Roguelike is a subgenre of role-playing video games, characterized by "procedural generation of "game levels, turn-based gameplay, tile-based graphics, "permanent death of the player-character, and typically based on a "high fantasy narrative setting. Roguelikes descend from the 1980 game "Rogue, particularly mirroring Rogue's "character- or "sprite-based graphics. Some of the factors used in this definition include: These games were popularized among college students and computer programmers of the 1980s and 1990s, leading to a large number of variants but adhering to these common gameplay elements. Some of the more well-known variants include "Hack, "NetHack, "Ancient Domains of Mystery, "Moria, "Angband, and "Tales of Maj'Eyal. The Japanese series of "Mystery Dungeon games by "Chunsoft, inspired by Rogue, also fall within the concept of roguelike games.
More recently, with more powerful home computers and gaming systems, new variations of roguelikes incorporating other gameplay genres, thematic elements and graphical styles have become popular, typically retaining the notion of procedural generation. These titles are sometimes labeled as "roguelike-like", "rogue-lite", or "procedural death labyrinths" to reflect the variation from titles which mimic the gameplay of traditional roguelikes more faithfully. Other games, like "Diablo and "UnReal World, took inspiration from roguelikes.
Typically action RPGs feature each player directly controlling a single character in real time, and feature a strong focus on combat and action with plot and character interaction kept to a minimum. Early action RPGs tended to follow the template set by 1980s "Nihon Falcom titles such as the "Dragon Slayer and "Ys series, which feature "hack and slash combat where the "player character's movements and actions are controlled directly, using a "keyboard or "game controller, rather than using menus. This formula was refined by the "action-adventure game, "The Legend of Zelda (1986), which set the template used by many subsequent action RPGs, including innovations such as an "open world, "nonlinear gameplay, battery backup "saving, and an attack button that animates a sword swing or projectile attack on the screen. The game was largely responsible for the surge of action-oriented RPGs released since the late 1980s, both in Japan and North America. "The Legend of Zelda series would continue to exert an influence on the transition of both console and computer RPGs from stat-heavy, turn-based combat towards real-time action combat in the following decades.
A different variation of the action RPG formula was popularized by "Diablo (1996), where the majority of commands—such as moving and attacking—are executed using "mouse clicks rather than via menus, though learned spells can also be assigned to hotkeys. In many action RPGs, "non-player characters serve only one purpose, be it to buy or sell items or upgrade the player's abilities, or issue them with combat-centric quests. Problems players face also often have an action-based solution, such as breaking a wooden door open with an axe rather than finding the key needed to unlock it, though some games place greater emphasis on character attributes such as a "lockpicking" skill and puzzle-solving.["citation needed]
One common challenge in developing action RPGs is including content beyond that of killing enemies. With the sheer number of items, locations and monsters found in many such games, it can be difficult to create the needed depth to offer players a unique experience tailored to his or her beliefs, choices or actions. This is doubly true if a game makes use of randomization, as is common. One notable example of a game which went beyond this is "Deus Ex (2000) which offered multiple solutions to problems using intricately layered story options and individually constructed environments. Instead of simply bashing their way through levels, players were challenged to act in character by choosing dialog options appropriately, and by using the surrounding environment intelligently. This produced an experience that was unique and tailored to each situation as opposed to one that repeated itself endlessly.
At one time, action RPGs were much more common on consoles than on computers. Though there had been attempts at creating action-oriented computer RPGs during the late 1980s and early 1990s, often in the vein of "Zelda, very few saw any success, with the 1992 game "Ultima VII being one of the more successful exceptions in North America. On the PC, Diablo's effect on the market was significant: it had many imitators and its style of combat went on to be used by many games that came after. For many years afterwards, games that closely mimicked the Diablo formula were referred to as "Diablo clones". Three of the four titles in the series were still sold together as part of the Diablo Battle Chest over a decade after Diablo's release. Other examples of action RPGs for the PC include "Dungeon Siege, "Sacred, "Torchlight and "Hellgate: London—the last of which was developed by a team headed by former Blizzard employees, some of whom had participated in the creation of the Diablo series. Like Diablo and Rogue before it, Torchlight and Hellgate: London made use of "procedural generation to generate game levels.
Also included within this subgenre are "role-playing shooters—games that incorporate elements of role-playing games and "shooter games (including "first-person and "third-person). Recent examples include the "Mass Effect series, "Borderlands 2 and "The 3rd Birthday.
This subgenre of turn-based role-playing games principally refers to games which incorporate elements from "strategy games as an alternative to traditional role-playing game (RPG) systems. Tactical RPGs are descendents of traditional strategy games, such as "chess, and table-top role-playing and strategic "war games, such as "Chainmail, which were mainly tactical in their original form. The format of a tactical CRPG is also like a traditional RPG in its appearance, pacing and rule structure. Like standard RPGs, the player controls a finite party and battles a similar number of enemies. And like other RPGs, death is usually temporary, albeit some have permanent death of party members. But this genre incorporates strategic gameplay such as tactical movement on an "isometric grid. Tactical RPGs tend not to feature "multiplayer play.
A number of early Western role-playing video games used a highly tactical form of combat, including parts of the "Ultima series, which introduced party-based, tiled combat in "Ultima III: Exodus (1983). Ultima III would go on to be ported to many other platforms and influence the development of later titles, as would "Bokosuka Wars (1983), considered a pioneer in the strategy/simulation RPG genre, according to Nintendo. Conventionally, however, the term tactical RPG (known as simulation RPG in Japan) refers to the distinct subgenre that was born in Japan; as the early origins of tactical RPGs are difficult to trace from the American side of the Pacific, where much of the early RPG genre developed.
Many tactical RPGs can be both extremely time-consuming and extremely difficult. Hence, the appeal of most tactical RPGs is to the hardcore, not casual, computer and video game player. Traditionally, tactical RPGs have been quite popular in "Japan but have not enjoyed the same degree of success in North America and elsewhere. However, the audience for Japanese tactical RPGs has grown substantially since the mid-90s, with "PS1 and "PS2 titles such as "Final Fantasy Tactics, "Suikoden Tactics, "Vanguard Bandits, and "Disgaea enjoying a surprising measure of popularity, as well as hand-held war games like "Fire Emblem. (Final Fantasy Tactics for the PS1 is often considered the breakthrough title outside Japan.) Older TRPGs are also being re-released via "software emulation—such as on the "Wii "Virtual Console—and on "handheld game consoles, giving games a new lease on life and exposure to new audiences. Japanese video games such as these are as a result no longer nearly as rare a commodity in North America as they were during the 1990s.
Western video games have utilized similar mechanics for years, as well, and were largely defined by "X-COM: UFO Defense (1994) in much the same way as Eastern video games were by Fire Emblem. Titles such as X-COM have generally allowed greater freedom of movement when interacting with the surrounding environment than their Eastern counterparts. Other similar examples include the "Jagged Alliance (1994–2013) and "Silent Storm (2003–2005) series. According to a few developers, it became increasingly difficult during the 2000s to develop games of this type for the PC in the West (though several had been developed in Eastern Europe with mixed results); and even some Japanese console RPG developers began to complain about a bias against turn-based systems. Reasons cited include Western publishers' focus on developing real-time and action-oriented games instead.
Lastly, there are a number of "full-fledged" CRPGs which could be described as having "tactical combat". Examples from the classic era of CRPGs include parts of the aforementioned Ultima series; SSI's "Wizard's Crown (1985) and "The Eternal Dagger (1987); the "Gold Box games of the late '80s and early '90s, many of which were later ported to Japanese video game systems; and the "Realms of Arkania (1992-1996) series based on the German "The Dark Eye pen-and-paper system. More recent examples include "Wasteland 2, "Shadowrun: Dragonfall and "Divinity: Original Sin—all released in 2014. Partly due to the release of these games 2014 has been called "The CRPG Renaissance".
Though many of the original RPGs for the PLATO mainframe system in the late 1970s also supported multiple, simultaneous players, the popularity of "multiplayer modes in mainstream RPGs did not begin to rise sharply until the early to mid-1990s. For instance, "Secret of Mana (1993), an early "action role-playing game by "Square, was one of the first commercial RPGs to feature "cooperative multiplayer gameplay, offering two-player and three-player action once the main character had acquired his party members. Later, "Diablo (1996) would combine CRPG and "action game elements with an "Internet multiplayer mode that allowed up to four players to enter the same world and fight monsters, trade items, or fight against each other.
Also during this time period, the "MUD genre that had been spawned by "MUD1 in 1978 was undergoing a tremendous expansion phase due to the release and spread of "LPMud (1989) and "DikuMUD (1991). Soon, driven by the mainstream adoption of the Internet, these parallel trends merged in the popularization of "graphical MUDs, which would soon become known as "massively multiplayer online role-playing games or MMORPGs, beginning with games like "Meridian 59 (1995), "Nexus: The Kingdom of the Winds (1996), "Ultima Online (1997), "Lineage (1998), and "EverQuest (1999), and leading to modern phenomena such as "RuneScape (2001), "Final Fantasy XI (2003), "Eve Online (2003) and "World of Warcraft (2004).
Though superficially similar, MMORPGs lend their appeal more to the socializing influences of being online with hundreds or even thousands of other players at a time, and trace their origins more from MUDs than from CRPGs like Ultima and Wizardry. Rather than focusing on the "old school" considerations of memorizing huge numbers of stats and esoterica and battling it out in complex, tactical environments, players instead spend much of their time forming and maintaining guilds and "clans. The distinction between CRPGs and MMORPGs and MUDs can as a result be very sharp, likenable to the difference between "attending a "renaissance fair and reading a good fantasy novel".
Further, MMORPGs have been criticized for diluting the "epic" feeling of single-player RPGs and related media among thousands of concurrent adventurers. Stated simply: every player wants to be "The Hero", slay "The Monster", rescue "The Princess", or obtain "The Magic Sword". But when there are thousands of players all playing the same game, clearly not everyone can be the hero. This problem became obvious to some in the game EverQuest, where groups of players would compete and sometimes harass each other in order to get monsters in the same dungeon to drop valuable items, leading to several undesirable behaviors such as "kill stealing, "spawn camping, and "ninja looting. In response—for instance by Richard Garriott in "Tabula Rasa—developers began turning to "instance dungeons as a means of reducing competition over limited resources, as well as preserving the gaming experience—though this mechanic has its own set of detractors.
Lastly, there exist markets such as Korea and China that, while saturated with MMORPGs, have so far proved relatively unreceptive to single-player RPGs. For instance, Internet-connected personal computers are relatively common in Korea when compared to other regions—particularly in the numerous ""PC bangs" scattered around the country where patrons are able to pay to play multiplayer video games—possibly due to historical bans on Japanese imports, as well as a culture that traditionally sees video games as "frivolous toys" and computers as educational. As a result, some wonder whether the stand-alone, single-player RPG is still viable commercially—especially on the personal computer—when there are competing pressures such as big-name publishers' marketing needs, video game piracy, a change in culture, and the competitive price-point-to-processing-power ratio (at least initially) of modern console systems.[Note 4]
Finally, a steadily increasing number of other non-RP video games have adopted aspects traditionally seen in RPGs, such as experience point systems, equipment management, and choices in dialogue, as developers push to fill the demand for role-playing elements in non-RPGs. The blending of these elements with a number of different "game engines and "gameplay styles have created a myriad of hybrid game categories formed by mixing popular gameplay elements featured in other genres such as "first-person shooters, "platformers, and "turn-based and "real-time strategy games. Examples include first-person shooters such as parts of the "Deus Ex (starting in 2000) and "S.T.A.L.K.E.R. (starting in 2007) series; real-time strategy games such as "SpellForce: The Order of Dawn (2003) and "Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of War II (2009); "puzzle video games such as Castlevania Puzzle (2010) and "Puzzle Quest: Challenge of the Warlords (2007); and turn-based strategy games like the "Steel Panthers (1995–2006) series, which combined tactical military combat with RPG-derived unit advancement. As a group, hybrid games have been both praised and criticized; being referred to by one critic as the "poor man's" RPG for omitting the dialogue choices and story-driven character development of major AAA titles in order to cut costs, and by another critic as "promising" for shedding the conventions of more established franchises in an attempt to innovate.
Popularity and notable developers
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The vast majority of RPG games that were successful were made from Japanese companies, making Japan a dominant country in an entertainment genre in East Asia, along with the "Cinema of Hong Kong and the "Korean wave, further increasing the prophecy that East Asian products are superior to those of the West. Notable RPG developers include "Don Daglow for creating the first role-playing video game, Dungeon, in 1975; "Yuji Horii for creating the Dragon Quest series; "Hironobu Sakaguchi for creating the Final Fantasy series; "Richard Garriott for creating the Ultima series; "Brenda Romero for writing and design work on the entire "Wizardry series, and "Ray Muzyka and "Greg Zeschuk for founding "BioWare. Ryozo Tsujimoto ("Monster Hunter series) and Katsura Hashino ("Persona series) were also cited as "Japanese Game Developers You Should Know" by "1UP.com in 2010. Other notable RPG developers are "Bethesda Game Studios, creators of "Fallout 3", ""Fallout 4", and "The Elder Scrolls series, and "CD Projekt, creators of "The Witcher series and "Cyberpunk 2077.
The "best-selling RPG series worldwide is "Pokémon, which has sold over 260 million units as of March 2014. The second and third best-selling RPG franchises worldwide are "Square Enix's "Final Fantasy and "Dragon Quest series, with over 110 million units and over 64 million units sold as of March 31, 2014, respectively. "Pokémon Red, Blue, and Green alone sold approximately 23.64 million copies (10.23 million in Japan, 9.85 million in US, 3.56 million in UK). Nearly all the games in the main Final Fantasy series and all the games in the main Dragon Quest series (as well as many of the spin-off games) have sold over a million copies each, with some games selling more than four million copies. Square Enix's best-selling title is Final Fantasy VII, which has sold over 10 million copies worldwide.
Among the best-selling PC RPGs overall is the massively multiplayer online game "World of Warcraft with 11.5 million subscribers as of May 2010. Among single player PC RPGs, "Diablo II has sold the largest amount,["citation needed] with the most recently cited number being over 4 million copies as of 2001. However, copies of the Diablo: Battle Chest continued to be sold in retail stores, with the compilation appearing on the "NPD Group's top 10 PC games sales, list as recently as 2010. Further, Diablo: Battle Chest was the 19th best selling PC game of 2008—a full seven years after the game's initial release; and 11 million users still play Diablo II and "StarCraft over Battle.net. As a franchise, the Diablo series has sold over 20 million copies. "Diablo III was released for Windows and OS X on May 15, 2012. It was also released for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 on September 3, 2013, and it will also be released for both PlayStation 4 and Xbox One on August 19, 2014.
The Dragon Quest series was awarded with six world records in the 2008 "Gamer's Edition of the "Guinness Book of World Records, including "Best Selling Role Playing Game on the Super Famicom", "Fastest Selling Game in Japan", and "First Video Game Series to Inspire a Ballet". Likewise, the Pokémon series received eight records, including "Most Successful RPG Series of All Time". Diablo II was recognized in the 2000 standard edition for being the fastest selling computer game ever sold, with more than 1 million units sold in the first two weeks of availability; though this number has been surpassed several times since. A number of RPGs are also being exhibited in the "Barbican Art Gallery's ""Game On" exhibition (starting in 2002) and the "Smithsonian's ""The Art of Video Games" exhibit (starting in 2012); and video game developers are now finally able to apply for grants from the US "National Endowment of the Arts.
According to "Metacritic, as of May 2011, the highest-rated game is the "Xbox 360 version of "Mass Effect 2, with an average metascore of 96 out of 100.[Note 5] According to "GameRankings, the four top-rated video game RPGs, as of May 2010, are Mass Effect 2 with an average rating of 95.70% for the Xbox 360 version and 94.24% for the PC version; "Fallout 3: Game of the Year Edition with an average rating of 95.40% for the PlayStation 3 version; "Chrono Trigger with an average rating of 95.10%; and "Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic with an average rating of 94.18% for the "Xbox version. Sales numbers for these six aforementioned titles are 10 million units sold worldwide for Final Fantasy VII as of May 2010; 161,161 units of Xenoblade Chronicles sold in Japan as of December 2010; 1.6 million units sold worldwide for Mass Effect 2 as of March 2010, just three months after release; 4.7 million units for Fallout 3 on all three platforms as of November 2008, also only a few months after publication; 3 million units for both the Xbox and PC versions of Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic as of November 2004; and more than 2.65 million units for the SNES and PlayStation versions of Chrono Trigger as of March 2003, along with 790,000 copies for the "Nintendo DS version as of March 31, 2009. Among these titles, none were PC-exclusives, three were North American multi-platform titles released for consoles like the Xbox and Xbox 360 within the past decade, and three were Japanese titles released for consoles like the "SNES, "PlayStation and "Wii.
Final Fantasy VII topped "GamePro's "26 Best RPGs of All Time" list, "IGN's 2000 "Reader's Choice Game of the Century" poll, and the "GameFAQs "Best Game Ever" audience polls in 2004 and 2005. It was also selected in "Empire magazine's "100 Greatest Games of All Time" list as the highest-ranking RPG, at #2 on the list. On IGN's "Top 100 Games Of All Time" list in 2007, the highest ranking RPG is "Final Fantasy VI at 9th place; and in both the 2006 and 2008 IGN Readers' Choice polls, Chrono Trigger is the top ranked RPG, in 2nd place. Final Fantasy VI is also the top ranked RPG in "Game Informer's list of its 200 best games of all time list, in 8th place; and is also one of the eight games to get a cover for the magazine's 200th issue. The 2006 "Famitsu readers' poll is dominated by RPGs, with nearly a dozen titles appearing in the top twenty; while most were Japanese, a few Western titles also made a showing. The highest-ranking games on the list were "Final Fantasy X, followed by Final Fantasy VII and "Dragon Warrior III. For the past decade, the "Megami Tensei series topped several "RPGs of the Decade" lists. RPGFan's "Top 20 RPGs of the Past Decade" list was topped by "Shin Megami Tensei: Digital Devil Saga & "Digital Devil Saga 2 followed by "Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3, while RPGamer's "Top RPGs of the Decade" list was topped by Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3, followed by Final Fantasy X and "World of Warcraft.
Lastly, in recent years, Western RPGs have consistently been released on consoles such as the Xbox and Xbox 360. However, systems like the Xbox and Xbox 360 have not shown as much market dominance in Eastern markets such as Japan, and only a few Western RPG titles have been localized to Japanese.[Note 6] Further, RPGs were not the dominant genre on the most popular of the "seventh generation video game consoles, the "Nintendo Wii, although their presence among handheld systems such as the "Nintendo DS is considerably greater.
- The original Dragon Quest game is often cited as the first role-playing video game,["citation needed] though it borrows heavily from the "Wizardry and "Ultima series.["citation needed] Also, in spite of coming after it, Western audiences consider Final Fantasy "more important".
- This often gives an impression that JRPGs are similar to "adventure games.
- Though some argue this has not been the case outside of tactical RPGs, while others argue that combat systems in Japanese RPGs are too complex or lack accessibility.
- Though things like "downloadable content can stem piracy to some degree, and MMO and single-player RPGs may to some degree attract different audiences—and thus not interfere with each other financially.
- It should be noted, however, that review aggregation sites like GameRankings and Metacritic lack many reviews from older print magazines.
- For instance, "The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, which is the only Western RPG to have been awarded a near-perfect score by Japanese gaming magazine "Famitsu.
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- Loguidice & Barton 2009, p. 43: "Action-oriented RPGs were far more plentiful on consoles than computers. [...] Brenesal’s comment brings us to an important point regarding computer and console games: modern computers are far more likely to have mice and keyboards than game pads, a factor with serious implications for gameplay. Game pads are designed with arcade-like gameplay in mind; keyboards and mice are primarily intended for productivity."
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Last year also saw the coattail effect of traditional bestselling CRPGs being ported over onto dedicated game machines as the new market of machines blossomed into money trees. Games like Ultima, Shadowgate, and Defender of the Crown appeared to mixed reviews. These stalwarts of computer fame were not perceived, by many of the players, to be as exciting as the Japanese imports.
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Not long ago, I received a letter from a DRAGON® Magazine reader. This particular woman attacked the whole concept of cartridge-based role-playing games very vigorously, claiming that games such as Zelda are not role-playing at all. Presumably, she thinks they are arcade games. Zelda has some features of the classic arcade game: combat is direct. Each push of the button results in one swing of the sword, which if it connects, harms or kills an enemy. In standard computer roleplaying games, at least until recently, combat is more abstract. [...] But all that is changing. [...] Ultima VIII requires you not only to control your character's every move in combat, but also his dodging of enemy blows, whether he kicks or stabs, etc. [...] The two forms of play: "arcade" and "role-playing" seem to be mixing more and more in computer and cartridge games. We'll see how far this trend goes, but I suspect there will always be a place for a game which is totally cerebral in combat, instead of relying on reflexes. For every Zelda, or Secret of Mana, there'll be a Final Fantasy II or Lufia.
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Japanese publishers have been singing the "I Wan'na Be Like You (The Monkey Song)" song from The Jungle Book for the past few years and it's no longer flattering. Instead of borrowing elements and making them their own, the publishers have opted to assimilate and attempt to hide within the Western crowd. Herein lies the problem with Front Mission Evolved: It wants to be so much more than it has been in the past and ends up stalling at the starting line.
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- Vestal 1998a, p. "The First Console RPG" "A devoted gamer could make a decent case for either of these Atari titles founding the RPG genre; nevertheless, there's no denying that Dragon Quest was the primary catalyst for the Japanese console RPG industry. And Japan is where the vast majority of console RPGs come from, to this day. Influenced by the popular PC RPGs of the day (most notably Ultima), both Excalibur and Dragon Quest "stripped down" the statistics while keeping features that can be found even in today's most technologically advanced titles. An RPG just wouldn't be complete, in many gamers' eyes, without a medieval setting, hit points, random enemy encounters, and endless supplies of gold. (...) The rise of the Japanese RPG as a dominant gaming genre and Nintendo's NES as the dominant console platform were closely intertwined."
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The roots of tactical RPGs go back to tabletop role-playing games like Dungeons & Dragons and old-school wargames; in other words, the roots of gaming itself.
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It wasn't too long ago that I mentioned how difficult it is to get into tactical RPGs. It's an intimidating genre, what with all the grids and customization and names like Tactics Ogre. People are worried that they won't understand what's going on. That it'll be hard. That it'll be boring. So if you've made it past all those fears and you're ready to take the plunge, congratulations. You're a lot stronger than I was while contemplating Final Fantasy Tactics a decade ago. But people like you have also been asking me the same question, time and time again—where to start?
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Although the RPG has gained popularity in the US, its tactical offshoot, the strategy-RPG, has had a harder time gaining similar popularity.
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The tactical RPG genre may not be a chart-topper in the West, but hardcore followers of Japanese RPG specialists Nippon Ichi will be delighted to hear that the studio is bringing the latest instalment to its critically acclaimed series to PS3 next year.
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As the Tactical RPG genre has grown in recognition and popularity, it was inevitable that a few would manage to make their way to the handheld systems.
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Tactical RPGs have been gaining popularity in the United States since a PS1 game called Final Fantasy Tactics introduced a legion of gamers to its detail-oriented strategy. ... Although FFT is often praised for giving birth to the tactical RPG genre, that PS1 masterpiece would never have existed without this classic pair of Super NES ports.
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Final Fantasy Tactics did much the same thing for tactical RPGs that Final Fantasy VII did for the genre as a whole—made it more popular, more accessible, and more visible to the rest of the gaming world.
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Final Fantasy Tactics is being given a new lease of life on Game Boy Advance, and Capcom has plans to release an Onimusha Tactics title in the near future too.
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One of the absolute essentials from that era was X-COM: UFO Defense, which defined western tactical RPGs every bit as much as Fire Emblem did for strategy RPGs in the east. ... The crux of the game is efficiently defeating the aliens in turn-based combat, building up various bases, and outfitting soldiers with the latest and greatest equipment.
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The interesting wrinkle here is that when outside of battle, it's possible to explore the world in the same manner as any other RPG, and that's where Dragon Age Journeys has something in common with western tactical RPGs. The X-Coms of the world have always a great deal more freedom than even Valkyria Chronicles, and Dragon Age takes that one step further by offering actual dungeons to explore, rather than asking players to take on simple missions like 'kill everyone.'
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For Japan, the Famicom's Fire Emblem: Ankoku Ryu to Hikari is the archetype for the whole genre. Over the years, franchises like Tactics Ogre and Final Fantasy Tactics have offered unique twists and refinements, but the basic conceits have remained the same, with square-based grid being one of the subgenres most recognizable traits. Western SRPGs, however, have generally allowed for a bit more freedom of movement, with some like Freedom Force (and Dawn of War II, if you're willing to call it an SRPG) going real-time.
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The world of Paradise Cracked was largely influenced by such movies as Matrix, Blade Runner and Ghost in the Shell, as well as novels of Philip K. Dick and various other cyberpunk writers. It actually has one of the most interesting plots ever—but I won't give it away just yet. The game's genre can be called tactical RPG, drawing some of its best features from such games as X-Com, Jagged Alliance, Incubation and Fallout.
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When choosing a team to develop a project of this type and scale, it was obvious that we needed Russian developers, the same people that created games with similarities to Jagged Alliance 2, both in genre and the time setting. I'm referring to releases like "Silent Storm, Night Watch, Brigade E5 and others. Such projects have not been created in western countries for a long time, which can make development more difficult.
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Publishers run a mile from anything with turn-based mechanics—it is regarded as too niche. RTS games pretty much killed off turn-based strategy games in the mid-90s—but now even RTS games are regarded as niche. (...) Thanks to 'Advance Wars', 'Fire Emblem' and 'Final Fantasy Tactics' it seems turn-based games are not totally dead—at least for Nintendo handhelds.
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[pp. 10] The ancestors of MMORPGS were text-based multiuser domains (MUDs) [...] [pp. 291] Indeed, MUDs generate perhaps the one historical connection between game-based VR and the traditional program [...]
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Developers had long considered writing a graphical MUD. [...] the last major 2D virtual environment in the West marked the true beginning of the fifth age of MUDs: Origin Systems' 1997 Ultima Online (UO).
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Spawn camp affords an absolute position, controlling the game not by strategic action but through immobility—to the extent that popular games like EverQuest have come to be known as EverCamp.
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The core elements of a computer roleplaying game are pretty simple and straightforward. You basically have a task resolution system for an individual unit based on its statistics. Mix this with the ability to modify those stats through circumstances, equipment, spells, level increase or whatever. (...) Modern computer RPGs tend to be a bit more complex than this. (...) Hybrid RPG can emphasize some other element of gameplay that are FAR less development-intensive than pure roleplaying games. Thus they are cheaper and easier to make. Does this make them the "poor-man's RPG?" Meaning a poor / inexpensive substitution for the real thing? (...) Maybe.
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Deus Ex, often considered one of the best PC games ever made, is a FPS/RPG hybrid about uncovering an international conspiracy in a near-future, cyber-punk setting.
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How do you beat your own record? How do you out-do a one-of-a-kind FPS/RPG hybrid that met substantial critical acclaim and garnered praise from gamers across the board? Perhaps this is one question that Ion Storm shouldn't have asked, for while Deus Ex: Invisible war is a functional, and even enjoyable title on its own, it is a far cry from its predecessor, and bears several serious flaws that keep it from being anything other than a mediocre experience.
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In this Gamasutra analysis piece, Tom Cross looks at GSC Game World's S.T.A.L.K.E.R: Clear Sky and its odd combination of FPS, RPG and tower defense game, examining the art of gameplay hybrids.
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Back in late 2001 we got our first look at an impressive game called Oblivion Lost, then a squad-based action game from GSC Game World. In 2007 the title that we now know as S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl finally released, plunging players into a survival-FPS-RPG hybrid and the post-apocalyptic wasteland surrounding the Chernobyl power plant after its meltdown.
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SpellForce is making the future of hybrid genre games look very positive indeed. (...) However, I do have a penchant for armies of minions doing my bidding and I do enjoy RPG elements in a game, which is why I was quite interested in the release of Phenomic's SpellForce, an RPG/RTS hybrid.
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