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René Descartes
""Frans Hals - Portret van René Descartes.jpg
Portrait after "Frans Hals, 1648[1]
Born (1596-03-31)31 March 1596
"La Haye en Touraine, "Kingdom of France
Died 11 February 1650(1650-02-11) (aged 53)
"Stockholm, "Swedish Empire
Nationality French
Education "Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand (1607–1614)
"University of Poitiers (LL.B., 1616)
"University of Franeker
"Leiden University
Era "17th-century philosophy
Region "Western philosophy
"School "Rationalism
Founder of "Cartesianism
Main interests
"Metaphysics, "epistemology, "mathematics, "physics, "cosmology
Notable ideas
'"Cogito ergo sum
"method of doubt
"method of normals
"Cartesian coordinate system
"Cartesian dualism
"foundationalism
"mathesis universalis
"folium of Descartes
"dream argument
"evil demon
"conservation of momentum (quantitas motus)[2]
"Wax argument
"Trademark argument
Signature
""Firma Descartes.svg

René Descartes ("/ˈdˌkɑːrt/;[9] French: "[ʁəne dekaʁt]; "Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; "adjectival form: "Cartesian";[10] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French "philosopher, "mathematician, and "scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent "Western philosophy is a response to his writings,[11][12] which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–49) of his life in the "Dutch Republic after serving for a while in the "Dutch States Army of "Maurice of Nassau, "Prince of Orange and the "Stadtholder of the "United Provinces. He is generally considered one of the most notable intellectual representatives of the "Dutch Golden Age.[13]

Descartes's "Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes's influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the "Cartesian coordinate system (see below) was named after him. He is credited as the father of "analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, used in the discovery of "infinitesimal calculus and "analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the "scientific revolution.

Descartes refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers. He frequently set his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the "Les passions de l'âme, a treatise on the "early modern version of what are now commonly called "emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before". His best known philosophical statement is ""Cogito ergo sum" (French: Je pense, donc je suis; I think, therefore I am), found in part IV of "Discours de la méthode (1637; written in French but with inclusion of "Cogito ergo sum") and §7 of part I of "Principles of Philosophy (1644; written in Latin).[14]

Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late "Aristotelianism, the "revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like "Augustine. In his "natural philosophy, he differed from the "schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of "corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to "final ends, divine or natural, in explaining natural phenomena.[15] In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation.

Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental "rationalism, later advocated by "Baruch Spinoza and "Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the "empiricist school of thought consisting of "Hobbes, "Locke, "Berkeley, and "Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza[16] and Descartes were all well-versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well.

Contents

Life[edit]

Early life[edit]

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The house where Descartes was born in "La Haye en Touraine
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Graduation registry for Descartes at the "University of Poitiers, 1616

René du Perron Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine (now "Descartes, "Indre-et-Loire), France, on 31 March 1596.[17] His mother, Jeanne Brochard, died soon after giving birth to him, and so he was not expected to survive.[17] Descartes's father, Joachim, was a member of the "Parlement of Brittany at "Rennes.[18] René lived with his grandmother and with his great-uncle. Although the Descartes family was Roman Catholic, the Poitou region was controlled by the Protestant Huguenots.[19] In 1607, late because of his fragile health, he entered the "Jesuit "Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand at "La Flèche,[20][21] where he was introduced to mathematics and physics, including Galileo's work.[20][22] After graduation in 1614, he studied for two years (1615–16) at the "University of Poitiers, earning a "Baccalauréat and "Licence in "canon and "civil law in 1616[20], in accordance with his father's wishes that he should become a lawyer.[23] From there he moved to Paris.

In his book Discourse on the Method, Descartes recalls,

I entirely abandoned the study of letters. Resolving to seek no knowledge other than that of which could be found in myself or else in the great book of the world, I spent the rest of my youth traveling, visiting courts and armies, mixing with people of diverse temperaments and ranks, gathering various experiences, testing myself in the situations which fortune offered me, and at all times reflecting upon whatever came my way so as to derive some profit from it.

Given his ambition to become a professional military officer, in 1618, Descartes joined, as a "mercenary, the "Protestant "Dutch States Army in Breda under the command of "Maurice of Nassau[20], and undertook a formal study of "military engineering, as established by "Simon Stevin. Descartes, therefore, received much encouragement in Breda to advance his knowledge of mathematics.[20] In this way, he became acquainted with "Isaac Beeckman[20], the principal of a "Dordrecht school, for whom he wrote the Compendium of Music (written 1618, published 1650). Together they worked on "free fall, "catenary, "conic section, and "fluid statics. Both believed that it was necessary to create a method that thoroughly linked mathematics and physics.[24]

While in the service of the "Catholic Duke "Maximilian of Bavaria since 1619,[25] Descartes was present at the "Battle of the White Mountain outside "Prague, in November 1620.[26]

Visions[edit]

According to "Adrien Baillet, on the night of 10–11 November 1619 ("St. Martin's Day), while stationed in "Neuburg an der Donau, Descartes shut himself in a room with an "oven" (probably a Kachelofen or "masonry heater) to escape the cold. While within, he had three dreams[27] and believed that a divine spirit revealed to him a new philosophy. Upon exiting, he had formulated "analytical geometry and the idea of applying the mathematical method to philosophy. He concluded from these visions that the pursuit of science would prove to be, for him, the pursuit of true wisdom and a central part of his life's work.[28][29] Descartes also saw very clearly that all truths were linked with one another so that finding a fundamental truth and proceeding with logic would open the way to all science. Descartes discovered this basic truth quite soon: his famous ""I think, therefore I am".[24]

France[edit]

In 1620 Descartes left the army. He visited "Basilica della Santa Casa in Loreto, then visited various countries before returning to France, and during the next few years spent time in Paris. It was there that he composed his first essay on method: Regulae ad Directionem Ingenii ("Rules for the Direction of the Mind).[24] He arrived in "La Haye in 1623, selling all of his property to invest in "bonds, which provided a comfortable income for the rest of his life.[30] Descartes was present at the "siege of La Rochelle by "Cardinal Richelieu in 1627.[31] In the fall of the same year, in the residence of the papal nuncio "Guidi di Bagno, where he came with "Mersenne and many other scholars to listen to a lecture given by the alchemist Nicolas de Villiers, Sieur de Chandoux on the principles of a supposed new philosophy,[32] Cardinal "Bérulle urged him to write an exposition of his own new philosophy in some location beyond the reach of the inquisition.[33]

Netherlands[edit]

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In "Amsterdam, Descartes lived on Westermarkt 6 (Descarteshuis, on the left).

Descartes returned to the Dutch Republic in 1628.[27] In April 1629 he joined the "University of Franeker, studying under "Adriaan Metius, living either with a Catholic family, or renting the "Sjaerdemaslot, where he invited in vain a French cook and an optician.["citation needed] The next year, under the name "Poitevin", he enrolled at the "Leiden University to study mathematics with "Jacobus Golius, who confronted him with "Pappus's hexagon theorem, and "astronomy with "Martin Hortensius.[34] In October 1630 he had a falling-out with Beeckman, whom he accused of plagiarizing some of his ideas. In Amsterdam, he had a relationship with a servant girl, Helena Jans van der Strom, with whom he had a daughter, "Francine, who was born in 1635 in "Deventer.

Unlike many moralists of the time, Descartes was not devoid of passions but rather defended them; he wept upon Francine's death in 1640.[35] "Descartes said that he did not believe that one must refrain from tears to prove oneself a man." "Russell Shorto postulated that the experience of fatherhood and losing a child formed a turning point in Descartes' work, changing its focus from medicine to a quest for universal answers.[36]

Despite frequent moves,[37] he wrote all his major work during his 20+ years in the Netherlands, where he managed to revolutionize mathematics and philosophy.[38] In 1633, "Galileo was condemned by the "Catholic Church, and Descartes abandoned plans to publish "Treatise on the World, his work of the previous four years. Nevertheless, in 1637 he published part of this work[39] in three essays: Les Météores (The Meteors), "La Dioptrique (Dioptrics) and La Géométrie (Geometry), preceded by an introduction, his famous Discours de la méthode (Discourse on the Method).[39] In it, Descartes lays out four rules of thought, meant to ensure that our knowledge rests upon a firm foundation.

The first was never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such; that is to say, carefully to avoid precipitancy and prejudice, and to comprise nothing more in my judgment than what was presented to my mind so clearly and distinctly as to exclude all ground of doubt.

In La Géométrie, Descartes exploited the discoveries he made with "Pierre de Fermat, having been able to do so because his paper, Introduction to Loci, was published posthumously in 1679.[40] This later became known as Cartesian Geometry.[40]

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Principia philosophiae, 1644

Descartes continued to publish works concerning both mathematics and philosophy for the rest of his life. In 1641 he published a metaphysics work, Meditationes de Prima Philosophia (Meditations on First Philosophy), written in Latin and thus addressed to the learned. It was followed, in 1644, by Principia Philosophiæ (Principles of Philosophy), a kind of synthesis of the Discourse on the Method and Meditations on First Philosophy. In 1643, Cartesian philosophy was condemned at the University of Utrecht, and Descartes was obliged to flee to the Hague, and settled in "Egmond-Binnen.

Descartes began (through Alfonso Polloti, an Italian general in Dutch service) a long correspondence with "Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia, devoted mainly to moral and psychological subjects. Connected with this correspondence, in 1649 he published Les Passions de l'âme (Passions of the Soul), that he dedicated to the Princess. In 1647, he was awarded a pension by the "Louis XIV of France, though it was never paid.[41] A French translation of Principia Philosophiæ, prepared by Abbot Claude Picot, was published in 1647. This edition Descartes also dedicated to Princess Elisabeth. In "the preface to the French edition, Descartes praised true philosophy as a means to attain wisdom. He identifies four ordinary sources to reach wisdom and finally says that there is a fifth, better and more secure, consisting in the search for first causes.[42]

Sweden[edit]

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René Descartes (right) with "Queen Christina of Sweden (left)
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The rear of the "von der Lindeska huset" on Västerlånggatan 68

By 1649, Descartes had become famous throughout Europe for being one of the continent's greatest philosophers and scientists.[39] That year, "Queen Christina of Sweden invited Descartes to her court in to organize a new scientific academy and tutor her in his ideas about love. She was interested in and stimulated Descartes to publish the ""Passions of the Soul", a work based on his correspondence with Princess Elisabeth.[43] Descartes accepted, and moved to Sweden in the middle of winter.[44]

He was a guest at the house of "Pierre Chanut, living on "Västerlånggatan, less than 500 meters from "Tre Kronor in "Stockholm. There, Chanut and Descartes made observations with a "Torricellian barometer, a tube with "mercury. Challenging "Blaise Pascal, Descartes took the first set of barometric readings in Stockholm to see if "atmospheric pressure could be used in forecasting the weather.[45][46]

Death[edit]

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The tomb of Descartes (middle, with detail of the inscription), in the "Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris
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His memorial, erected in the 1720s, in the Adolf Fredriks kyrka

Descartes apparently started giving lessons to Queen Christina after her birthday, three times a week, at 5 a.m, in her cold and draughty castle. Soon it became clear they did not like each other; she did not like his "mechanical philosophy, nor did he appreciate her interest in "Ancient Greek. By 15 January 1650, Descartes had seen Christina only four or five times. On 1 February he contracted pneumonia and died on 11 February.[47] The cause of death was "pneumonia according to Chanut, but "peripneumonia according to the doctor Van Wullen who was not allowed to bleed him.[48] (The winter seems to have been mild,[49] except for the second half of January which was harsh as described by Descartes himself; however, "this remark was probably intended to be as much Descartes' take on the intellectual climate as it was about the weather."[43])

In 1996 E. Pies, a German scholar, published a book questioning this account, based on a letter by Johann van Wullen, who had been sent by Christina to treat him, something Descartes refused, and more arguments against its veracity have been raised since.[50] Descartes might have been assassinated[51][52] as he asked for an "emetic: wine mixed with tobacco.[53]["dubious ]

As a Catholic[54][55][56] in a Protestant nation, he was interred in a graveyard used mainly for orphans in "Adolf Fredriks kyrka in Stockholm. His manuscripts came into the possession of "Claude Clerselier, Chanut's brother-in-law, and "a devout Catholic who has begun the process of turning Descartes into a saint by cutting, adding and publishing his letters selectively."[57] In 1663, the "Pope placed his works on the "Index of Prohibited Books. In 1666 his remains were taken to France and buried in the "Saint-Étienne-du-Mont. In 1671 Louis XIV prohibited all the lectures in "Cartesianism. Although the "National Convention in 1792 had planned to transfer his remains to the "Panthéon, he was reburied in the "Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in 1819, missing a finger and skull.[58] His skull is on display in the Musee de l'Homme in Paris.[59]

Philosophical work[edit]

Initially, Descartes arrives at only a single principle: thought exists. Thought cannot be separated from me, therefore, I exist (Discourse on the Method and Principles of Philosophy). Most famously, this is known as cogito ergo sum (English: "I think, therefore I am"). Therefore, Descartes concluded, if he doubted, then something or someone must be doing the doubting, therefore the very fact that he doubted proved his existence. "The simple meaning of the phrase is that if one is sceptical of existence, that is in and of itself proof that he does exist."[60]

Descartes concludes that he can be certain that he exists because he thinks. But in what form? He perceives his body through the use of the senses; however, these have previously been unreliable. So Descartes determines that the only indubitable knowledge is that he is a thinking thing. Thinking is what he does, and his power must come from his essence. Descartes defines "thought" (cogitatio) as "what happens in me such that I am immediately conscious of it, insofar as I am conscious of it". Thinking is thus every activity of a person of which the person is immediately "conscious.[61] He gave reasons for thinking that waking thoughts are distinguishable from "dreams, and that one's mind cannot have been "hijacked" by an "evil demon placing an illusory external world before one's senses.[62]

And so something that I thought I was seeing with my eyes is in fact grasped solely by the faculty of judgment which is in my mind.

In this manner, Descartes proceeds to construct a system of knowledge, discarding "perception as unreliable and, instead, admitting only "deduction as a method.[63]

Dualism[edit]

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L'homme (1664)

Descartes, influenced by the "automatons on display throughout the city of Paris, began to investigate the connection between the mind and body, and how the two interact.[64] His main influences for "dualism were "theology and "physics.[65] The theory on the dualism of mind and body is Descartes' signature doctrine and permeates other theories he advanced. Known as "Cartesian dualism, his theory on the separation between the mind and the body went on to influence subsequent Western philosophies. In "Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes attempted to demonstrate the existence of "God and the distinction between the human soul and the body. Humans are a union of mind and body,[66] thus Descartes's dualism embraced the idea that mind and body are distinct but closely joined. While many contemporary readers of Descartes found the distinction between mind and body difficult to grasp, he thought it was entirely straightforward. Descartes employed the concept of modes, which are the ways in which substances exist. In "Principles of Philosophy Descartes explained "we can clearly perceive a substance apart from the mode which we say differs from it, whereas we cannot, conversely, understand the mode apart from the substance". To perceive a mode apart from its substance requires an intellectual abstraction,[67] which Descartes explained as follows:

"The intellectual abstraction consists in my turning my thought away from one part of the contents of this richer idea the better to apply it to the other part with greater attention. Thus, when I consider a shape without thinking of the substance or the extension whose shape it is, I make a mental abstraction."[68]

According to Descartes two substances are really distinct when each of them can exist apart from the other. Thus Descartes reasoned that God is distinct from humans, and the body and mind of a human are also distinct from one another.[69] He argued that the great differences between body and mind make the two always divisible. But that the mind was utterly indivisible, because "when I consider the mind, or myself in so far as I am merely a thinking thing, I am unable to distinguish any part within myself; I understand myself to be something quite single and complete."[70]

In Meditations Descartes discussed a piece of "wax and exposed the single most characteristic doctrine of Cartesian dualism: that the universe contained two radically different kinds of substances - the mind or soul defined as "thinking, and the body defined as matter and unthinking.[71] The "Aristotelian philosophy of Descartes' days held that the universe was inherently purposeful or theological. Everything that happened, be it the motion of the "stars or the growth of a "tree, was supposedly explainable by a certian purpose, goal or end that worked its way out within nature. Aristotle called this the "final cause", and these final causes were indispensable for explaining the ways nature operated. With his theory on dualism Descartes fired the opening shot for the battle between the traditional Aristotelian science and the new science of "Kepler and "Galileo which denied the final cause for explaining nature. Descartes' dualism provided the philosophical rationale for the latter and he expelled the final cause from the physical universe (or res extensa). For Descartes the only place left for the final cause was the mind (or res cogitans). Therefore, while Cartesian dualism paved the way for modern "physics, it also held the door open for religious beliefs about the immortality of the "soul.[72]

Descartes' dualism of mind and matter implied a concept of human beings. A human was according to Descartes a composite entity of mind and body. Descartes gave priority to the mind and argued that the mind could exist without the body, but the body could not exist without the mind. In Meditations Descartes even argues that while the mind is a substance, the body is composed only of "accidents".[73] But he did argue that mind and body are closely joined,[74] because:

"Nature also teaches me, by the sensations of pain, hunger, thirst and so on, that I am not merely present in my body as a pilot in his ship, but that I am very closely joined and, as it were, intermingled with it, so that I and the body form a unit. If this were not so, I, who am nothing but a thinking thing, would not feel pain when the body was hurt, but would perceive the damage purely by the intellect, just as a sailor perceives by sight if anything in his ship is broken.[75]

Descartes' discussion on embodiment raised one of the most perplexing problems of his dualism philosophy: What exactly is the relationship of union between the mind and the body of a person?[76] Therefore Cartesian dualism set the agenda for philosophical discussion of the "mind–body problem for many years after Descartes' death.[77] Descartes was also a "rationalist and believed in the power of "innate ideas.[78] Descartes argued the theory of "innate knowledge and that all humans were born with knowledge through the higher power of God. It was this theory of innate knowledge that later led philosopher "John Locke (1632-1704) to combat the theory of "empiricism, which held that all knowledge is acquired through experience.[79]

Descartes on physiology and psychology[edit]

In The Passions of the Soul written between 1645 and 1646 Descartes discussed the common contemporary belief that the human body contained animal spirits. These animal spirits were believed to be light and roaming fluids circulating rapidly around the nervous system between the brain and the muscles, and served as a metaphor for feelings, like being in high or bad spirit. These animal spirits were believed to affect the human soul, or "passions of the soul. Descartes distinguished six basic passions: wonder, love, hatred, desire, joy and sadness. All of these passions, he argued, represented different combinations of the original spirit, and influenced the soul to will or want certain actions. He argued, for example, that fear is a passion that moves the soul to generate a response in the body. In line with his dualist teachings on the separation between the soul and the body, he hypothesized that some part of the brain served as a connector between the soul and the body and singled out the "pineal gland as connector.[80] Descartes argued that signals passed from the ear and the eye to the pineal gland, through animal spirits. Thus different motions in the gland cause various animal spirits. He argued that these motions in the pineal gland are based on God's will and that humans are supposed to want and like things that are useful to them. But he also argued that that the animal spirits that moved around the body could distort the commands from the pineal gland, thus humans had to learn how to control their passions.[81]

Descartes advanced a theory on automatic bodily reactions to external events which influenced 19th century "reflex theory. He argued that external motions such as touch and sound reach the endings of the nerves and affect the animal spirits. Heat from fire affects a spot on the skin and sets in motion a chain of reactions, with the animal spirits reaching the brain through the central nervous system, and in turn animal spirits are sent back to the muscles to move the hand away from the fire.[82] Through this chain of reactions the automatic reactions of the body do not require a thought process.[83]

Above all he was among the first scientists who believed that the soul should be subject to scientific investigation. He challenged the views of his contemporaries that the soul was "divine, thus religious authorities regarded his books as dangerous. Descartes' writings went on to form the basis for theories on "emotions and how "cognitive evaluations were translated into affective processes. Descartes believed that the brain resembled a working machine and unlike many of his contemporaries believed that mathematics and mechanics could explain the most complicated processes of the mind. In the 20th century "Alan Turing advanced "computer science based on "mathematical biology as inspired by Descartes. His theories on reflexes also served as the foundation for advanced "physiological theories more than 200 years after his death. The Nobel Prize winning physiologist "Ivan Pavlov was a great admirer of Descartes.[84]

Three types of ideas[edit]

There are three kinds of ideas, Descartes explained: Fabricated, Innate and Adventitious. Fabricated ideas are inventions made by the mind. For example, a person has never eaten moose but assumes it tastes like cow. Adventitious ideas are ideas that cannot be manipulated or changed by the mind. For example, a person stands in a cold room, they can only think of the feeling as cold and nothing else. Innate ideas are set ideas made by God in a person’s mind. For example, the features of a shape can be examined and set aside, but its content can never be manipulated to cause it not to be a three sided object.[85]

Descartes' moral philosophy[edit]

For Descartes, "ethics was a science, the highest and most perfect of them. Like the rest of the sciences, ethics had its roots in metaphysics.[63] In this way, he argues for the existence of God, investigates the place of man in nature, formulates the theory of mind-body dualism, and defends "free will. However, as he was a convinced rationalist, Descartes clearly states that reason is sufficient in the search for the goods that we should seek, and "virtue consists in the correct reasoning that should guide our actions. Nevertheless, the quality of this reasoning depends on knowledge, because a well-informed mind will be more capable of making good "choices, and it also depends on mental condition. For this reason, he said that a complete moral philosophy should include the study of the body. He discussed this subject in the correspondence with "Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia, and as a result wrote his work The Passions of the Soul, that contains a study of the "psychosomatic processes and reactions in man, with an emphasis on emotions or passions.[86]

Humans should seek the "sovereign good that Descartes, following "Zeno, identifies with virtue, as this produces a solid "blessedness or "pleasure. For "Epicurus the sovereign good was pleasure, and Descartes says that, in fact, this is not in contradiction with Zeno's teaching, because virtue produces a spiritual pleasure, that is better than bodily pleasure. Regarding "Aristotle's opinion that happiness depends on the goods of fortune, Descartes does not deny that this good contributes to happiness but remarks that they are in great proportion outside one's own control, whereas one's mind is under one's complete control.[86] The moral writings of Descartes came at the last part of his life, but earlier, in his Discourse on the Method he adopted three maxims to be able to act while he put all his ideas into doubt. This is known as his ""Provisional Morals".

Descartes on religious beliefs[edit]

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René Descartes at work

In the third and fifth Meditation, he offers an "ontological proof of a benevolent God (through both the "ontological argument and "trademark argument). Because God is benevolent, he can have some faith in the account of reality his senses provide him, for God has provided him with a working mind and "sensory system and does not desire to deceive him. From this supposition, however, he finally establishes the possibility of acquiring knowledge about the world based on deduction and perception. Regarding "epistemology, therefore, he can be said to have contributed such ideas as a rigorous conception of "foundationalism and the possibility that "reason is the only reliable method of attaining knowledge. He, nevertheless, was very much aware that experimentation was necessary to verify and validate theories.[63]

In his Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes sets forth two proofs for God's existence. One of these is founded upon the possibility of thinking the "idea of a being that is supremely perfect and infinite," and suggests that "of all the ideas that are in me, the idea that I have of God is the most true, the most clear and distinct."[87] Descartes considered himself to be a devout Catholic[54][55][56] and one of the purposes of the Meditations was to defend the Catholic faith. His attempt to ground theological beliefs on reason encountered intense opposition in his time, however: "Pascal regarded Descartes' views as rationalist and mechanist, and accused him of "deism: "I cannot forgive Descartes; in all his philosophy, Descartes did his best to dispense with God. But Descartes could not avoid prodding God to set the world in motion with a snap of his lordly fingers; after that, he had no more use for God," while a powerful contemporary, "Martin Schoock, accused him of "atheist beliefs, though Descartes had provided an explicit critique of atheism in his Meditations. The Catholic Church prohibited his books in 1663.[41][88]

Descartes also wrote a response to "External world scepticism. Through this method of scepticism, he does not doubt for the sake of doubting but to achieve concrete and reliable information. In other words, certainty. He argues that "sensory perceptions come to him involuntarily, and are not willed by him. They are external to his senses, and according to Descartes, this is evidence of the existence of something outside of his mind, and thus, an external world. Descartes goes on to show that the things in the external world are material by arguing that God would not deceive him as to the ideas that are being transmitted, and that God has given him the "propensity" to believe that such ideas are caused by material things. Descartes also believes a substance is something that does not need any assistance to function or exist. Descartes further explains how only God can be a true “substance”. But minds are substances, meaning they need only God for it to function. The mind is a thinking substance. The means for a thinking substance stem from ideas.[85]

Descartes and natural science[edit]

Descartes is often regarded as the first thinker to emphasize the use of reason to develop the "natural sciences.[89] For him the philosophy was a thinking system that embodied all knowledge, and expressed it in this way:[63]

Thus, all Philosophy is like a tree, of which Metaphysics is the root, Physics the trunk, and all the other sciences the branches that grow out of this trunk, which are reduced to three principals, namely, Medicine, Mechanics, and Ethics. By the science of Morals, I understand the highest and most perfect which, presupposing an entire knowledge of the other sciences, is the last degree of wisdom.

In his Discourse on the Method, he attempts to arrive at a fundamental set of principles that one can know as true without any doubt. To achieve this, he employs a method called hyperbolical/metaphysical doubt, also sometimes referred to as methodological scepticism: he rejects any ideas that can be doubted and then re-establishes them in order to acquire a firm foundation for genuine knowledge.[90] Descartes built his ideas from scratch. He relates this to architecture: the top soil is taken away to create a new building or structure. Descartes calls his doubt the soil and new knowledge the buildings. To Descartes, Aristotle’s foundationalism is incomplete and his method of doubt enhances foundationalism.[62]

Descartes on animals[edit]

Descartes denied that animals had reason or intelligence. He argued that animals did not lack sensations or perceptions, but these could be explained mechanistically.[91] Whereas humans had a soul, or mind, and were able to feel "pain and "anxiety, animals by virtue of not having a soul could not feel pain or anxiety. If animals showed signs of distress then this was to protect the body from damage, but the innate state needed for them to "suffer was absent. Although Descartes' views were not universally accepted they became prominent in Europe and North America, allowing humans to treat animals with impunity. The view that animals were quite separate from humanity and merely "machines allowed for the maltreatment of animals, and was sanctioned in law and societal norms until the middle of the 19th century. The publications of "Charles Darwin would eventually erode the Cartesian view of animals. Darwin argued that the continuity between humans and other species opened the possibilities that animals did not have dissimilar properties to suffer.[92]

Historical impact[edit]

Emancipation from Church doctrine[edit]

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Cover of Meditations

Descartes has often been dubbed the father of modern "Western philosophy, the thinker whose approach has profoundly changed the course of Western philosophy and set the basis for "modernity.[11][93] The first two of his Meditations on First Philosophy, those that formulate the famous "methodic doubt, represent the portion of Descartes' writings that most influenced modern thinking.[94] It has been argued that Descartes himself didn't realize the extent of this revolutionary move.[95] In shifting the debate from "what is true" to "of what can I be certain?," Descartes arguably shifted the authoritative guarantor of truth from God to humanity (even though Descartes himself claimed he received his visions from God) – while the traditional concept of "truth" implies an external authority, "certainty" instead relies on the judgment of the individual.

In an "anthropocentric revolution, the human being is now raised to the level of a subject, an agent, an "emancipated being equipped with autonomous reason. This was a revolutionary step that established the basis of modernity, the repercussions of which are still being felt: the emancipation of humanity from Christian "revelational truth and "Church doctrine; humanity making its own law and taking its own stand.[96][97][98] In modernity, the guarantor of truth is not God anymore but human beings, each of whom is a "self-conscious shaper and guarantor" of their own reality.[99][100] In that way, each person is turned into a reasoning adult, a subject and agent,[99] as opposed to a child obedient to God. This change in perspective was characteristic of the shift from the Christian medieval period to the modern period, a shift that had been anticipated in other fields, and which was now being formulated in the field of philosophy by Descartes.[99][101]

This anthropocentric perspective of Descartes' work, establishing human reason as autonomous, provided the basis for the "Enlightenment's emancipation from God and the Church. According to Martin Heidegger, the perspective of Descartes' work also provided the basis for all subsequent "anthropology.[102] Descartes' philosophical revolution is sometimes said to have sparked modern "anthropocentrism and "subjectivism.[11][103][104][105]

Mathematical legacy[edit]

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A Cartesian coordinates graph, using his invented x and y axes

One of Descartes' most enduring legacies was his development of "Cartesian or analytic geometry, which uses algebra to describe geometry. He "invented the convention of representing unknowns in equations by x, y, and z, and knowns by a, b, and c". He also "pioneered the standard notation" that uses "superscripts to show the powers or exponents; for example, the 4 used in x4 to indicate squaring of squaring.[106][107] He was first to assign a fundamental place for algebra in our system of knowledge, using it as a method to automate or mechanize reasoning, particularly about abstract, unknown quantities. European mathematicians had previously viewed geometry as a more fundamental form of mathematics, serving as the foundation of algebra. Algebraic rules were given geometric proofs by mathematicians such as "Pacioli, "Cardan, "Tartaglia and "Ferrari. Equations of "degree higher than the third were regarded as unreal, because a three-dimensional form, such as a cube, occupied the largest dimension of reality. Descartes professed that the abstract quantity a2 could represent length as well as an area. This was in opposition to the teachings of mathematicians, such as "Vieta, who argued that it could represent only area. Although Descartes did not pursue the subject, he preceded "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in envisioning a more general science of algebra or "universal mathematics," as a precursor to "symbolic logic, that could encompass logical principles and methods symbolically, and mechanize general reasoning.[108]

Descartes' work provided the basis for the "calculus developed by "Newton and Leibniz, who applied infinitesimal calculus to the "tangent line problem, thus permitting the evolution of that branch of modern mathematics.[109] His "rule of signs is also a commonly used method to determine the number of positive and negative roots of a polynomial.

Descartes discovered an early form of the law of conservation of mechanical "momentum (a measure of the motion of an object), and envisioned it as pertaining to motion in a straight line, as opposed to perfect circular motion, as "Galileo had envisioned it. He outlined his views on the universe in his "Principles of Philosophy.

Descartes also made contributions to the field of "optics. He showed by using geometric construction and the "law of refraction (also known as Descartes' law or more commonly "Snell's law) that the angular radius of a "rainbow is 42 degrees (i.e., the angle subtended at the eye by the edge of the rainbow and the ray passing from the sun through the rainbow's centre is 42°).[110] He also independently discovered the "law of reflection, and his essay on optics was the first published mention of this law.[111]

Influence on Newton's mathematics[edit]

Current opinion is that Descartes had the most influence of anyone on the young Newton, and this is arguably one of Descartes' most important contributions. Newton continued Descartes' work on cubic equations, which freed the subject from the fetters of the Greek perspectives. The most important concept was his very modern treatment of independent variables.[112]

Contemporary reception[edit]

Although Descartes was well known in academic circles towards the end of his life, the teaching of his works in schools was controversial. Henri de Roy ("Henricus Regius, 1598–1679), Professor of Medicine at the University of Utrecht, was condemned by the Rector of the University, "Gijsbert Voet (Voetius), for teaching Descartes' physics.[113]

Writings[edit]

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Handwritten letter by Descartes, December 1638
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Principia philosophiae (1685)

In January 2010, a previously unknown letter from Descartes, dated 27 May 1641, was found by the Dutch philosopher Erik-Jan Bos when browsing through "Google. Bos found the letter mentioned in a summary of autographs kept by "Haverford College in "Haverford, Pennsylvania. The College was unaware that the letter had never been published. This was the third letter by Descartes found in the last 25 years.[114][115]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Shorto, Russell (2008). "Descartes' Bones". Doubleday. p. 218.  see also "The Louvre, Atlas Database
  2. ^ Alexander Afriat, "Cartesian and Lagrangian Momentum" (2004).
  3. ^ Marenbon, John (2007). Medieval Philosophy: an historical and philosophical introduction. "Routledge. p. 174. "ISBN "978-0-415-28113-3. 
  4. ^ H. Ben-Yami, Descartes' Philosophical Revolution: A Reassessment, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 76.
  5. ^ H. Ben-Yami, Descartes' Philosophical Revolution: A Reassessment, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 179: "[Descartes'] work in mathematics was apparently influenced by Vieta's, despite his denial of any acquaintance with the latter’s work."
  6. ^ "Étienne Gilson argued in La Liberté chez Descartes et la Théologie (Alcan, 1913, pp. 132–47) that Duns Scotus was not the source of Descartes' "Voluntarism. Although there exist doctrinal differences between Descartes and Scotus "it is still possible to view Descartes as borrowing from a Scotist Voluntarist tradition" (see: John Schuster, Descartes-Agonistes: Physcio-mathematics, Method & Corpuscular-Mechanism 1618–33, Springer, 2012, p. 363, fn. 26).
  7. ^ "She thinks, therefore I am". Columbia Magazine. Fall 2017. Retrieved 2017-09-17. 
  8. ^ "Jacques Bénigne Bossuet, French prelate and historian (1627–1704)" from the Encyclopædia Britannica, 10th Edition (1902)
  9. ^ "Descartes" entry in "Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins Publishers, 1998.
  10. ^ Colie, Rosalie L. (1957). Light and Enlightenment. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. 
  11. ^ a b c "Bertrand Russell (2004) History of western philosophy pp.511, 516–7
  12. ^ "Watson, Richard A. (31 March 2012). "René Descartes". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 
  13. ^ Nadler, Steven: The Philosopher, the Priest, and the Painter: A Portrait of Descartes. (Princeton University Press, 2015, "ISBN "9780691165752)
  14. ^ This idea had already been proposed by the Spanish philosopher "Gómez Pereira a hundred years ago in the form: "I know I know something. Everything that knows is: thus I am" (Nosco me aliquid noscere: at quidquid noscit, est: ergo ego sum). See: Gómez Pereira, De Inmortalitate Animae, 1749 [1554], p. 277; Santos López, Modesto (1986). "Gómez Pereira, médico y filósofo medinense". In: Historia de Medina del Campo y su Tierra, volumen I: Nacimiento y expansión, ed. by Eufemio Lorenzo Sanz, 1986.
  15. ^ Carlson, Neil R. (2001). Physiology of Behavior. Needham Heights, Massachusetts: Pearson: Allyn & Bacon. p. 8. "ISBN "0-205-30840-6. 
  16. ^ R. H. Moorman, "The Influence of Mathematics on the Philosophy of Spinoza", National Mathematics Magazine, Vol. 18, No. 3. (Dec., 1943), pp. 108–115.
  17. ^ a b Bruno, Leonard C. (2003) [1999]. Math and Mathematicians: The History of Math Discoveries Around the World. Baker, Lawrence W. Detroit, Mich.: U X L. p. 99. "ISBN "0787638137. "OCLC 41497065. 
  18. ^ Rodis-Lewis, Geneviève (1992). "Descartes' Life and the Development of His Philosophy". In "Cottingham, John. The Cambridge Companion to Descartes. Cambridge University Press. p. 22. "ISBN "978-0-521-36696-0. 
  19. ^ All-history.org
  20. ^ a b c d e f Bruno, Leonard C. (2003) [1999]. Math and Mathematicians: The History of Math Discoveries Around the World. Baker, Lawrence W. Detroit, Mich.: U X L. p. 100. "ISBN "0787638137. "OCLC 41497065. 
  21. ^ Clarke (2006), p. 24
  22. ^ "Porter, Roy (1999) [1997]. "The New Science". The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present (paperback edition, 135798642 ed.). Great Britain: Harper Collins. p. 217. "ISBN "0006374549. 
  23. ^ Baird, Forrest E.; Kaufmann, Walter (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 373–377. "ISBN "0-13-158591-6. 
  24. ^ a b c Guy Durandin (1970. Les Principes de la Philosophie. Introduction et notes. Librairie Philosophique. Paris: J. Vrin.
  25. ^ History.mcs.st-and.ac.uk
  26. ^ Battle of White Mountain,Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  27. ^ a b Bruno, Leonard C. (2003) [1999]. Math and mathematicians : the history of math discoveries around the world. Baker, Lawrence W. Detroit, Mich.: U X L. p. 101. "ISBN "0787638137. "OCLC 41497065. 
  28. ^ "Durant, Will; "Durant, Ariel (1961). "The Story of Civilization: Part VII, the Age of Reason Begins. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 637. "ISBN "0-671-01320-3. 
  29. ^ Clarke (2006), pp. 58–59.
  30. ^ Shea, William R., The Magic of Numbers and Motion, Science History Publications, U.S.A., 1991, pg. 94; Gaukroger, S. Descartes an intellectual biography, pg. 132.
  31. ^ WR Shea, The Magic of Numbers and Motion, pg 128 citing Baillet
  32. ^ Nicolas de Villiers, Sieur de Chandoux, Lettres sur l'or potable suivies du traité De la connaissance des vrais principes de la nature et des mélanges et de fragments d'un Commentaire sur l'Amphithéâtre de la Sapience éternelle de Khunrath, Textes édités et présentés par Sylvain Matton avec des études de Xavier Kieft et de Simone Mazauric. Préface de Vincent Carraud, Paris, 2013.
  33. ^ A.C.Grayling, Descartes in his times, 2005, pgs 130 to 140
  34. ^ "A.C. Grayling, Descartes: The Life of René Descartes and Its Place in His Times, Simon and Schuster, 2006, pp. 151–152
  35. ^ Durant, Will and Ariel (1961). The Story of Civilization: Par VII, the Age of reason Begins. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 638. "ISBN "0-671-01320-3. 
  36. ^ Russell Shorto, Descartes' Bones: A Skeletal History of the Conflict Between Faith and Reason "ISBN "978-0-385-51753-9 (New York, Random House, October 14th, 2008)
  37. ^ While in the Netherlands he changed his address frequently, living among other places in Dordrecht (1628), "Franeker (1629), Amsterdam (1629–30), "Leiden (1630), Amsterdam (1630–32), Deventer (1632–34), Amsterdam (1634–35), "Utrecht (1635–36), Leiden (1636), "Egmond (1636–38), "Santpoort (1638–1640), Leiden (1640–41), Endegeest (a castle near "Oegstgeest) (1641–43), and finally for an extended time in "Egmond-Binnen (1643–49).
  38. ^ He had lived with "Henricus Reneri in Deventer and Amsterdam, and had met with "Constantijn Huygens and Vopiscus Fortunatus Plempius; Descartes was interviewed by Frans Burman at Egmond-Binnen in 1648. "Henricus Regius, "Jan Stampioen, "Frans van Schooten, "Comenius and "Gisbertus Voetius were his main opponents.
  39. ^ a b c Bruno, Leonard C. (2003) [1999]. Math and mathematicians : the history of math discoveries around the world. Baker, Lawrence W. Detroit, Mich.: U X L. p. 103. "ISBN "0787638137. "OCLC 41497065. 
  40. ^ a b "Pierre de Fermat | Biography & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-11-14. 
  41. ^ a b Descartes, René. (2009). Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.
  42. ^ Blom, John J., Descartes. His Moral Philosophy and Psychology. New York University Press, 1978. "ISBN "0-8147-0999-0
  43. ^ a b Smith, Kurt (Fall 2010). "Descartes' Life and Works". "The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 
  44. ^ Bruno, Leonard C. (2003) [1999]. Math and mathematicians : the history of math discoveries around the world. Baker, Lawrence W. Detroit, Mich.: U X L. pp. 103–4. "ISBN "0787638137. "OCLC 41497065. 
  45. ^ Islandnet.com
  46. ^ Archive.org
  47. ^ Bruno, Leonard C. (2003) [1999]. Math and mathematicians: the history of math discoveries around the world. Baker, Lawrence W. Detroit, Mich.: U X L. p. 104. "ISBN "0787638137. "OCLC 41497065. 
  48. ^ Rue89.nouvelobs.com
  49. ^ Severity of winter seasons in the northern Baltic Sea between 1529 and 1990: reconstruction and analysis by S. Jevrejeva, p.6, Table 3
  50. ^ Pies Е., Der Mordfall Descartes, Solingen, 1996, and Ebert Т., Der rätselhafte Tod des René Descartes, Aschaffenburg, Alibri, 2009. French translation: L'Énigme de la mort de Descartes, Paris, Hermann, 2011
  51. ^ "Descartes was "poisoned by Catholic priest" – The Guardian, Feb 14 2010". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  52. ^ "Was Descartes murdered in Stockholm?". Stockholm News. 22 February 2010. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. ["self-published source]
  53. ^ Philosophyonthemesa.com
  54. ^ a b Rome and the Counter-Reformation in Scandinavia: The Age of Gustavus Adolphus and Queen Christina of Sweden, 1992, p. 510
  55. ^ a b Descartes: His Life and Thought, 1999, p. 207
  56. ^ a b Early Modern Philosophy of Religion: The History of Western Philosophy of Religion, 2014, p. 107
  57. ^ Andrefabre.e-monsite.com
  58. ^ The remains are, two centuries later, still resting between two other graves–those of the scholarly monks "Jean Mabillon and "Bernard de Montfaucon—in a chapel of the abbey.
  59. ^ "5 historical figures whose heads have been stolen". Strange Remains. 2015-07-23. Retrieved 2016-11-29. 
  60. ^ "Ten books: Chosen by Raj Persuade". The "British Journal of Psychiatry. 
  61. ^ Descartes, René (1644). The Principles of Philosophy (IX). 
  62. ^ a b Newman, Lex (2016-01-01). Zalta, Edward N., ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2016 ed.). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. 
  63. ^ a b c d Descartes, René. "Letter of the Author to the French Translator of the Principles of Philosophy serving for a preface". Translated by Veitch, John. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  64. ^ (PDF) http://people.whitman.edu/~herbrawt/classes/339/Descartes.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= ("help)
  65. ^ https://www.jstor.org/stable/20013943?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.  Missing or empty |title= ("help)
  66. ^ David Cunning (2014). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes’ Meditations. Cambridge University Press. p. 277. "ISBN "9781107729148. 
  67. ^ David Cunning (2014). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes’ Meditations. Cambridge University Press. p. 278. "ISBN "9781107729148. 
  68. ^ David Cunning (2014). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes’ Meditations. Cambridge University Press. p. 278. "ISBN "9781107729148. 
  69. ^ David Cunning (2014). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes’ Meditations. Cambridge University Press. p. 279. "ISBN "9781107729148. 
  70. ^ David Cunning (2014). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes’ Meditations. Cambridge University Press. p. 280. "ISBN "9781107729148. 
  71. ^ Georges Dicker (2013). Descartes: An Analytic and Historical Introduction. OUP USA. p. 86. "ISBN "9780195380323. 
  72. ^ Georges Dicker (2013). Descartes: An Analytic and Historical Introduction. OUP USA. p. 87. "ISBN "9780195380323. 
  73. ^ Georges Dicker (2013). Descartes: An Analytic and Historical Introduction. OUP USA. p. 301. "ISBN "9780195380323. 
  74. ^ Georges Dicker (2013). Descartes: An Analytic and Historical Introduction. OUP USA. p. 303. "ISBN "9780195380323. 
  75. ^ Georges Dicker (2013). Descartes: An Analytic and Historical Introduction. OUP USA. p. 303. "ISBN "9780195380323. 
  76. ^ Georges Dicker (2013). Descartes: An Analytic and Historical Introduction. OUP USA. p. 303. "ISBN "9780195380323. 
  77. ^ Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (online): Descartes and the Pineal Gland.
  78. ^ Eric Shiraev (2010). A History of Psychology: A Global Perspective: A Global Perspective. SAGE. p. 88. "ISBN "9781412973830. 
  79. ^ https://www.jstor.org/stable/27532614.  Missing or empty |title= ("help)
  80. ^ Eric Shiraev (2010). A History of Psychology: A Global Perspective: A Global Perspective. SAGE. p. 86. "ISBN "9781412973830. 
  81. ^ Eric Shiraev (2010). A History of Psychology: A Global Perspective: A Global Perspective. SAGE. p. 87. "ISBN "9781412973830. 
  82. ^ Eric Shiraev (2010). A History of Psychology: A Global Perspective: A Global Perspective. SAGE. p. 87. "ISBN "9781412973830. 
  83. ^ Eric Shiraev (2010). A History of Psychology: A Global Perspective: A Global Perspective. SAGE. p. 88. "ISBN "9781412973830. 
  84. ^ Eric Shiraev (2010). A History of Psychology: A Global Perspective. SAGE. p. 88. "ISBN "9781412973830. 
  85. ^ a b "Descartes, Rene | Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy". www.iep.utm.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-22. 
  86. ^ a b Blom, John J., Descartes. His moral philosophy and psychology. New York University Press. 1978. "ISBN "0-8147-0999-0
  87. ^ Descartes, Rene "Meditations on First Philosophy, 3rd Ed., Translated from Latin by: Donald A. Cress
  88. ^ Edward C. Mendler, False Truths: The Error of Relying on Authority, p. 16
  89. ^ "Grosholz, Emily (1991). Cartesian method and the problem of reduction. Oxford University Press. "ISBN "0-19-824250-6. But contemporary debate has tended to...understand [Cartesian method] merely as the 'method of doubt'...I want to define Descartes' method in broader terms...to trace its impact on the domains of mathematics and "physics as well as "metaphysics. 
  90. ^ Copenhaver, Rebecca. "Forms of skepticism". Archived from the original on 8 January 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2007. 
  91. ^ "Animal Consciousness, No. 2. Historical background". Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. 23 December 1995. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  92. ^ Lance Workman (2013). Charles Darwin: The Shaping of Evolutionary Thinking. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 177. "ISBN "9781137313232. 
  93. ^ Heidegger [1938] (2002), p. 76 quotation:

    Descartes... that which he himself founded... modern (and that means, at the same time, Western) metaphysics.

  94. ^ "Schmaltz, Tad M. Radical Cartesianism: The French Reception of Descartes p.27 quotation:

    The Descartes most familiar to twentieth-century philosophers is the Descartes of the first two Meditations, someone proccupied with hyperbolic doubt of the material world and the certainty of knowledge of the self that emerges from the famous cogito argument.

  95. ^ "Roy Wood Sellars (1949) Philosophy for the future: the quest of modern materialism quotation:

    Husserl has taken Descartes very seriously in a historical as well as in a systematic sense [...] [in The Crisis of the European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology, Husserl] finds in the first two Meditations of Descartes a depth which it is difficult to fathom, and which Descartes himself was so little able to appreciate that he let go "the great discovery" he had in his hands.

  96. ^ Martin Heidegger [1938] (2002) The Age of the World Picture quotation:

    For up to Descartes...a particular sub-iectum...lies at the foundation of its own fixed qualities and changing circumstances. The superiority of a sub-iectum...arises out of the claim of man to a...self-supported, unshakeable foundation of truth, in the sense of certainty. Why and how does this claim acquire its decisive authority? The claim originates in that emancipation of man in which he frees himself from obligation to Christian revelational truth and Church doctrine to a legislating for himself that takes its stand upon itself.

  97. ^ Ingraffia, Brian D. (1995) Postmodern theory and biblical theology: vanquishing God's shadow p.126
  98. ^ Norman K. Swazo (2002) Crisis theory and world order: Heideggerian reflections pp.97–9
  99. ^ a b c Lovitt, Tom (1977) introduction to "Martin Heidegger's The question concerning technology, and other essays, pp.xxv-xxvi
  100. ^ Briton, Derek The modern practice of adult education: a postmodern critique p.76
  101. ^ Martin Heidegger The Word of Nietzsche: God is Dead pp.88–90
  102. ^ Heidegger [1938] (2002), p. 75 quotation:

    With the interpretation of man as subiectum, Descartes creates the metaphysical presupposition for future anthropology of every kind and tendency.

  103. ^ Benjamin Isadore Schwart China and Other Matters p.95 quotation:

    ... the kind of anthropocentric subjectivism which has emerged from the Cartesian revolution.

  104. ^ "Charles B. Guignon Heidegger and the problem of knowledge p.23
  105. ^ "Husserl, Edmund (1931) "Cartesian Meditations: An Introduction to Phenomenology quotation:

    When, with the beginning of modern times, religious belief was becoming more and more externalized as a lifeless convention, men of intellect were lifted by a new belief: their great belief in an autonomous philosophy and science. [...] in philosophy, the Meditations were epoch-making in a quite unique sense, and precisely because of their going back to the pure ego cogito. Descartes work has been used, in fact to inaugurates an entirely new kind of philosophy. Changing its total style, philosophy takes a radical turn: from naïve objectivism to transcendental subjectivism.

  106. ^ René Descartes, Discourse de la Méthode (Leiden, Netherlands): Jan Maire, 1637, appended book: La Géométrie, book one, page 299. From page 299: " ... Et aa, ou a2, pour multiplier a par soy mesme; Et a3, pour le multiplier encore une fois par a, & ainsi a l'infini ; ... " ( ... and aa, or a2, in order to multiply a by itself; and a3, in order to multiply it once more by a, and thus to infinity ; ... )
  107. ^ Tom Sorell, Descartes: A Very Short Introduction (2000). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 19.
  108. ^ "Morris Kline, Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times (1972). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 280–281
  109. ^ "Gullberg, Jan (1997). Mathematics From The Birth of Numbers. W. W. Norton. "ISBN "0-393-04002-X. 
  110. ^ Tipler, P. A. and G. Mosca (2004). Physics For Scientists And Engineers. W. H. Freeman. "ISBN "0-7167-4389-2. 
  111. ^ "René Descartes". Encarta. Microsoft. 2008. Archived from the original on 7 September 2007. Retrieved 15 August 2007. 
  112. ^ Contemporary Newtonian Research, edited by Z. Bechler, p. 109-129, Newton the Mathematician, by Daniel T. Whiteside, Springer, 1982.
  113. ^ Cottingham, John, Dugald Murdoch, and Robert Stoothof. The Philosophical Writings of Descartes.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1985. 293.
  114. ^ Vlasblom, Dirk (25 February 2010). "Unknown letter from Descartes found". Nrc.nl. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  115. ^ (in Dutch)" Hoe Descartes in 1641 op andere gedachten kwam – Onbekende brief van Franse filosoof gevonden"

References[edit]

Collected works[edit]

Specific works[edit]

Collected English translations[edit]

Translation of single works[edit]

Secondary literature[edit]

External links[edit]

General

Bibliographies

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Other

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