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( => ( => ( => Randal Cremer [pageid] => 739613 ) =>
Sir William Randal Cremer
""Cremer.jpg
"Member of Parliament for "Haggerston
In office
24 October 1900 – 22 July 1908
Preceded by "John Lowles
Succeeded by "Rupert Guinness
In office
18 December 1885 – 13 July 1895
Succeeded by "John Lowles
Personal details
Born "Fareham, "Hampshire, England, UK
Died 22 July 1908
"London
Nationality British
Political party "Liberal
Awards "Nobel Peace Prize
Knight of the "Order of St. Olav
Chevalier of the "Legion of Honour

Sir William Randal Cremer (18 March 1828 – 22 July 1908) usually known by his middle name "Randal", was an "English "Liberal "Member of Parliament, a "pacifist, and a leading advocate for international arbitration. He was awarded the "Nobel Peace Prize in 1903 for his work with the "international arbitration movement.[1]

Contents

Early life[edit]

Cremer was born to a working-class family in the southern English town of "Fareham. His father was a coachman but abandoned the family soon after Randal was born. His mother raised Cremer along with his two sisters, ensuring Randal received an education at a local "Methodist school. Randal augmented his knowledge by attending free lectures. The young Cremer was apprenticed as a builder, soon developing into a skilled "carpenter.

Moving to London 1852, Cremer became active as a union organiser, swiftly becoming a recognized labour leader. Cremer was elected as the Secretary of the "International Workingmen's Association in 1865, but resigned two years later in 1867 as he felt the organisation was becoming too radical. While heavily involved in campaigning for progressive causes, and respected by "Marx, Cremer did not agree with a worker led revolution.[2]

Role in the international arbitration movement[edit]

From as early as his first unsuccessful run for Parliament in 1868, Cremer had advocated the expansion of international arbitration as peaceful alternative to war for the resolution of disputes.[2]

He was elected as Liberal "Member of Parliament (MP) for "Haggerston in the "Shoreditch district of "Hackney from 1885 to 1895, and from 1900 until his death, from "pneumonia in 1908.

Using his platform as an MP, Cremer cultivated allies on both continental Europe and across the Atlantic, including "Frédéric Passy, "William Jennings Bryan and "Andrew Carnegie. Using his network of contacts and his talent for organisation, Cremer did much to create and expand institutions for "international arbitration, which during his lifetime were successful in peacefully resolving numerous international disputes. This work includes co-founding the "Inter-Parliamentary Union and the "International Arbitration League; gaining acceptance for the 1897 "Anglo-American arbitration treaty; and preparing the ground for the "Hague peace conferences of 1899 and 1907.[2]

In recognition of his work in the arbitration movement, Cremer won the "Nobel Peace Prize, the first to do so solo, in 1903.

He also was named a Chevalier of the "French "Légion d'honneur,[3] won the "Norwegian "Knighthood of Saint Olaf and was "knighted in 1907.

Randal Cremer Primary School, in Haggerston,[4] is named in his honour.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1903 Randal Cremer". nobelprize.org. 
  2. ^ a b c "Mark Mazower (2012). "Chpt 3: The empire of Law". Governing the world. Allen Lane. "ISBN "9780-7-1399683-8. 
  3. ^ Among the world's peacemakers: an epitome of the "Interparliamentary Union edited by Hayne Davis, 1908
  4. ^ "Randal Cremer Primary School". Hackney Borough Council. Retrieved 2009-08-24. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
New position
General Secretary of the "International Workingmen's Association
1864 – 1866
Succeeded by
"Peter Fox
Preceded by
"Peter Fox
General Secretary of the "International Workingmen's Association
1866 – 1867
Succeeded by
"Johann Eccarius
"Parliament of the United Kingdom
New constituency "Member of Parliament for "Haggerston
"1885–"1895
Succeeded by
"John Lowles
Preceded by
"John Lowles
"Member of Parliament for "Haggerston
"1900–"1908
Succeeded by
"Rupert Guinness, Viscount Elveden
) )