]

In 2001, media critic "Eric Alterman said that "New America Foundation was not liberal nor a progressive think tank and did not know what it was.[59]

Some think radical centrist ideas are too different from current policies. "Sam Tanenhaus the editor of "The New York Times Book Review called the proposals in Halstead and Lind's book "utopian".[2] According to Ed Kilgore, the policy director of the "Democratic Leadership Council, "Mark Satin's Radical Middle book "ultimately places him in the sturdy tradition of 'idealistic' American reformers who think smart and principled people unencumbered by political constraints can change everything".[151]

Political analyst "James Joyner does not think U.S. states that have adopted "non-partisan "redistricting commissions, a favorite radical-centrist proposal, have adopted more fiscally responsible measures than have states without such commissions.[154]

""Thomas Friedman in suit clasping hands below chin.
"Thomas Friedman's columns supporting radical centrism are a favorite target for "bloggers.[10]

Radical centrist attitudes have also been criticized. For example, many "bloggers have characterized "Thomas Friedman's columns on radical centrism as elitist and glib.[10]

Objections to strategies[edit]

Some observers question the wisdom of seeking consensus, "post-partisanship, or reconciliation in political life.[10] Political scientist Jonathan Bernstein argues that American democratic theory from the time of "James Madison's "Federalist No. 10 (1787) has been based on the acknowledgement of faction and the airing of debate, and he sees no reason to change now.[10]

Other observers feel radical centrists are misreading the political situation. For example, conservative journalist "Ramesh Ponnuru says liberals and conservatives are not ideologically opposed to such radical centrist measures as limiting entitlements and raising taxes to cover national expenditures. Instead, voters are opposed to them, and things will change when voters can be convinced otherwise.[155]

The third-party strategy favored by many U.S. radical centrists has been criticized as impractical and diversionary. According to these critics, what is needed instead is (a) reform of the legislative process, and (b) candidates in existing political parties who will support radical centrist ideas.[10] The specific third-party vehicle favored by many U.S. radical centrists in 2012 – "Americans Elect [156] – was criticized as an "elite-driven party"[10] supported by a "dubious group of Wall Street multi-millionaires".[152]

After spending time with a variety of radical centrists, journalist Alec MacGillis concluded that their perspectives are so disparate that they could never come together to build a viable political organization.[157]

Internal concerns[edit]

Some radical centrists are less than sanguine about their future. One concern is co-optation. For example, "Michael Lind worries that the enthusiasm for the term radical center, on the part of "arbiters of the conventional wisdom", may signal a weakening of the radical vision implied by the term.[29]

Another concern is passion. "John Avlon fears that some centrists cannot resist the lure of passionate partisans, whom he calls ""wingnuts".[158] By contrast, "Mark Satin worries that radical centrism, while "thoroughly sensible", lacks an "animating passion" – and claims there has never been a successful political movement without one.[159]

Radical centrism as dialogue and process[edit]

""Dozens of people talking at tables in a large room.
"AmericaSpeaks event, 2011. Some organizations are catalyzing dialogues and fresh thinking among often polarized people and groups.

Some radical centrists, such as "mediator Mark Gerzon[160] and activist "Joseph F. McCormick, see radical centrism as primarily a commitment to process.[67][161] Their approach is to facilitate processes of "structured dialogue among polarized people and groups, from the neighborhood level on up.[67][162] A major goal is to enable dialogue participants to come up with new perspectives and solutions that can address every party's core interests.[67][163] Onward Christian Athletes author Tom Krattenmaker speaks of the radical center as that (metaphoric) space where such dialogue and innovation can occur.[11]

Organizations seeking to catalyze dialogue and innovation among diverse people and groups have included "AmericaSpeaks, "National Issues Forums, "Search for Common Ground, and "Sustained Dialogue Institute; conversational processes include "Nonviolent Communication and "World Café. The city of "Portland, Oregon, has been characterized as "radical middle" in "USA Today newspaper because many formerly antagonistic groups there are said to be talking to, learning from, and working with one another.[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ For an extended discussion of neoclassical American pragmatism and its possible political implications, see "Louis Menand's book "The Metaphysical Club.[13]
  2. ^ An international evangelical movement, the "Association of Vineyard Churches, describes itself as "radical middle" because it believes that spiritual truth is found by holding supposedly contradictory concepts in tension. Examples include head vs. heart, planning vs. being Spirit-led, and standing for truth vs. standing for Unity.[15]
  3. ^ In the 1980s, Satin's own Washington, D.C.-based political newsletter, New Options, described itself as "post-liberal".[20] Culture critic Annie Gottlieb says it urged the "New Left and "New Age to "evolve into a 'New Center'".[21]
  4. ^ According to journalist "John Judis, the first person to employ the term "radical centrism" was an American sociologist, "Seymour Martin Lipset, who used it in his book Political Man (1960) to help explain European fascism.[25]
  5. ^ Warren's book influenccd "Michael Lind and other 21st century radical centrists.[2][29]
  6. ^ Two years later, another prominent futurist, "John Naisbitt, wrote in bolded type, "The political left and right are dead; all the action is being generated by a radical center" .[32]
  7. ^ By the end of the 20th century, some "mainstream politicians were cloaking themselves in the language of the radical center. For example, in 1996 former U.S. Defense Secretary "Elliot Richardson stated, "I am a moderate – a radical moderate. I believe profoundly in the ultimate value of human dignity and equality".[37] At a conference in Berlin, Canadian Prime Minister "Jean Chrétien declared, "I am the radical center".[38]
  8. ^ Subsequent to Klein's article, some political writers posited the existence of two radical centers, one neopopulist and bitter and the other moderate and comfortable.[25][41] According to historian "Sam Tanenhaus, one of the strengths of "Ted Halstead and "Michael Lind's book The Radical Center (2001) is it attempts to weld the two supposed radical-centrist factions together.[2]
  9. ^ A 1991 story in Time magazine with a similar title, "Looking for The Radical Middle", revealed the existence of a "New Paradigm Society" in Washington, D.C., a group of high-level liberal and conservative activists seeking ways to bridge the ideological divide.[42] The article discusses what it describes as the group's virtual manifesto, "E. J. Dionne's book Why Americans Hate Politics.[43]
  10. ^ In 2010, radical centrist Michael Lind stated that "to date, "President Obama has been the soft-spoken tribune of the mushy middle".[29]
  11. ^ Matthew Miller added an "Afterword" to the paperback edition of his book favoring formation of a "transformational third party" by the year 2010, if the two major parties remained stuck in their ways.[100]
  12. ^ Besides Halstead and Lind, thinkers affiliated with the New America Foundation in the early 2000s included "Katherine Boo, "Steven Clemons, "James Fallows, "Maya MacGuineas, "Walter Russell Mead, "James Pinkerton, "Jedediah Purdy, and Sherle Schwenninger.[59][102]
  13. ^ Peters used the term "neoliberal" to distinguish his ideas from those of "neoconservatives and conventional liberals. His version of neoliberalism is separate from what came to be known internationally as "neoliberalism.[104][105]
  14. ^ In 2009, on "The Huffington Post website, the president of The Future 500[134] – following up on his earlier endorsement of the "radical middle"[135] – made the case for a ""transpartisan" alliance between left and right.[136]
  15. ^ In 1967, a novella by science fiction writer "Mack Reynolds portrayed a conspiracy of powerful men that called itself the "Radical Center". They planned to take over the government by spreading an anything-goes morality that would make citizens selfish, apathetic, and non-judgmental.[148]
  16. ^ Mouffe also criticized radical centrism for its "New Age rhetorical flourish".[150]


  1. ^ a b c d e Olson, Robert (January–February 2005). "The Rise of 'Radical Middle' Politics". The Futurist, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 45–47. Publication of the "World Future Society.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Tanenhaus, Sam (14 April 2010). "The Radical Center: The History of an Idea". The New York Times Book Review. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  3. ^ Halstead, Ted; Lind, Michael (2001). The Radical Center: The Future of American Politics. Doubleday / Random House, p. 16. "ISBN 978-0-385-50045-6.
  4. ^ a b c Avlon, John (2004). Independent Nation: How the Vital Center Is Changing American Politics. Harmony Books / Random House, p. 2. "ISBN 978-1-4000-5023-9.
  5. ^ Satin, Mark (2004). Radical Middle: The Politics We Need Now. Westview Press and Basic Books, p. 5. "ISBN 978-0-8133-4190-3.
  6. ^ Avlon (2004), p. 109.
  7. ^ a b Miller, Matthew (2003). The Two Percent Solution: Fixing America's Problems in Ways Liberals and Conservatives Can Love. Public Affairs / Perseus Books Group. p. 71. "ISBN 978-1-58648-158-2.
  8. ^ a b Halstead, Ted, ed.(2004). The Real State of the Union: From the Best Minds in America, Bold Solutions to the Problems Politicians Dare Not Address. Basic Books, Chaps. 27–31. "ISBN 978-0-465-05052-9.
  9. ^ a b Avlon (2004), Part 4.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Marx, Greg (25 July 2011). "Tom Friedman's 'Radical' Wrongness". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  11. ^ a b c Krattenmaker, Tom (27 December 2012). "Welcome to the 'Radical Middle'". USA Today newspaper. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  12. ^ Solomon, Robert C. (2003). A Better Way to Think About Business: How Personal Integrity Leads to Corporate Success. Oxford University Press. "ISBN 978-0-19-538315-7.
  13. ^ Menand, Louis (2001). The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, Part Five. "ISBN 978-0-374-19963-0.
  14. ^ Solomon Robert C. Higgins, Kathleen M. (1996). A Short History of Philosophy. Oxford University Press, pp. 93, 66, 161, 179, 222, 240, and 298. "ISBN 978-0-19-510-196-6.
  15. ^ Jackson, Bill (1999). The Quest for the Radical Middle: A History of the Vineyard. Vineyard International Publishing, pp. 18–21. "ISBN 978-0-620-24319-3.
  16. ^ Satin (2004), p. 30.
  17. ^ a b Stratton, Allegra; Wintour, Patrick (13 March 2011). "Nick Clegg Tells Lib Dems They Belong in 'Radical Centre' of British Politics". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  18. ^ Avlon, John (2004), pp. 26, 173, 223, 244, and 257.
  19. ^ Satin (2004), pp. 10, 23, and 30
  20. ^ Rosenberg, Jeff (17 March 1989). "Mark's Ism: New Options's Editor Builds a New Body Politic". Washington City Paper, pp 6–8.
  21. ^ Gottlieb, Annie (1987). Do You Believe in Magic?: Bringing thev 60s Back Home. Simon & Schuster, p. 154. "ISBN 978-0-671-66050-5.
  22. ^ Satin (2004), p. 22.
  23. ^ Feiffer, Jules (21 January 1962). "We've All Heard of the Radical Right and the Radical Left ... ". Library of Congress website. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  24. ^ Feiffer, Jules (2010). Backing into Forward: A Memoir. Nan A. Talese / Doubleday, p. 345. "ISBN 978-0-385-53158-0.
  25. ^ a b Judis, John (16 October 1995). "TRB from Washington: Off Center". The New Republic, vol. 213, no. 16, pp. 4 and 56.
  26. ^ Adler, Renata (1969). Toward a Radical Middle: Fourteen Pieces of Reporting and Criticism. Random House, pp. xiii–xxiv. "ISBN 978-0-394-44916-6.
  27. ^ a b Adler (1969), p. xxiii.
  28. ^ Warren, Donald I. (1976). The Radical Center: Middle Americans and the Politics of Alienation. University of Notre Dame Press, Chap. 1. "ISBN 978-0-268-01594-7.
  29. ^ a b c d e Lind, Michael (20 April 2010). "Now More than Ever, We Need a Radical Center". website. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  30. ^ a b c d Avlon (2004), pp. 277–93 ("Radical Centrists").
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Further reading[edit]

Books from the 1990s[edit]

Books from the 2000s[edit]

Books from the 2010s[edit]

Manifestos, in chronological order[edit]

External links[edit]


Opinion websites[edit]

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