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Radom
""Left to right: Municipal Building  •  Bernardine Monastery and Church  •  Constitution of 3 May Square  •  St. Mary’s Cathedral  •  Moniuszko St  •  Piłsudski St  •

Left to right: Municipal Building  • Bernardine Monastery and Church  • Constitution of 3 May Square  • St. Mary’s Cathedral  • "Moniuszko St  • "Piłsudski St  •
""Flag of Radom
Flag
""Coat of arms of Radom
Coat of arms
""Radom is located in Masovian Voivodeship
Radom
Radom
""Radom is located in Poland
Radom
Radom
Coordinates: 51°24′N 21°10′E / 51.400°N 21.167°E / 51.400; 21.167
Country "Poland
"Voivodeship "Masovian
"County city county
Established 14th century
Town rights 1364
Government
 • Mayor Radosław Witkowski ("Civic Platform)
Area
 • City 111.71 km2 (43.13 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • City 219,703
 • Density 2,000/km2 (5,100/sq mi)
 • "Metro 371,000
"Time zone "CET ("UTC+1)
 • Summer ("DST) "CEST ("UTC+2)
Postal code 26-600 to 26-618
"Area code(s) +48 48
"Car plates WR
Website http://www.radom.pl

Radom ("[ˈradɔm] (""About this sound listen); "Yiddish: ראָדעםRodem) is a city in east-central "Poland with 219,703 inhabitants (2013). It is located 100 kilometres (62 miles) south of Poland's capital, "Warsaw, on the "Mleczna River, in (as of 1999) the "Masovian Voivodeship, having previously been the capital of "Radom Voivodeship (1975–1998). Despite being part of the Masovian Voivodeship, the city historically belongs to "Lesser Poland. For centuries, Radom was part of the "Sandomierz Voivodeship of the "Kingdom of Poland and the later "Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was an important center of administration, having served as seat of the Crown Council. The "Pact of Vilnius and Radom was signed there in 1401, and the "Nihil novi and "Łaski's Statute were adopted by the "Sejm at Radom's Royal Castle in 1505. In 1976, it was a center of "anti Communist street protests.

The city is home to the biennial "Radom Air Show, the largest and best-attended "air show in Poland, held during the last weekend of August. "Radom" is also the popular unofficial name for a semiautomatic "9 mm Para pistol of Polish design ("the Model 35/ViS-35) which was produced from 1935 to 1944 at the national arsenal located in the city, under the directorship of Kazimierz Ołdakowski, after whom a square in Radom is named. The "Łucznik Arms Factory (still located in Radom) continues to produce modern military firearms.

The international Radom Jazz Festival and the International Gombrowicz Theater Festival are held in the city.

Contents

History[edit]

Radom's original settlement dates back to the 8th–9th century. It was an early mediaeval town in the valley of the Mleczna River (on the approximate site of present-day Old Town). In the second half of the 10th century, it became a "gord, called Piotrówka, which was protected by a "rampart and a "moat. Due to convenient location on the edge of a large wilderness, and its proximity to the border of "Lesser Poland and "Mazovia, Radom quickly emerged as an important administrative center of the early "Kingdom of Poland. Piotrówka was probably named after St. Peter church, which in 1222 was placed under the authority of a "Benedictine "Abbey in nearby "Sieciechów. The church no longer exists; the oldest still-extant church in Radom is St. Wacław, founded in the 13th century by Prince of Sandomierz "Leszek I the White. The first documented mention of Radom comes from the year 1155, in a "bull of "Pope Adrian IV (villam iuxta Rado, que vocatur Zlauno, or a village near Radom, called Sławno). By 1233, Radom was the seat of a "castellan. The name of the city comes from the ancient Slavic given name Radomir, and Radom means a gord, which belongs to Radomir.

In the second half of the 13th century, Radom was granted a "Środa Śląska town charter by Prince "Bolesław V the Chaste, although no documents exist to confirm the exact date of this event. The town prospered in the 14th century, when in 1350 King "Kazimierz Wielki established the so-called New Town, with a royal castle, a "defensive wall, and a town hall. There was also a market square and a "grid plan of the streets, patterned after Gothic German towns. The area of New Town was 9 "hectares, and the length of the defensive wall was 1,100 meters. Radom had three gates, named after main merchant roads: "Iłża Gate, "Piotrków Trybunalski Gate, and "Lublin Gate. The defensive wall was further protected by 25 "fortified towers. New Town had the Church of "John the Baptist, and the Royal Castle was built between the church and the moat.

In 1364, Radom’s obsolete Środa Śląska rights were replaced with more modern "Magdeburg rights, and residents gained several privileges as a result. At that time, Radom was located along the so-called Oxen Trail, from "Ruthenian lands to "Silesia. In 1376, the city became the seat of a "starosta, and entered the period of its greatest prosperity.

Poland's Golden Age[edit]

King "Władysław Jagiełło granted several privileges to the city. Jagiełło himself frequently travelled from "Kraków to "Vilnius, and liked to stay at Radom Castle en route. On March 18, 1401, the "Pact of Vilnius and Radom was signed, which strengthened the "Polish–Lithuanian union. Immediately after the Pact, preparations for the "Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War began. King "Casimir IV Jagiellon frequently visited Radom, along with his wife, "Elizabeth of Austria. Here, the King would host foreign envoys, from such countries as the "Crimean Khanate, the "Kingdom of Bohemia, and the "Duchy of Bavaria. On November 18, 1489, "Johann von Tiefen, the "Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, paid homage to King Jagiellon at Radom Castle. "Mikołaj Radomski, one of the earliest Polish composers, comes from Radom. In 1468, the complex of a Bernardine church and monastery was founded here by King Jagiellon, with support of the local "starosta, Dominik z Kazanowa. The complex was originally made of wood (until 1507).

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Bernadine church and monastery

In 1481, Radom became the residence of Prince "Kazimierz, the son of King Jagiellon, who ruled the "Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The young prince died of "tuberculosis, and later became patron saint of both the city of Radom (since 1983), and the "Roman Catholic Diocese of Radom (since 1992). During the reign of "Alexander Jagiellon, the "Nihil novi act was adopted by the Polish "Sejm in a meeting at Radom Castle. Furthermore, at the same meeting, the "first codification of law published in the Kingdom of Poland was accepted. Radom remained one of the most important urban centers of "Sandomierz Voivodeship, the seat of a "county, and of the Treasure Tribunal (1613-1764), which controlled taxation. Several kings visited the city, including "Stephen Bathory and his wife "Anna Jagiellon, "Sigismund III Vasa, and "August III Sas. In 1623 many residents died in an epidemic, and in 1628, half of Radom burned in a fire.

The period of prosperity ended during the "Swedish invasion of Poland. The Swedish army captured the city without a fight in November 1655. At first the invaders behaved correctly, as King "Charles X Gustav still sought alliances within the Polish-Lithuanian nobility; the situation changed, however, in early 1656, when anti-Swedish uprisings broke out in southern Lesser Poland and quickly spread across the country. Radom was looted and almost completely destroyed in August 1656. Its population shrank from some 2,000 before the war, to 395 in 1660, with only 37 houses still standing. Swedish soldiers burned the royal castle and the monastery. With the Polish population in decline, the number of Jewish settlers grew by the early 18th century. In 1682 the first "Piarists arrived, and in 1737-1756, opened a college.

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Radom City hall, early 19th century

Radom remained within the Sandomierz Voivodeship of the "Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the "third partition of Poland (1795). For a few years (1795 - 1809) it was part of the Austrian province of "West Galicia, and then (1809 - 1815) part of the "Duchy of Warsaw, which named it capital of the "Radom Department. From 1815 the city belonged to Russian-controlled "Congress Poland, remaining a regional administrative center. In 1816 - 1837 it was the capital of the Sandomierz Voivodeship, whose capital, despite the name, was at Radom. In 1837 - 1844 it was the capital of the "Sandomierz Governorate, and from 1844 until the outbreak of "World War I, the capital of the "Radom Governorate. The city was an important center of the "November Uprising. Its obsolete and ruined fortifications were destroyed upon order of Mayor Józef Królikowski. In the early days of the "January Uprising, "Marian Langiewicz visited Radom, preparing the rebellion. In 1867 a sewage system was built. Streets were gradually paved, and in 1885, a rail line from "Dąbrowa Górnicza to "Dęblin was completed, via Radom. In the early 20th century a power plant was built. The city was captured by the "Austro-Hungarian Army in July 1915. An Austrian garrison remained until November 1918.

Modern era[edit]

""City map from 1919
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City map from 1919

In the "Second Polish Republic Radom became part of "Kielce Voivodeship. In 1932 the City County of Radom was created, and the following year, its rail connection with "Warsaw was completed. In the late 1930s, due to the government project known as the "Central Industrial Area, several new factories were built; by 1938, the population had grown to 80,000. The city was also a military garrison, serving as headquarters of the 72nd Infantry Regiment. On September 8, 1939, during "World War II, Radom was captured by the "Wehrmacht. The German occupiers carried out several executions of civilians, and formed the "Radom Ghetto, with a population of 34,000 Jews, most of whom perished at the "Treblinka extermination camp. Radom was also a center of Polish resistance, with numerous "Home Army units operating in the area. On September 9, 1945, the city was briefly seized by the "Cursed soldiers, who broke into a local prison, releasing a number of Home Army soldiers.

Up to the "Second World War, like many other cities in "interwar Poland, Radom had a large Jewish population. According to the "Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 28,700, Jews constituted 11,200 (~39% percent).[1][2]

Current events[edit]

In 2007, two pilots died in an accident at the air show, resulting in the cancellation of the rest of the event. On 30 August 2009, also during the air show, another two pilots who represented "Belarus were killed when their plane crashed.

Radom was one of the main centres of the strike action taken by Polish health care workers in 2007.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Radom has a "humid continental climate ("Köppen: Dfb).

Climate data for Radom
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.7
(23.5)
−3.3
(26.1)
2.1
(35.8)
8.4
(47.1)
13.2
(55.8)
16.4
(61.5)
18.0
(64.4)
17.4
(63.3)
13.7
(56.7)
8.8
(47.8)
3.2
(37.8)
−1.9
(28.6)
7.6
(45.7)
Average "precipitation mm (inches) 26
(1.02)
25
(0.98)
28
(1.1)
37
(1.46)
59
(2.32)
76
(2.99)
79
(3.11)
66
(2.6)
45
(1.77)
36
(1.42)
38
(1.5)
34
(1.34)
549
(21.61)
Source: Climate-Data.org[3]

Places of interest[edit]

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"Jacek Malczewski Museum

Culture[edit]

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"Helios cinemas
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Skansen Museum of the Radom Village

The arts[edit]

Philharmonic[edit]

Cinemas[edit]

Theatre[edit]

Museums and art galleries[edit]

Sports[edit]

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City of Radom Stadium

Transport[edit]

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Transport in Radom

Radom is an important railroad junction, where two lines meet: east–west connection from "Lublin to "Łódź, and north–south from "Warsaw to "Kielce, and "Kraków. The city is also located along "European route E77, here the "European route E371 begins, which runs southwards, to "Slovakia. The famous Radom Air Show takes place at "Radom Airport, an airport located 3.5 km (2 mi) from the center of Radom.

Education[edit]

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Radom University

Radom is home to about 20 schools of higher education:

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Public Library

Other[edit]

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Headquarters of "Polish Armaments Group
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MSBS rifle from "Łucznik Arms Factory

Politics[edit]

Members of Parliament ("Sejm) elected from Radom constituency

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Radom is "twinned with:[27][28]

Notable people[edit]

Notable people who have been born, have lived or have worked in Radom:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews, and the politics of nationality, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, "ISBN "0-299-19464-7, Google Print, p.16
  2. ^ See also: Alfred Lipson, ed. and comp., The Book of Radom: The Story of a Jewish Community in Poland Destroyed by the Nazis (New York, 1963), based on Sefer Radom, ed. Yitsḥak Perlov (Tel Aviv, 1961); Sebastian Piątkowski, Dni życia, dni śmierci: Ludność żydowska w Radomiu w latach 1918–1950 (Warsaw, 2006).
  3. ^ "Climate: Radom". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 18 April 2014. 
  4. ^ Radom Chamber Orchestra
  5. ^ Helios cinemas Archived 2006-02-19 at the "Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ Jan Kochanowski Theatre
  7. ^ Jacek Malczewski Museum
  8. ^ Modern art museum
  9. ^ Skansen in Radom
  10. ^ Kolegium Nauczycielskie
  11. ^ Nauczycielskie Kolegium Języków
  12. ^ Nauczycielskie Kolegium Języków Archived 2006-02-16 at the "Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ Nauczycielskie Kolegium Języków TWP
  14. ^ Politechnika Radomska
  15. ^ Wyższa Szkoła Ochrony Środowiska
  16. ^ Kolegium licencjackie Archived 2005-12-28 at the "Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Warsaw University department in Radom
  18. ^ Uniwersytet Warszawski
  19. ^ Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej Archived 2003-09-26 at the "Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ Wyższa Inżynierska Szkoła Bezpieczeństwa
  21. ^ Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu
  22. ^ Wyższa Szkoła Finansów i Bankowości
  23. ^ Wyższa Szkoła Handlowa
  24. ^ Wyższe Seminarium Duchowne
  25. ^ Wyższa Szkoła Dziennikarska
  26. ^ www
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Radom - Miasta partnerskie" [Radom - Partnership cities]. Miasto Radom [City of Radom] (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Radom - miasta partnerskie" (in Polish). radom.naszestrony.pl. Archived from the original on 2007-07-26. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  29. ^ "Banská Bystrica Sister Cities". "© 2001-2008. Archived from the original on 2009-03-02. Retrieved 2008-10-23. 
  30. ^ Zachert, Uwe; Annica Kunz. "Twin cities". Landeshauptstadt Magdeburg [City of Magdeburg]. Archived from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 

External links[edit]

"Coordinates: 51°24′N 21°10′E / 51.400°N 21.167°E / 51.400; 21.167

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