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In "parliamentary systems it is common that both the government (executive) and the parliament have legislative initiative, but it also can be restricted to the government and the "lower house of parliament, or even to the government alone.
In "presidential systems legislative initiative usually only rests with the "congress, such as in the "United States. This, however, does not preclude the executive from suggesting the introduction of certain laws to their backers in the congress.
In France, ministerial bills are called law projects and parliament's bills are called law proposals.
In France, bills are proposed by the government. One of the ministers propose the bill to those concerned by his or her application. Then, if the different ministers agree, the bill is sent to the secrétariat général du gouvernement and then to the "Conseil d'État, the "Council of Ministers, Parliament, and so on... The "Conseil d'État (and sometimes the "Constitutional Council) has the duty to advise the government on projects of law.
Any MP can propose a law to Parliament. Law proposals, unlike law projects, can be directly deposed if they do not increase the state's expenditure.
Only 10% of laws that are passed are proposed by Members of Parliament. This is mainly because the government has several means to limit the power of Parliament :
The legislative initiative of Parliament has both good and bad points. The principal criticism is that lobbies could persuade Parliament to satisfy them before other citizens. On the other hand, legislative initiative is the best way for Parliament to defend itself against possible encroachments to its power.
The "European Commission has the right of legislative initiative. However, under the Treaty of Maastricht enhanced by the Lisbon Treaty, the European Parliament has an indirect right of legislative initiative that allows it to ask the Commission to submit a proposal. Member states also have the right of legislative initiative concerning the "Common Foreign and Security Policy. In fact only 10% of all legislative proposals come from the commission["citation needed]. Others proposals made by the Commission are initially requested by the member states, the parliament, or other organizations, for example "NGOs).["citation needed]
Some politicians, including "Jean-Pierre Chevènement and "Dominique Strauss-Kahn, feel that the Commission's monopoly on legislative initiative prevent the emergence or development of real democratic debate.