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Roger Williams
""Roger Williams statue by Franklin Simmons.jpg
Roger Williams statue by "Franklin Simmons
9th "President of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
In office
Preceded by "Nicholas Easton
Succeeded by "Benedict Arnold
Personal details
Born 21 December 1603
London, England
Died between 27 January and 15 March 1683 (aged 79)
"Providence, "Rhode Island
Spouse(s) Mary Barnard
Children 6
"Alma mater "Pembroke College, Cambridge
Occupation "Reformed minister, statesman, author, "Reformed Baptist preacher
Signature ""

Roger Williams (c. 21 December 1603 – between 27 January and 15 March 1683)[1] was a "Puritan minister, English "Reformed theologian, and "Reformed Baptist who founded the "Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. He was a staunch advocate for religious freedom, "separation of church and state, and fair dealings with "American Indians, and he was one of the first "abolitionists.[2][3]

Williams was expelled by the Puritan leaders from the "Massachusetts Bay Colony for spreading "new and dangerous ideas", and he began settling the "Providence Plantations as a refuge offering what he called "liberty of conscience" in 1636. In 1638, he founded the "First Baptist Church in America, also known as the First Baptist Church of Providence.[4][5] He was a student of "Native American languages, and he organized the first attempt to prohibit slavery in any of the "British American colonies.[3]


Early life[edit]

Roger Williams was born in "London around 1603, though the exact date is unknown because his birth records were destroyed in the "Great Fire of London of 1666 when "St Sepulchre's Church was burned.[6][7][8][9] His father James Williams (1562–1620) was a merchant tailor in "Smithfield, and his mother was Alice Pemberton (1564–1635). He had a spiritual conversion at an early age, of which his father disapproved.

As a teen, Williams was apprenticed under Sir "Edward Coke (1552–1634) the famous "jurist. He was educated at "Charterhouse School under Coke's patronage, and also at "Pembroke College, Cambridge (Bachelor of Arts, 1627).[10] He seemed to have a gift for languages and early acquired familiarity with "Latin, "Hebrew, "Greek, "Dutch, and French. Years later, he tutored "John Milton in Dutch in exchange for refresher lessons in Hebrew.[11]

Williams took "holy orders in the "Church of England in connection with his studies, but he became a "Puritan at Cambridge and thus ruined his chance for preferment in the Anglican church. After graduating from Cambridge, he became the chaplain to "Sir William Masham. He married Mary Barnard (1609–76) on 15 December 1629 at the Church of "High Laver, "Essex, England. They ultimately had six children, all born in America: Mary, Freeborn, Providence, Mercy, Daniel, and Joseph.

Williams knew that Puritan leaders planned to migrate to the New World. He did not join the first wave, but he decided before the year ended that he could not remain in England under Archbishop "William Laud's rigorous administration. He regarded the Church of England as corrupt and false, and he had arrived at the "Separatist position by the time that he and his wife boarded the Lyon in early December, 1630.[12]

Life in America[edit]

The Boston church offered Williams a post in 1631 filling in for Rev. John Wilson[3] while Wilson returned to England to fetch his wife. However, Williams declined the position on grounds that it was "an unseparated church". In addition, he asserted that civil magistrates must not punish any sort of "breach of the first table" of the "Ten Commandments such as idolatry, Sabbath-breaking, false worship, and blasphemy, and that individuals should be free to follow their own convictions in religious matters. These three principles became central to his teachings and writings: separatism, liberty of conscience, and "separation of church and state.

Salem and Plymouth[edit]

As a Separatist, Williams considered the "Church of England irredeemably corrupt and believed that one must completely separate from it to establish a new church for the true and pure worship of God. The "Salem church was also inclined to Separatism, and they invited him to become their teacher. The leaders in Boston vigorously protested, and Salem withdrew its offer. As the summer of 1631 ended, Williams moved to "Plymouth Colony where he was welcomed, and he informally assisted the minister there. He regularly preached and, according to "Governor William Bradford, "his teachings were well approved".

Roger Williams House (or ""The Witch House") in "Salem c. 1910

After a time, Williams decided that the Plymouth church was not sufficiently separated from the Church of England. Furthermore, his contact with the "Narragansett Indians had caused him to question the validity of the colonial charters that did not include legitimate purchase of Indian land. Governor Bradford later wrote that Williams fell "into some strange opinions which caused some controversy between the church and him".[13] In December 1632, Williams wrote a lengthy tract that openly condemned the King's charters and questioned the right of Plymouth to the land without first buying it from the Indians. He even charged that "King James had uttered a "solemn lie" in claiming that he was the first Christian monarch to have discovered the land. Williams moved back to Salem by the fall of 1633 and was welcomed by Rev. "Samuel Skelton as an unofficial assistant.

Litigation and exile[edit]

Statue of Massasoit in Plymouth, overlooking the site of "Plymouth Rock

The Massachusetts Bay authorities were not pleased at Williams' return. In December 1633, they summoned him to appear before the General Court in Boston to defend his tract attacking the King and the charter. The issue was smoothed out, and the tract disappeared forever, probably burned. In August 1634, Williams became acting pastor of the Salem church, the Rev. Skelton having died. In March 1635, he was again ordered to appear before the General Court, and he was summoned yet again for the Court's July term to answer for "erroneous" and "dangerous opinions". The Court finally ordered that he be removed from his church position.

This latest controversy welled up as the town of Salem petitioned the General Court to annex some land on "Marblehead Neck. The Court refused to consider the request unless the church in Salem removed Williams. The church felt that this order violated their independence, and sent a letter of protest to the other churches. However, the letter was not read publicly in those churches, and the General Court refused to seat the delegates from Salem at the next session. Support for Williams began to wane under this pressure, and he withdrew from the church and began meeting with a few of his most devoted followers in his home.

Finally, in October 1635, the General Court tried Williams and convicted him of sedition and heresy. They declared that he was spreading "diverse, new, and dangerous opinions" [14] and ordered that he be banished. The execution of the order was delayed because Williams was ill and winter was approaching, so he was allowed to stay temporarily, provided that he ceased publicly teaching his opinions. He failed to do so, and the sheriff came in January 1636, only to discover that he had slipped away three days earlier during a blizzard. He traveled 55 miles through the deep snow, from Salem to "Raynham, Massachusetts where the local "Wampanoags offered him shelter at their winter camp. Their "Sachem "Massasoit hosted Williams for the three months until spring.

Settlement at Providence[edit]

Narragansett Indians receiving Roger Williams

In the spring of 1636, Williams and a number of others from Salem began a new settlement on land which he had bought from Massasoit in "Rumford, Rhode Island. However, Plymouth authorities asserted that he was within their land grant and were concerned that his presence there might anger the leaders of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Williams and his friends had already planted their crops, but they decided to move across the "Seekonk River just the same, as that territory lay beyond any charter. They rowed across and encountered "Narragansett Indians who greeted them with the phrase, "What cheer, Neetop" (hello, friend). Williams acquired land from "Canonicus and "Miantonomi, chief sachems of the Narragansetts. He and 12 "loving friends" then established a new settlement which Williams called ""Providence" because he felt that God's Providence had brought them there.[15] Williams named his third child Providence, the first to be born in the new settlement.

Williams wanted his settlement to be a haven for those "distressed of conscience", and it soon attracted a collection of dissenters and otherwise-minded individuals. From the beginning, a majority vote of the heads of households governed the new settlement, but only in civil things. Newcomers could also be admitted to full citizenship by a majority vote. In August 1637, a new town agreement again restricted the government to civil things. In 1640, 39 freemen (men who had full citizenship and voting rights) signed another agreement which declared their determination "still to hold forth liberty of conscience". Thus, Williams founded the first place in modern history where citizenship and religion were separate, providing religious liberty and separation of church and state. This was combined with the principle of "majoritarian democracy.

In November 1637, the General Court of Massachusetts disarmed, disenfranchised, and forced into exile some of the "Antinomians, including the followers of "Anne Hutchinson. "John Clarke was among them, and he learned from Williams that "Rhode Island might be purchased from the Narragansetts; Williams helped him to make the purchase, along with "William Coddington and others, and they established the settlement of "Portsmouth. In spring 1638, some of those settlers split away and founded the nearby settlement of "Newport, also situated on Rhode Island (which is today called Aquidneck Island).

Pequot War and relations with Indians[edit]

In the meantime, the "Pequot War had broken out. Massachusetts Bay asked for Williams' help, which he gave despite his exile, and he became the Bay colony's eyes and ears, and also dissuaded the Narragansetts from joining with the Pequots. Instead, the Narragansetts allied themselves with the Colonists and helped to crush the Pequots in 1637–38. The Narragansetts thus became the most powerful Indian tribe in southern New England.

Williams formed firm friendships and developed deep trust among the Indian tribes, especially the Narragansetts. He was able to keep the peace between the Indians and the "Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations for nearly 40 years by his constant mediation and negotiation. He twice surrendered himself as a hostage to the Indians to guarantee the safe return of a great "sachem from a summons to a court: Pessicus in 1645 and "Metacom ("King Philip") in 1671. Williams was trusted by the Indians more than any other Colonist, and he proved trustworthy.

However, the other New England colonies began to fear and mistrust the Narragansetts, and soon came to regard the Rhode Island colony as a common enemy. In the next three decades, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Plymouth exerted pressure to destroy both Rhode Island and the Narragansetts. In 1643, the neighboring colonies formed a military alliance called the United Colonies which pointedly excluded the towns around Narragansett Bay. The object was to put an end to the heretic settlements, which they considered an infection. In response, Williams traveled to England to secure a charter for the colony.

Return to England and charter matters[edit]

Williams arrived in London in the midst of the "English Civil War. Puritans held power in London, and he was able to obtain a charter through the offices of "Sir Henry Vane the Younger, despite strenuous opposition from Massachusetts' agents. His first published book "A Key into the Language of America (1643) proved crucial to the success of his charter, albeit indirectly.[16][17] It combined a phrase-book with observations about life and culture as an aid to communicate with the Indians of "New England, covering everything from salutations to death and burial. Williams also sought to correct English attitudes of superiority toward the American Indians:

Boast not proud English, of thy birth & blood;
Thy brother Indian is by birth as Good.
Of one blood God made Him, and Thee and All,
As wise, as fair, as strong, as personal.

Key was the first dictionary of any Indian language, and it fed the great curiosity of English people about the American Indians. It was printed by John Milton's publisher "Gregory Dexter who had become a resident of "Providence Plantations, and it quickly became a bestseller and provided Williams with a large and favorable reputation.

Return of Roger Williams from England with the First Charter from Parliament for "Providence Plantations in July 1644

Williams secured his charter from Parliament for Providence Plantations in July 1644, after which he published his most famous book "The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience. This produced a great uproar, and Parliament responded in August by ordering the public hangman to burn all copies—but Williams himself was already on his way back to New England.

It took Williams several years to get the four towns around Narragansett Bay to unite under a single government because of William Coddington's opposition on Aquidneck Island (which they called Rhode Island at the time), but the four settlements finally united in 1647 into the "Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Freedom of conscience was again proclaimed, and the colony became a safe haven for people who were persecuted for their beliefs, including Baptists, Quakers, and Jews. Still, the divisions between the towns and among powerful personalities did not bode well for the colony. Coddington never liked Williams, nor did he like being subordinated to the new charter government. He sailed to England and returned to Rhode Island in 1651 with "his own patent making him "Governor for Life" over Aquidneck Island and Conanicut Island.

As a result, Providence, Warwick, and Coddington's opponents on Aquidneck dispatched Roger Williams and John Clarke to England to get Coddington's commission canceled. Williams sold his trading post at Cocumscussec (near "Wickford, Rhode Island) to pay for his journey even though it was his main source of income. He and Clarke succeeded in getting Coddington's patent rescinded, and Clarke remained in England for the next decade to protect the colonists' interests and secure a new charter. Williams returned to America in 1654 and was immediately elected the colony's President. He subsequently served in many offices in town and colonial governments.

In 1641, Massachusetts Bay Colony passed the first laws to make slavery legal in the colonies, and these laws were applied in Plymouth and Connecticut with the creation of the United Colonies in 1643. Roger Williams and "Samuel Gorton both opposed slavery, and Providence Plantations (Providence and Warwick) passed a law on 18 May 1652 intended to prevent slavery in the colony during the time when Coddington's followers had separated from Providence. However, when the four towns of the colony were reunited, the Aquidneck towns refused to accept this law, making it a dead letter.[18] For the next century, "Newport was the economic and political center of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and that town disregarded the anti-slavery law. Instead, Newport entered the African slave trade in 1700, after Williams' death, and became the leading port for American ships carrying slaves in the colonial American "triangular trade until the "American Revolutionary War.[19]

Relations with the Baptists[edit]

"First Baptist Church in America. Williams co-founded the congregation in 1638.

By 1638, Williams had come to accept the idea of believer's baptism, or "credobaptism. He had been holding services in his home for some time for his neighbors, many of whom had followed him from Salem. To that point, they had been like the Separatists of Plymouth, still believing in infant baptism. Williams came to accept the ideas of English antipedobaptists, that a valid baptism required knowing consent.

"John Smyth, "Thomas Helwys, and "John Murton were co-founders of the "General Baptist movement in England and had written extensively about liberty of conscience. Williams had commented on them in his Bloudy Tenent. Smyth, Helwys, and Murton were General Baptists, but a "Calvinistic Baptist variety grew out of some Separatists after 1640. Williams became a Calvinist or "Particular Baptist.

However, Williams had not adopted antipedobaptist views before his banishment from Massachusetts, for that had not been a charge against him in those legal proceedings. Gov. Winthrop instead attributed Williams's ""Anabaptist" views to the influence of "Katherine Scott, a sister of "Anne Hutchinson. It is possible that she impressed upon Williams the importance of believers' baptism, though it seems that Williams likely arrived there from his own studies.["citation needed]

Ezekiel Holliman baptised Williams in late 1638.[20] Thus began a church that still survives as the "First Baptist Church in America. A few years later, "John Clarke, Williams' compatriot in the cause of religious freedom in the New World, established the "First Baptist Church in Newport, Rhode Island, which suddenly claimed to be the first Baptist church in America in 1847. If nothing else, Roger Williams had gathered and resigned from the Providence church before the town of Newport was even founded. Still, both Roger Williams and John Clarke are variously credited as being the founder of the Baptist faith in America.[21]

Williams never again affiliated himself with any church, but remained deeply religious and active in preaching and praying. He looked forward to the time when Christ would send a new apostle to restore the church but, in the meantime, he remained a "witness" to Christianity. Williams remained interested in the Baptists, agreeing with their rejection of "infant baptism and most other matters. Both enemies and admirers sometimes called him a ""Seeker", first as a smear in England by associating Williams with a heretical movement that accepted "Socinianism and "universal salvation. Williams rejected both of these ideas.[22]

King Philip's War and death[edit]

Williams' final resting place in "Prospect Terrace Park in "Providence, Rhode Island
The "Roger Williams Root" in the collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society

"King Philip's War (1675–1676) pitted the colonists against Indians with whom Williams had good relations in the past. Williams, although in his 70s, was elected captain of Providence's militia. That war proved to be one of the bitterest events in his life, as his efforts ended with the burning of Providence in March 1676, including his own house.

Williams died in 1683 sometime between January and March and was buried on his own property. Fifty years later, his house collapsed into the cellar and the location of his grave was forgotten. According to the "National Park Service, in 1860, Providence residents determined to raise a monument in his honor "dug up the spot where they believed the remains to be, they found only nails, teeth, and bone fragments. They also found an apple tree root" which they thought followed the shape of a human body; the root followed the shape of a spine, split at the hips, bent at the knees, and turned up at the feet.[23] The "Rhode Island Historical Society has cared for this tree root since 1860 as representative of Rhode Island's founder, and has had it on display in the "John Brown House since 2007.[24]

Separation of church and state[edit]

Williams was a staunch advocate of "separation of church and state. He was convinced that there was no scriptural basis for a state church, and historian Timothy Hall suggests that Williams had arrived at this conclusion before landing in Boston in 1631.[25] He declared that the state should concern itself only with matters of civil order, not with religious belief, and he rejected any attempt to enforce the "first Table" of the "Ten Commandments, those commandments that dealt with the relationship between God and individuals. Instead, Williams believed that the state must confine itself to the commandments dealing with the relations between people: murder, theft, adultery, lying, and honoring parents.[26] He employed the metaphor of a "wall of separation" between church and state, which was later used by "Thomas Jefferson in his "Letter to Danbury Baptists (1801).[27][28]

Williams considered it "forced worship" if the state attempted to promote any particular religious idea or practice, and he declared, "Forced worship stinks in God's nostrils."[29] He considered "Constantine the Great to be a worse enemy to Christianity than "Nero because the subsequent state support corrupted Christianity and led to the death of the Christian church. He described the attempt to compel belief as "rape of the soul" and spoke of the "oceans of blood" shed as a result of trying to command conformity.[30] The moral principles in the Scriptures ought to inform the civil magistrates, he believed, but he observed that well-ordered, just, and civil governments existed even where Christianity was not present. Thus, all governments had to maintain civil order and justice, but Williams decided that none had a warrant to promote or repress any religion. Most of his contemporaries criticized his ideas as a prescription for chaos and anarchy, and the vast majority believed that each nation must have its national church and could require that dissenters conform.


Williams's career as an author began with "A Key into the Language of America (London, 1643), written during his first voyage to England. His next publication was Mr. Cotton's Letter lately Printed, Examined and Answered (London, 1644; reprinted in Publications of the Narragansett Club, vol. ii, along with Cotton's letter which it answered). His most famous work is "The Bloody Tenent of Persecution, for Cause of Conscience (published in 1644), considered by some to be one of the best defenses of liberty of conscience.[31]

An anonymous pamphlet was published in London in 1644 entitled Queries of Highest Consideration Proposed to Mr. Tho. Goodwin, Mr. Phillip Nye, Mr. Wil. Bridges, Mr. Jer. Burroughs, Mr. Sidr. Simpson, all Independents, etc. which is now ascribed to Williams. These "Independents" were members of the "Westminster Assembly; their Apologetical Narration sought a way between extreme Separatism and Presbyterianism, and their prescription was to accept the state church model of Massachusetts Bay.

Williams published The Bloody Tenent yet more Bloody: by Mr. Cotton's Endeavor to wash it white in the Blood of the Lamb; of whose precious Blood, spilt in the Bloud of his Servants; and of the Blood of Millions spilt in former and later Wars for Conscience sake, that most Bloody Tenent of Persecution for cause of Conscience, upon, a second Tryal is found more apparently and more notoriously guilty, etc. (London, 1652) during his second visit to England. This work reiterated and amplified the arguments in Bloody Tenent, but it has the advantage of being written in answer to Cotton's A Reply to Mr. Williams his Examination (Publications of the Narragansett Club, vol. ii.).

Other works by Williams include:

A volume of his letters is included in the Narragansett Club edition of Williams' Works (7 vols., Providence, 1866–74), and a volume was edited by "J. R. Bartlett (1882).

"Brown University's "John Carter Brown Library has long housed a 234-page volume referred to as the "Roger Williams Mystery Book".[32] The margins of this book are filled with notations in handwritten code, believed to be the work of Roger Williams. In 2012, Brown University undergraduate Lucas Mason-Brown cracked the code and uncovered conclusive historical evidence attributing its authorship to Williams.[33] Translations are revealing transcriptions of a geographical text, a medical text, and 20 pages of original notes addressing the issue of "infant baptism.[34] Mason-Brown has since discovered more writings by Williams employing a separate code in the margins of a rare edition of "Eliot's Indian Bible.[35]


Statue of Williams at "Roger Williams University
The statue of Williams at "Prospect Terrace Park overlooks the city he founded

Williams' legacy has grown over time with changing values.

His defense of American Indians, accusations that Puritans had reproduced the "evils" of the "Anglican Church, and his denial that the king had authority to grant charters for colonies put him at the center of nearly every political debate during his life.

By the time of "American independence, moreever, he was considered a defender of religious freedom. He has continued to be praised by generations of historians as a unique figure in early colonial history and a key influence on the "Founding Fathers.

Tributes to Williams include:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Roger Williams (American religious leader)". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 February 2017. 
  2. ^ "Roger Williams". History.com. A&E Television Networks. 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c Barry, John M. (January 2012). "God, Government and Roger Williams' Big Idea". "Smithsonian. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  4. ^ "Our History". American Baptist Churches USA. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  5. ^ "First Baptist Meetinghouse, 75 North Main Street, Providence, Providence County, RI". Library of Congress. 
  6. ^ William Gammell, Life of Roger Williams, the Founder of the State of Rhode Island, Boston: Gould and Lincoln, 59 Washington Street. 1854
  7. ^ Romeo Elton, Life of Roger Williams, the earliest Legislator and true Champion for a Full and Absolute Liberty of Conscience, London: Albert Cockshaw, 41, Ludgate Hill. New York: G.P. Putnam London: Miall and Cockhaw, Printers, Horse-Shoe Court, Ludgate Hill
  8. ^ James D. Knowles, Memoir of Roger Williams the Founder of the State of Rhode-Island, Boston: Lincoln, Edmands and Co. 1834 Lewis & Penniman, Printers. Bromfield-street.
  9. ^ Rev. Z.A. Mudge, Foot-Prints of Roger Williams: A Biography, with sketches of important events in early New England History, with which he was connected, New York: Carlton & Lanahan. San Francisco: E. Thomas. Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Waldon. Sunday-School Department. (Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871)
  10. ^ "Williams, Roger (WLMS623R)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  11. ^ Pfeiffer, Robert H. (April 1955). "The Teaching of Hebrew in Colonial America". The Jewish Quarterly Review. pp. 363–73. "JSTOR 1452938.
  12. ^ "A Brief history of Jacob Belfry" Page 40, 1888
  13. ^ Quoted in Edwin Gaustad,Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America Judson Press, 1999, p. 28.
  14. ^ LaFantasie, Glenn W., ed. The Correspondence of Roger Williams, University Press of New England, 1988, Vol. 1, pp.12–23.
  15. ^ An Album of Rhode Island History by Patrick T. Conley
  16. ^ Gaustad, Edwin S.,Liberty of Conscience (Judson Press, 1999), p. 62
  17. ^ Ernst, Roger Williams: New England Firebrand (Macmillan, 1932), p. 227-228
  18. ^ McLoughlin, William G. Rhode Island: A History (W.W. Norton, 1978), p. 26.
  19. ^ Coughtry, Jay, The Notorious Triangle: Rhode Island and the African Slave Trade, 1700–1807 (Temple University Press, 1981).
  20. ^ One frequently sees the founding date as March 1639. This reflects an entry in Governor "John Winthrop's journal about the new church in Providence, although the actual baptism had taken place sometime earlier.
  21. ^ "Newport Notables". Redwood Library. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. 
  22. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead (1960): History of Religion in the United States. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., p. 106
  23. ^ Bryant, Sparkle (19 October 2015). "The Tree Root That Ate Roger Williams". NPS News Releases. National Park Service. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  24. ^ Rhode Island Historical Society, "Body, Body, Who's Got the Body? Where in the World IS Roger Williams", New and Notes, (Spring/Winter, 2008), p. 4.
  25. ^ Timothy Hall (1998). Separating Church and State: Roger Williams and Religious Liberty. University of Illinois Press. p. 72. 
  26. ^ Hall (1998). Separating Church and State: Roger Williams and Religious Liberty. p. 77. 
  27. ^ Barry, John M. (January 2012). "God, Government and Roger Williams' Big Idea". Smithsonian. Retrieved 2017-12-15. 
  28. ^ "Everson and the Wall of Separation". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Pew Research Center. 14 May 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  29. ^ Lemons, Stanley. "Roger Williams Champion of Religious Liberty". Providence, RI City Archives. 
  30. ^ Chana B. Cox (2006). Liberty: God's Gift to Humanity. Lexington Books. p. 26. 
  31. ^ James Emanuel Ernst, Roger Williams, New England Firebrand (Macmillan Co., Rhode Island, 1932), pg. 246 [1]
  32. ^ Mason-Brown, Lucas. "Cracking the Code: Infant Baptism and Roger Williams". JCB Books Speak. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  33. ^ Fischer, Suzanne. "Personal Tech for the 17th Century". The Atlantic. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  34. ^ McKinney, Michael (March 2012). "Reading Outside the Lines" (PDF). The Providence Journal. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  35. ^ Mason-Brown, Lucas. "Cracking the Code: Infant Baptism and Roger Williams". JCB Books Speak. Brown University. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 

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