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Rennes
Roazhon pronounced "[ˈrwaːzən]
"Prefecture and "commune
""Hdrt1 (Large).jpg
""Marché des Lices.jpg ""Hochbahnabschnitt Pontchaillou - Anatole France der Metro Rennes.jpg
""Esplanade du Général de Gaulle à Rennes.jpg ""L'Opéra de Rennes Bretagne.JPG ""Batiments de nuits -Univ Rennes 2 - Louis Arretche.jpg
""Rennes cathédrale mai 2010 - panorama 1.jpg
Top to bottom, left to right : City hall, Marché des Lices, "Rennes Metro, Esplanade Charles de Gaulle, Opera of Rennes by night, "University of Rennes 2, Skyline of Rennes from "Cathedral
""Flag of Rennes
Flag
""Coat of arms of Rennes
Coat of arms
Motto: Live in harmony (French: "Vivre en intelligence")
""Rennes is located in France
Rennes
Rennes
Coordinates: 48°06′53″N 1°40′46″W / 48.1147°N 1.6794°W / 48.1147; -1.6794"Coordinates: 48°06′53″N 1°40′46″W / 48.1147°N 1.6794°W / 48.1147; -1.6794
Country "France
"Region "Brittany
"Department "Ille-et-Vilaine
"Arrondissement "Rennes
"Canton "Rennes-1, "2, "3, "4, "5 and "6
"Intercommunality "Rennes Métropole
Government
 • Mayor (2014-2020) Nathalie Appéré ("PS)
Area1 50.39 km2 (19.46 sq mi)
Population (2013)2 211,373
 • Density 4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
"Time zone "CET ("UTC+1)
 • Summer ("DST) "CEST ("UTC+2)
"INSEE/Postal code 35238 /35000, 35200, 35700
Elevation 20–74 m (66–243 ft)
(avg. 30 m or 98 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 "Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Rennes (French: "[ʁɛn]; French: Rennes, "Gallo: Resnn, "Breton: Roazhon, "Latin: Condate, Civitas Redonum) is a city in the east of "Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the "Ille and the "Vilaine. Rennes is the capital of the "region of Brittany, as well as the "Ille-et-Vilaine "department.

Rennes's history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a small Gallic village named Condate. Together with "Vannes and "Nantes, it was one of the major cities of the historic province of "Brittany and the ancient "Duchy of Brittany. After the "French Revolution, Rennes remained for most of its history a parliamentary, administrative and garrison city of the "Kingdom of France.

Since the 1950s, Rennes has grown in importance through "rural flight and its modern industrial development, partly automotive. The city developed extensive building plans to accommodate upwards of 200,000 inhabitants. During the 1980s, Rennes became one of the main centres in "telecommunication and high technology industry. It is now a significant "digital innovation centre in France.

In 2015, the city is "the tenth largest in France, with a "metropolitan area of about 700,000 inhabitants.[1] With more than "63,000 students in 2013, is also the eighth-largest university campus of France.[2] The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais(e)(es) in French. In 2012, "l'Express named Rennes as "the most liveable city in France".[3]

Contents

History[edit]

Administration[edit]

Since 2015, Rennes is divided into 6 "cantons (populations as of 2014):[4][5]

""
""
Rennes quarters

Rennes is divided into 12 "quarters:

  1. Le Centre
  2. Thabor/Saint Hélier
  3. Bourg l'Évêque-Moulin du Comte
  4. Saint-Martin
  5. Maurepas-Patton-Bellangerais
  6. Jeanne d'Arc-Longs-Champs-Beaulieu
  7. Francisco Ferrer-Landry-Poterie
  8. Sud Gare
  9. Cleunay-Arsenal-Redon
  10. Villejean-Beauregard
  11. Le Blosne
  12. Bréquigny

Mayors[edit]

""
""
"Nathalie Appéré, current mayor of Rennes

The current mayor of Rennes is "Nathalie Appéré. A member of the "Socialist Party, she replaced retiring "Socialist incumbent "Daniel Delaveau, in office from 2008 to 2014.

Among previous well-known mayors are:

The mairie (city hall) is right in the centre of Rennes.

National representation[edit]

The "French Prison Service operates the "Centre pénitentiaire de Rennes, the largest "women's prison in France.[6]

Geography[edit]

""
""
Green Belt between Rennes and "L'Hermitage

The ancient centre of the town is built on a hill, with the north side being more elevated than the south side. It is at the confluence of two rivers: the "Ille and the "Vilaine.

Rennes is located on the "European atlantic arc, 50 km from the "English Channel (near "Saint-Malo, "Dinard and "Mont Saint-Michel).

Rennes has the distinction of having a significant "Green Belt around its ring road. This Green Belt is a protected area between the city proper (rather dense) and the rest of its urban area (rather rural).

Climate[edit]

Rennes features an "oceanic climate. Precipitation in Rennes is considerably less abundant than in the western parts of Brittany, reaching only half of the levels of, e.g., the city of "Quimper, which makes rainfall in Rennes comparable to the levels of larger parts of western Germany. Sunshine hours range between 1,700 and 1,850 annually, which is about the amount of sunshine received by the city of "Lausanne.

Climate data for Rennes, Brittany
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.8
(62.2)
19.8
(67.6)
23.4
(74.1)
28.7
(83.7)
30.8
(87.4)
36.3
(97.3)
38.3
(100.9)
39.5
(103.1)
34.8
(94.6)
30.0
(86)
21.4
(70.5)
17.8
(64)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
9.6
(49.3)
12.7
(54.9)
15.2
(59.4)
18.9
(66)
22.2
(72)
24.5
(76.1)
24.3
(75.7)
21.6
(70.9)
17.0
(62.6)
12.1
(53.8)
9.1
(48.4)
16.4
(61.5)
Average low °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
2.6
(36.7)
4.5
(40.1)
5.9
(42.6)
9.3
(48.7)
11.9
(53.4)
13.8
(56.8)
13.7
(56.7)
11.4
(52.5)
9.1
(48.4)
5.5
(41.9)
3.3
(37.9)
7.9
(46.2)
Record low °C (°F) −14.7
(5.5)
−11.2
(11.8)
−7.3
(18.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.2
(36)
5.5
(41.9)
4.0
(39.2)
1.9
(35.4)
−4.6
(23.7)
−7.5
(18.5)
−12.6
(9.3)
−14.7
(5.5)
Average "precipitation mm (inches) 67.6
(2.661)
49.1
(1.933)
51.6
(2.031)
50.9
(2.004)
67.2
(2.646)
46.7
(1.839)
49.1
(1.933)
37.8
(1.488)
59.0
(2.323)
74.8
(2.945)
67.5
(2.657)
72.7
(2.862)
694.0
(27.323)
Average precipitation days 11.5 9.4 9.8 9.9 9.8 7.3 7.3 6.4 7.7 11.1 11.7 12.4 114.4
Average snowy days 2.1 2.6 1.5 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.7 9.2
Average "relative humidity (%) 87 83 79 76 77 75 75 76 80 85 87 87 80.6
Mean monthly "sunshine hours 69.1 87.2 128.4 162.7 191.2 217.3 210.7 205.5 177.8 117.5 81.3 68.6 1,717.1
Source #1: Météo France[7][8]
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days 1961–1990)[9]

Population[edit]

In 2013, the inner population of the city was of 211,373 inhabitants, the Rennes intercommunal structure connecting Rennes with 42 nearby suburbs (named "Rennes Métropole) counted 426,502 inhabitants and the metropolitan area counted 700,675 inhabitants.

Rennes has "the second fastest-growing metropolitan area in France after "Toulouse and before "Montpellier, "Bordeaux and "Nantes.

The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais in French.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1770 23,143 —    
1790 25,160 +8.7%
1793 30,160 +19.9%
1800 25,904 −14.1%
1806 29,225 +12.8%
1821 29,589 +1.2%
1831 27,340 −7.6%
1836 35,552 +30.0%
1841 37,895 +6.6%
1846 39,218 +3.5%
Year Pop. ±%
1851 39,505 +0.7%
1856 45,664 +15.6%
1861 45,483 −0.4%
1866 48,283 +6.2%
1872 52,044 +7.8%
1876 57,177 +9.9%
1881 60,974 +6.6%
1886 66,139 +8.5%
1891 69,232 +4.7%
1896 69,937 +1.0%
Year Pop. ±%
1901 74,676 +6.8%
1906 75,640 +1.3%
1911 79,372 +4.9%
1921 82,241 +3.6%
1926 83,418 +1.4%
1931 88,659 +6.3%
1936 98,538 +11.1%
1946 113,781 +15.5%
1954 124,122 +9.1%
1962 151,948 +22.4%
Year Pop. ±%
1968 180,943 +19.1%
1975 198,305 +9.6%
1982 194,656 −1.8%
1990 197,536 +1.5%
1999 206,229 +4.4%
2009 206,604 +0.2%
2012 209,860 +1.6%
2014 213,454 +1.7%

Sights[edit]

Rennes is classified as a city of art and history.

Historic centre[edit]

The historic centre is located on the former plan of the ramparts. There is a difference between the northern city centre and the southern city centre due to the 1720 fire, which destroyed most of the timber framed houses in the northern part of the city. The rebuilding was done in stone, on a grid plan. The southern part, the poorest at this time, was not rebuilt.

Due to the presence of the parlement de Bretagne, many ""hôtels particuliers" were built in the northern part, the richest in the 18th century. Most of the "monuments historiques can be found there.

Colourful traditional "half-timbered houses are situated primarily along the roads of Saint-Sauveur, Saint-Georges, de Saint-Malo, Saint-Guillaume, des Dames, du Chapitre, Vasselot, Saint-Michel, de la Psallette and around the plazas of Champ-Jacquet, des Lices, Saint-Anne and Rallier-du-Baty.

The Parlement de Bretagne and city hall area[edit]

The "Parlement de Bretagne (Administrative and judicial centre of Brittany, "Breton: Breujoù Breizh) is the most famous 17th century building in Rennes. It was rebuilt after a terrible fire in 1994 that may have been caused by a flare fired by a protester during a demonstration. It houses the Rennes "Court of Appeal. The plaza around is built on the "classical architecture.

On the west, the Place de la Mairie (City Hall Plaza, Plasenn Ti Kêr) :

On the east, at the end of the Rue Saint-Georges with traditional "half-timbered houses :

On the south-east :

The Place des Lices and cathedral area[edit]

The Place des Lices is lined by "hôtels particuliers with the place Railler-du-Baty, is the location of the weekly big market, the marché des Lices.

Near the "Rennes Cathedral (cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Rennes) is the Rue du Chapitre :

On this era are the former St. Yves chapel, now the tourism office and a museum about the historical development of Rennes and the Basilica Saint-Sauveur

Remains of the ramparts[edit]

Built from the 3rd to the 12th centuries, the ramparts were largely destroyed between the beginning of the 16th century and the 1860s.

Place Saint-Anne area[edit]

Place Saint-Anne (Plasenn Santez-Anna)

South-western, La Rue Saint-Michel nicknamed Rue de La Soif (Road of Thirst) because there are bars all along this street.

South-eastern, the Champ-Jacquet square, with Renaissance buildings and a statue of mayor Jean Leperdit ripping up a "conscription list.

East : Thabor park area[edit]

Area of Saint-Melaine square

Notre-Dame-en-Saint-Melaine basilica,

"Jardin botanique du Thabor (formal French garden, orangerie, rose garden, aviary) a "botanical garden on 10 hectares of land, built between 1860 and 1867.

17th century promenade "la Motte à Madame", and a monumental stairway overlooking the Rue de Paris entrance to the Thabor.

South city centre[edit]

The south city centre is a mix of old buildings and 19th and 20th centuries constructions.

South of the Vilaine[edit]

The Fine Arts Museum is situated on Quai Émile Zola, by the "Vilaine River.

Les Champs Libres is a building on Esplanade Charles de Gaulle, and was designed by the architect Christian de Portzamparc. It houses the Brittany Museum (Musée de Bretagne), the regional library Bibliothèque de Rennes Métropole with six floors, and the Espace des Sciences science centre with a planetarium.

At Place Honoré Commeurec is Les Halles Centrales, a covered market from 1922, with one part converted into contemporary art gallery.

The Mercure Hotel is located in a restored building on Rue du Pré-Botté, which was the prior location of Ouest-Éclair, and then of "Ouest-France, a premier daily regional newspaper.

There are large mills at Rue Duhamel, constructed on each side of the south branch of the Vilaine in 1895 and 1902.

Other sights[edit]

To the northwest of Rennes, near Rue de Saint-Malo are the "locks of the "Canal d'Ille-et-Rance of 1843.

There are two halls of the printer, Oberthür, built by Marthenot between 1870 and 1895 on Rue de Paris in the eastern part of the city. Oberthür Park is the second biggest garden in the city.

The 17th century manor of Haute-Chalais, a granite château, is situated to the south of the city in Blosne Quarter (Bréquigny).

Parks and gardens[edit]

Parc du Thabor contains a compact but significant "botanical garden, the "Jardin botanique du Thabor. The "University of Rennes 1, with a campus in the city's eastern section, also contains a "botanical garden and collections (the "Jardin botanique de l'Université de Rennes).

Economy[edit]

""
""
Technopole Atalante

Local economy include car manufacturing, telecommunications, digital sector and agrofood.

The ITC firm Orange (ex-France Telecom) is the largest private employer with 4,800 people. "PSA Peugeot Citroën, is the second largest private employer in the metropolitan area of Rennes, with 4,000 people. PSA opened a manufacturing plant at La Janais in "Chartres-de-Bretagne in 1961. Technicolor, one of the biggest firms in TV and cinema broadcasting in the world employs over 500 people.

In a few years, Rennes became one of the main centres in high technology industry and digital. The city hosts one of the first "Technopoles established in France : Rennes Atalante which employs over 20,000 people.

Rennes is the 2nd concentration of digital and ITC firms in France after Paris (with well-known companies and "startups like "Atos, "SFR, Neosoft, "Orange S.A., "France Telecom, "Ericsson, Harmonic France, STmicroelectronics, "Technicolor R&D, "Ubisoft, Regionsjob, "Capgemini, "OVH, "Dassault Systèmes, Delta Dore, "Canon, Artefacto, "Enensys Technologies, Astellia, "Mitsubishi Electric R&D Europe, Digitaleo, "Alcatel-Lucent, "Kelbillet, "Texas Instruments, "Sopra Group, Niji, "Thales, Nemeus or "Logica). Rennes was one of the first French cities to receive the "French Tech label in November 2014. Moreover, Rennes hosts the 3rd public research potential in digital and ITC sectors in France, after Paris and Grenoble, with 3,000 people working in 10 laboratories, like well-known IRISA, IETR, IRMAR, DGA-MI (cyberdefense), SATIE, etc. It is also the 3rd innovation potential in agrofood French industry with lots of firms in this field ("Lactalis, Triballat Sojasun, Coralis, Panavi, Bridor, Claude Léger, Loïc Raison, Groupe Roullier, Sanders, etc.), an agro campus (Agrocampus Ouest) and a big international and professional expo, the Space (every year in September).

Other large firms located in Rennes include the restaurant conglomerate "Groupe Le Duff (owners of "Brioche Dorée, "Bruegger's, "La Madeleine, "Mimi's Cafe, "Timothy's World Coffee[10]), the first French newspaper "Ouest France (800,000 daily copies) and Samsic "Service (cleanliness, industrial safety, job search, etc.).

Culture[edit]

""
""
A festival by night at Thabor Park
""
""
Cultural plaza with cinema, Brittany museum, library, science space, planetarium, youth house, shopping centres or concert and exhibition halls
""
""
Brittany FRAC (Regional Fund for Contemporary Art)

Rennes is known to be one of the most festive cities of France. It invests heavily in arts and culture and a number of its festivals (such as the music festival Les "Transmusicales, Les Tombées de la Nuit, Mythos, Stunfest ("fighting game competition) and Travelling (a cinematic festival)) are well known throughout France. During the 80's, Rennes was often cited as the French town of rock and new wave music.[11]

Concerts hall[edit]

Rennes is well equipped in musical facilities :

Museums and exhibitions places[edit]

There are also five museums in Rennes:

In addition to this list, there is art facilities, such as 40mcube exhibition space or the centre for contemporary art La Criée.

There is also miscellaneous cultural places: the dance dedicated place the Triange, two "Art et Essai" - art house cinemas - cinemas called l'Arvor and Cine TNB. Remark that the surrounding cities house many other cultural places.

Media[edit]

Rennes was one of the first towns in France to have its own local television channel 'TV Rennes', created in 1987.

Rennes has also local radio stations (Hit West, Radio Campus, Canal B, Radio Caroline, Radio Rennes, Radio Laser) and local newspapers or magazines (Ouest-France, Le Mensuel de Rennes, Place Publique, 20 Minutes Rennes).

Local culture[edit]

Local languages[edit]

In Brittany, two regional languages are spoken: "Breton and "Gallo. In and around Rennes, Gallo was traditionally spoken as a local language, but Breton has always been spoken by regional migrants coming from the western part of the region.

Nowadays, the "Breton language is taught in one "Diwan school, some bilingual public and Catholic schools, in evening courses, and in university.[12]

The municipality launched a linguistic plan through "Ya d'ar brezhoneg on 24 January 2008.

In 2008, 2.87% of primary school children were enrolled in bilingual primary schools, and the number of pupils enrolled in these schools is steadily growing.[13]

Local food[edit]

""
""
Cider and galette with eggs, ham and cheese

Specialties from Rennes include:

Many other Breton specialties (seafood, milk, vegetables, cheese, meat) are seen at the Marché des Lices, a weekly market held every Saturday morning (one of the most important markets in France).

Education[edit]

""
""
Rennes 1 University.
""
""
Campus of Villejean.

The Rennes agglomeration has a large student population (around 63,000).

The city has two main universities; "Université de Rennes 1, which offers courses in science, technology, medicine, philosophy, law, management and economics and "Université Rennes 2, which has courses in the arts, literature, languages, communication, human and social sciences and sport. The official website of Université Rennes 2 identifies that facility as "the largest research and higher learning institution in Arts, Literature, Languages, Social Sciences and Humanities in the West of France."

There are a few "École Supérieures in Rennes, like the École Normale Supérieure de Rennes on the Ker Lann campus, just outside Rennes, the "Institut d'études politiques de Rennes or the "ESC Rennes School of Business.

There is also branches of "École Supérieure d'Électricité – "Supélec and "Telecom Bretagne in the east of the city ("Cesson-Sévigné), a campus of the "École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies, a campus of the "École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées, and the "grande école "Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, which is next to the "École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes".

The computer science and applied mathematics research institute, "IRISA, is located on the campus of the Université des Sciences, nearby Cesson-Sévigné. The "Délégation Générale pour l'Armement (defence procurement agency) operates the CELAR research centre, dedicated to electronics and computing, in Bruz, a neighbouring town.

"Catholic University of Rennes (Institut Catholique de Rennes) is a Catholic university founded in 1989.

The city is also home to an American study abroad program for high school students, "School Year Abroad, in which students are immersed in French culture through five classes in the language and a nine-month home stay.[14]

The École Compleméntaire Japonaise de Rennes (レンヌ補習授業校 Rennu Hoshū Jugyō Kō), a "part-time Japanese supplementary school, is held in the Collège Anne de Bretagne in Rennes.[15]

Sport[edit]

""
""
Flares of the Roazhon Celtic Kop at the Roazhon Park.

Football club[edit]

Handball[edit]

Road bicycle[edit]

Rugby[edit]

Transport[edit]

""
""
An elevated section of Metro
""
""
VéloStar
""
""
Rennes Airport

Rennes has well-developed national road, rail and air links.

Public transport[edit]

Local transport is based primarily on an extensive bus network (65 lines) and a "metro line that was inaugurated in March 2002 and cost €500 million to build. The driverless "Rennes Metro ("VAL) is 9.4 km (5.8 mi) in length and has 15 stations, including one designed by architect "Norman Foster (La Poterie station). A second metro line is being planned, it should be operational by 2019, and the construction began in 2014.[16]

Cycling[edit]

Rennes provides other modes of local transport : a bike sharing system with 900 bicycles (named vélo STAR). Rennes created the first system of modern French bike sharing (1998).

Roads[edit]

The city is an important hub of Brittany's motorway network and is surrounded by a ring road : the Rocade (national road 136). The construction of the bypass was started in 1968 and completed in 1999. It is 31 km (18.5 mi) long, it has 2 lanes each way (sometimes 3 lanes) and toll free. Many other expressways are connected to the Rennes ring road for local and regional service. By road, "Saint-Malo can be reached in 45 minutes, "Nantes in 1 hour, "Brest in 2 hours and 30 minutes, "Paris in 4 hours, "Bordeaux in 5 hours and "Bruxelles in 6 hours and 30 minutes.

Railway[edit]

Rennes has a major French railway station, the "Gare de Rennes, opened in 1857. It is now two hours by "TGV high speed train from Paris (this will be reduced to one hour and 27 minutes on July 2 2017, after extension of the "High Speed Rail Line[17]). Train service is available to other big cities in France such as "Lyon, "Marseille, "Lille and "Strasbourg. Rennes is also an important railway station for regional transport in Brittany. The "TER Bretagne provide links to "Saint-Malo, "Nantes, "Redon, "Vitré, "Saint-Brieuc, "Vannes, "Laval, "Brest and many other regional cities. It is served by Gare station on the VAL "Rennes Metro.

Airport[edit]

Rennes is served by "Rennes Brittany Airport (Saint-Jacques), located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the centre to the south-west in the commune "Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande.

It notably operates regular or seasonal flights to "Paris-Charles de Gaulle, "Lyon, "Marseille, "Nice, "Toulouse, "Barcelona, "Palma de Mallorca, "Rome-Fiumicino, "Southampton, "Dublin, "Manchester, "Amsterdam Schiphol, "Madrid Barajas, "Birmingham, "London-City, "London-Gatwick and daily flights to "London Southend Airport with Flybe.

Notable people[edit]

(by alphabetical order)

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

""
""
Twinned towns inscribed on the bridge over the central canal.

Rennes is "twinned with:

(These twinned towns are inscribed on the bridge over the central canal of Rennes)

Within France

Pacts of cooperation

Sponsorship

In Rennes is also the only Institut Franco-Américain in France.

Broadcasting facilities[edit]

Cityscape[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] INSEE.fr
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ Décret n° 2014-177 du 18 février 2014 portant délimitation des cantons dans le département d'Ille-et-Vilaine
  5. ^ INSEE 2014 legal populations of the Ille-et-Vilaine department
  6. ^ "French pedophilia trial casts unsettling light on women sex offenders." "Agence France Presse at "The Island. 14 March 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
  7. ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Rennes" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  8. ^ "Climat France" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  9. ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Rennes-St Jacques (35) - altitude 36m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  10. ^ [4]
  11. ^ http://www.dmagalerie.com/rennes-1981-08-avr-08-mai-2011
  12. ^ (in French) L'état de la langue bretonne dans l'enseignement en Ille-et-Vilaine (State of the Breton language in education in Ille-et-Vilaine) from Ofis ar Brezhoneg
  13. ^ (in French) Ofis ar Brezhoneg: Enseignement bilingue
  14. ^ http://ayearinrennes.weebly.com/
  15. ^ "欧州の補習授業校一覧(平成25年4月15日現在)" (Archive). "Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Retrieved on May 10, 2014. "College Anne de Bretagne 15, rue de Martenot, 35000 RENNES"
  16. ^ (in French) Rennes.maville.com Le projet de nouvelle ligne du métro sur les rails
  17. ^ "Rennes à 1h30 de Paris en 2014 – France – Toute l'actualité en France". France Info. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  18. ^ "British towns twinned with French towns [via WaybackMachine.com]". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  19. ^ "Town twinning". Exeter City Council. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  20. ^ "City of Brno Foreign Relations - Statutory city of Brno" (in Czech). 2003 City of Brno. Retrieved 6 September 2011.  External link in |publisher= ("help)
  21. ^ "Brno – Partnerská města" (in Czech). 2006–2009 City of Brno. Retrieved 17 July 2009.  External link in |publisher= ("help)
  22. ^ Mulcahy, Noreen. "Cork - International Relations". Cork City Council. Archived from the original on 2013-05-18. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  23. ^ "Poznań - Miasta partnerskie". 1998–2013 Urząd Miasta Poznania (in Polish). City of Poznań. Archived from the original on 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2013-12-11. 
  24. ^ "Poznań Official Website – Twin Towns". ""Flag of Poland.svg (in "Polish) 1998–2008 Urząd Miasta Poznania. Retrieved 29 November 2008. 

External links[edit]


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