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Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
Type "Trade agreement
Effective Not in force

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a proposed "free trade agreement (FTA) between the ten member states of the "Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) ("Brunei, "Cambodia, "Indonesia, "Laos, "Malaysia, "Myanmar, the "Philippines, "Singapore, "Thailand, "Vietnam) and the six states with which ASEAN has existing free trade agreements ("Australia, "China, "India, "Japan, "South Korea and "New Zealand).

RCEP negotiations were formally launched in November 2012 at the ASEAN Summit in Cambodia.[1] The agreement is scheduled to be finalized by the end of 2017.[2] RCEP is viewed as an alternative to the "Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a proposed trade agreement which includes several Asian and American nations but excludes China and India.[3]

In 2017, prospective RCEP member states accounted for a population of 3.4 billion people with a total "Gross Domestic Product (GDP, PPP) of $49.5 trillion, approximately 39 percent of the world's GDP,[4] with the combined GDPs of China and India making up more than half that amount.



The 16 member countries of the RCEP
Blue: "ASEAN
Purple: "ASEAN Plus Three
Teal: "ASEAN Plus Six

The arrangement is also open to any other external economic partners, such as nations in Central Asia and remaining nations in South Asia and Oceania.[5]

The RCEP 16 countries[edit]


Basic indicators of the RCEP 16 countries[edit]

Flag Country
"Population "Nominal GDP
(millions of US$)
"GDP per cap.
(Nominal, US$)
(millions of Int$)
"GDP per cap.
(PPP, Int$)
"HDI "Currency
"Official languages Leaders
""Flag of Australia (converted).svg "Australia
Commonwealth of Australia
"Canberra 7,692,024 24,419,900 1,359,723 55,215 1,246,640 50,817 0.939 "Australian dollar ("$)
National and de facto: "English
"Monarch: "Elizabeth II
"Governor-General: "Peter Cosgrove
"Prime Minister: "Malcolm Turnbull
""Flag of Brunei.svg "Brunei
Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace
Negara Brunei Darussalam
"Bandar Seri Begawan 5,765 417,200 12,326 28,740 35,817 76,567 0.865 "Brunei dollar ("$)
"Malay "Monarch: "Hassanal Bolkiah
""Flag of Cambodia.svg "Cambodia
Kingdom of Cambodia
Preăh Réachéanachâk Kâmpŭchéa
"Phnom Penh 181,035 15,626,444 20,953 1,308 64,365 4,022 0.563 "Cambodian riel (")
"Khmer "Monarch: "Norodom Sihamoni
"Prime Minister: "Hun Sen
""Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg "China
People's Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
"Beijing 9,596,961 1,382,580,000 11,795,297 8,480 23,066,062 16,676 0.738 "Renminbi (Chinese yuan, "¥)
"Standard Chinese
written in "simplified characters
see also: "Languages of China
"Premier: "Li Keqiang
"President: "Xi Jinping
""Flag of India.svg "India
Republic of India
Bhārat Gaṇarājya
"New Delhi 3,287,263 1,314,470,000 2,454,458 1,850 9,585,371 7,153 0.624 "Indian rupee (")
21 other "official languages
see also: "Languages of India
"President: "Pranab Mukherjee
"Prime Minister: "Narendra Modi
""Flag of Indonesia.svg "Indonesia
Republic of Indonesia
Republik Indonesia
"Jakarta 1,910,931 263,510,000 1,020,515 3,895 3,256,730 12,432 0.689 "Indonesian rupiah (Rp)
see also: "Languages of Indonesia
"President: "Joko Widodo
""Flag of Japan.svg "Japan
"Tokyo 377,930 126,760,000 4,841,221 38,281 5,066,064 42,860 0.903 "Japanese yen ("¥)
"Japanese "Monarch: "Akihito
"Prime Minister: "Shinzō Abe
""Flag of Laos.svg "Laos
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao
"Vientiane 236,800 6,492,400 14,971 2,051 44,880 6,115 0.586 "Lao kip (")
"Lao "Prime Minister: "Thongloun Sisoulith
"President: "Bounnhang Vorachith
""Flag of Malaysia.svg "Malaysia "Kuala Lumpur
"Putrajaya (administrative)
330,803 32,019,500 309,860 9,623 922,894 28,636 0.789 "Malaysian ringgit (RM)
see also: "Languages of Malaysia
"Monarch: "Muhammad V
"Prime Minister: "Najib Razak
""Flag of Myanmar.svg "Myanmar (Burma)
Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw
"Naypyidaw 676,578 54,836,000 72,368 1,374 342,205 6,360 0.556 "Burmese kyat (K)
see also: "Languages of Myanmar
"President: "Htin Kyaw
"State Counsellor: "Aung San Suu Kyi
""Flag of New Zealand.svg "New Zealand
"Wellington 270,467 4,786,710 198,043 41,107 183,431 38,706 0.915 "New Zealand dollar ("$)
"Monarch: "Elizabeth II
"Governor-General: "Patsy Reddy
"Prime Minister: "Bill English
""Flag of the Philippines.svg "Philippines
Republic of the Philippines
Republika ng Pilipinas
"Manila 300,000 103,874,000 329,716 3,102 873,966 8,270 0.682 "Philippine peso (")
"Filipino ("Tagalog)
"President: "Rodrigo Duterte
""Flag of Singapore.svg "Singapore
Republic of Singapore
Republik Singapura
Xīnjiāpō Gònghéguó
Ciṅkappūr Kuṭiyaracu
719 5,607,300 291,860 51,431 508,449 90,724 0.925 "Singapore dollar ("$)
see also: "Languages of Singapore
"President: "Tony Tan
"Prime Minister: "Lee Hsien Loong
""Flag of South Korea.svg "South Korea
Republic of Korea
Daehan Minguk
"Seoul 100,210 51,446,201 1,498,074 29,114 2,029,861 39,446 0.901 "South Korean won (")
"Korean "Prime Minister: "Hwang Kyo-ahn
"President: "Hwang Kyo-ahn (acting)
""Flag of Thailand.svg "Thailand
Kingdom of Thailand
Ratcha-anachak Thai
"Bangkok 513,120 68,298,000 432,898 6,265 1,225,090 17,749 0.740 "Thai baht ("฿)
"Thai "Monarch: "Vajiralongkorn
"Prime Minister: "Prayut Chan-o-cha
""Flag of Vietnam.svg "Vietnam
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Cộng hòa Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam
"Hanoi 331,212 92,700,000 215,829 2,305 645,333 6,925 0.683 "Vietnamese đồng (")
"Vietnamese "Prime Minister: "Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
"President: "Trần Đại Quang

Presence in the world[edit]

RCEP Population - 2012 : IMF - World Economic Outlook Databases (October 2013)
RCEP GDP - 2012 : IMF - World Economic Outlook Databases (October 2013)

RCEP potentially includes more than 3 billion people or 45% of the world's population, and a combined GDP of about $21.3 trillion, accounting for about 40 percent of world trade.[7] The combined GDP of potential RCEP members surpassed the combined GDP of "Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) members in 2007. Continued growth, particularly in "China, "India and "Indonesia could see total GDP in RCEP grow to over $100 trillion by 2050, roughly double the project size of TPP economies.[8]

GDP projections for potential RCEP member countries to 2050.[8]

On January 23, 2017, United States President "Donald Trump signed a memorandum that stated withdrawal of the country from the TPP, a move which is seen to improve the chances of success for RCEP.[9]

Guiding principles and objectives for negotiation[edit]

At the launch of negotiations on Tuesday, 20 November 2012, the leaders of each relevant country endorsed the "Guiding Principles and Objectives for Negotiating the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership." The key points of this document are as follows.

Scope of negotiations[edit]

RCEP will cover trade in goods, trade in services, investment, economic and technical co-operation, intellectual property, competition, dispute settlement and other issues.

Commitment levels[edit]

The RCEP will have broader and deeper engagement with significant improvements over the existing ASEAN+1 FTAs, while recognising the individual and diverse circumstances of the participating countries.

Negotiations for trade in goods[edit]

Negotiations should aim to achieve the high level of tariff liberalisation, through building upon the existing liberalisation levels between participating countries.

Negotiations for trade in services[edit]

The RCEP will be comprehensive, of high-quality and consistent with "WTO rules and all service sectors will be subject to negotiations.

Negotiations for investment[edit]

Negotiations will cover the four pillars of promotion, protection, facilitation and liberalisation.

Participating countries[edit]

Participants will be ASEAN members and FTA Partners. After the completion of the negotiations, countries other than the 16 states may join.[10]

History and timeline[edit]

14–19 November 2011[edit]

25 August - 1 September 2012[edit]

18–20 November 2012[edit]

Round 1: 9–13 May 2013 in Brunei[edit]

  1. achieve a modern, comprehensive, high-quality and mutually beneficial economic partnership agreement establishing an open trade and investment environment in the region to facilitate the expansion of regional trade and investment and contribute to global economic growth and development; and
  2. boost economic growth and equitable economic development, advance economic co-operation and broaden and deepen integration in the region through the RCEP, which will build upon our existing economic linkages.[6]

Round 2: 23–27 September 2013 in Brisbane, Australia[edit]

Round 3: 20–24 January 2014 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia[edit]

  1. On Trade in goods, participating countries conducted a constructive discussion on the modalities for the tariff negotiations, non-tariff measures, Standards, Technical Regulations and Conformity Assessment Procedures (STRACAP), Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) as well as on Customs Procedures and Trade Facilitation (CPTF) and Rules of Origin (ROO).
  2. On Trade in services, participating countries discussed the structure and elements of the RCEP Services Chapter, areas of market access interests and a number of specific issues at good length.
  3. On Investment, participating countries exchanged views on investment modalities and deliberated further on the elements for the RCEP Investment Chapter.
  1. Intellectual Property
  2. Competition
  3. Economic and Technical Cooperation
  4. Dispute Settlement

Some delegations made presentations on other issues that are of particular interest to some RCEP participating countries.

  1. Malaysia and Japan organised a Seminar on Intellectual Property (IP), discussing a broad range of issues in IP and how IP may support trade and investment further.
  2. Australia organised a seminar on the cross cutting areas of Services and Investment. The participating countries had a good discussion on the issues.[15]

Round 4: April 2014 in Nanning, China[edit]

Round 4 The 4th round of RCEP negotiations took place in Nanning, China 31 March – 4 April 2014. The participating countries continued intensive discussion on a range of issues to advance the negotiations.

Participating countries engaged on the development of trade in goods texts, intensified consideration of modalities to be used for tariff negotiations and continued discussions on non-tariff measures, Standards, Technical Regulations and Conformity Assessment Procedures (STRACAP), Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) as well as on Customs Procedures and Trade Facilitation (CPTF) and Rules of Origin (ROO).

On Trade in services, participating countries deliberated on the elements of text, the scope of provisions, the approach to scheduling market access commitments, market access commitments, and a number of other specific issues. On Investment, participating countries engaged in discussions on text, and an in-depth discussion on the elements including investment modalities.

At the Nanning meeting, the new working groups on Intellectual Property, Competition, and Economic and Technical Cooperation commenced their work. Other issues of particular interest to a number of RCEP participating countries were discussed. Experts met to discuss Dispute Settlement and broader legal and institutional issues. A formal working group will be established to continue these discussions at the next meeting.

Round 5: June 2014 in Singapore[edit]

The 5th RCEP negotiation round was held on 21–27 June 2014 in Singapore.[16]

Round 6: December 2014 in India[edit]

The 6th round of RCEP Trade Negotiation Committee(TNC) and related meetings took place 1–5 December 2014 in New Delhi, India[17] The Indians held an outreach event with their business community to educate them on the goals of RCEP. The Japanese asked to set up a workshop on e-Commerce.

Round 7: February 2015 in Thailand[edit]

The 7th round of RCEP meetings took place in Bangkok, Thailand 9–13 February 2015. An expert group on electronic commerce met during this round. The Asian Trade Centre (based in Singapore) submitted a proposal regarding an e-Commerce chapter and gave a presentation on the paper.

Round 8: June 2015 in Japan[edit]

The 8th round of the RCEP talks took place in Kyoto, Japan 5–13 June.

Round 9: August 2015 in Myanmar[edit]

The 9th round of the RCEP talks took place in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar 3–7 August 2015

Round 10: October 2015 in South Korea[edit]

The 10th round of the RCEP talks took place in Busan, South Korea in 12–16 October 2015. The meetings took place at BEXCO (Busan's Convention and Exhibition Centre). This round included the first region wide stakeholder meeting (organized by the Singapore-based Asian Trade Centre) which involved an informal meeting between government officials and business representatives over lunch followed by an afternoon seminar focused on what RCEP can do to help business operate in the e-Commerce space.

Round 11: February 2016 in Brunei[edit]

On February 14–19, the 11th round of negotiations of the RCEP was held in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei. This round of negotiation consisted of four group sessions: the first conference and trade in goods, service trade, investment, and rules for the country of origin. The conference focused on promoting the market access negotiation and the textual discussion, involving these 3 core fields: goods, service and investment. The conference was guided by the leader's instruction to strive to conclude the negotiations in 2016. It has preliminarily defined the negotiation plan of 2016. Representatives from China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, India, the ASEAN ten countries and the ASEAN Secretariat attended this round of negotiation.[18]

Round 12: April 2016 in Australia[edit]

On April 17–29, the 12th round of negotiation of RCEP was held in Perth, Australia. Delegations of 10 ASEAN countries, China, Japan, ROK, Australia, New Zealand, India and the Secretariat of ASEAN attended the meeting. All the parties had in-depth discussion on goods, service, investment, intellectual property, economic and technological cooperation, e-commerce and articles of law. The negotiation has gained positive progress.[19]

Round 13: June 2016 in New Zealand[edit]

China is said to have triggered a sudden impasse in the recent trade negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) in New Zealand. It led to some nations, particularly those belonging to Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean), pushing for dismantling of the three-tier system followed in the initial round of offers for goods liberalisation.

As part of India's current three-tier approach to tariff reduction, the Asean countries are being offered 80 per cent tariff liberalisation. Of this, 65 per cent elimination of tariff will come into force immediately after the agreement is implemented. Another 15 per cent tariff elimination will happen over a period of 10 years. In the second tier, India has offered 65 per cent tariff elimination to South Korea and Japan, with whom it has free trade agreements (FTAs). These two countries offered 80 per cent tariff elimination to India. In third tier, India has proposed 42.5 per cent reduction in tariff lines to China, Australia and New Zealand. These countries will offer India 42.5 per cent, 80 per cent and 65 per cent tariff lines reductions, respectively.[20]

Round 14: August 2016 in Vietnam[edit]

The 14th round of RCEP negotiation was held on August 15–18 in Vietnam.

Round 15: October 2016 in China[edit]

The 15th round of RCEP negotiation was held on October 11–22 in Tianjin, China. [21]

Round 18: May 2017 in Philippines[edit]

The 18th round of RCEP negotiation was held on May 8-12 in Manila, Philippines.[22]

Relationship with other frameworks[edit]

East Asia Free Trade Agreement & Comprehensive Economic Partnership in East Asia[edit]

The RCEP takes into account the East Asia Free Trade Agreement (EAFTA) and the "Comprehensive Economic Partnership in East Asia (CEPEA) initiatives, with the difference that the RCEP is not working on a pre-determined membership. Instead, it is based on open accession which enables participation of any of the ASEAN FTA partners (China, Korea, Japan, India and Australia-New Zealand) at the outset or later when they are ready to join. The arrangement is also open to any other external economic partners, such as nations in Central Asia and remaining nations in South Asia and Oceania.[5]

Trans Pacific Partnership[edit]

Along with the "Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP), the RCEP is a possible pathway to a free trade area of the Asia-Pacific, and a contribution to building momentum for global trade reform. Both the RCEP and TPP are ambitious FTAs and will involve complex negotiations as it involves multiple parties and sectors. The TPP and RCEP are potentially mutually-reinforcing parallel tracks for regional integration,[5] which could ultimately lead to a "Free Trade Area of the Asia Pacific.

Controversies and criticism[edit]

RCEP has been criticized by "free culture activists for containing "quite simply the worst provisions on copyright [...] ever seen in a trade agreement."[23] Global health care activists have criticized the agreement for potentially forcing India to end its cheap supply of "generic medications to poor countries.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ RCEP: Challenges and Opportunities for India, 25 July 2013, RSIS, Singapore
  2. ^ a b Chandran, Nyshka (2017-01-12). "China-backed trade deal may not gain from TPP's loss. Blame India". CNBC. 
  3. ^ RCEP: The next trade deal you need to know about, 14 October 2015, CNBC
  4. ^ Stefani Ribka/Linda Yulisman (December 7, 2016). "RCEP talks speed up amid TPP failure". 
  5. ^ a b c What is the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)? Ministry of Trade and Industry Singapore November 2012
  6. ^ a b Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Joint Statement The First Meeting of Trade Negotiating Committee | 10 May 2013
  7. ^ Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP): Issues and Way Forward 30 July 2013
  8. ^ a b "Understanding and applying long-term GDP projections | EABER". Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ a b Announcement of the Launch of Negotiations for the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Japan 20 November 2012
  11. ^ Nineteenth ASEAN Summit, Bali, Indonesia | 14-19 November 2011
  12. ^ ASEAN plus 6 agree to start RCEP talks | 09-01-2012
  13. ^ Australia hosts second round of Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Negotiations in Brisbane
  14. ^ Australia Hosts Second Round of Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Negotiations in Brisbane | HighBeam Research in US| 4 October 2013
  15. ^ Media Release : 3rd Meeting of the RCEP Trade Negotiation Committee 20-24 January 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia | 27 Jan 2014 08:40 AM | The Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Malaysia
  16. ^ "5th negotiation of Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP)". Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  17. ^ Welcome Address
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^ "RCEP: The Other Closed-Door Agreement to Compromise Users' Rights". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 2016-04-20. Retrieved 2016-04-28. 

External links[edit]

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