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Rooftop PV systems around the world: "Chicago, United States (top-right), "Berlin, Germany (middle) and "Kuppam, India (bottom-right)

A rooftop photovoltaic power station, or rooftop PV system, is a "photovoltaic system that has its "electricity-generating "solar panels mounted on the rooftop of a residential or commercial building or structure.[1] The various components of such a system include "photovoltaic modules, "mounting systems, "cables, "solar inverters and other electrical accessories.[2]

Rooftop mounted systems are small compared to ground-mounted "photovoltaic power stations with capacities in the "megawatt range. Rooftop PV systems on residential buildings typically feature a capacity of about 5 to 20 "kilowatts (kW), while those mounted on commercial buildings often reach 100 kilowatts or more.

Contents

Installation[edit]

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Rooftop PV systems at "Googleplex, "California

The urban environment provides a large amount of empty rooftop spaces and can inherently avoid the potential land use and environmental concerns. Estimating rooftop solar insolation is a multi-faceted process, as insolation values in rooftops are impacted by the following:

There are various methods for calculating potential solar PV roof systems including the use of "Lidar[4] and orthophotos.[5] Sophisticated models can even determine shading losses over large areas for PV deployment at the municipal level.[6]

Feed-in tariff mechanism[edit]

In a "grid connected rooftop photovoltaic power station, the generated electricity can sometimes be sold to the servicing electric utility for use elsewhere in the grid. This arrangement provides payback for the investment of the installer. Many consumers from across the world are switching to this mechanism owing to the revenue yielded. A public utility commission usually sets the rate that the utility pays for this electricity, which could be at the retail rate or the lower wholesale rate, greatly affecting solar power payback and installation demand.

The FIT as it is commonly known has led to an expansion in the solar PV industry worldwide. Thousands of jobs have been created through this form of subsidy. However it can produce a bubble effect which can burst when the FIT is removed. It has also increased the ability for localised production and embedded generation reducing transmission losses through power lines.[2]

Hybrid systems[edit]

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Rooftop PV hybrid system.

A rooftop photovoltaic power station (either on-grid or off-grid) can be used in conjunction with other power components like "diesel generators, "wind turbines, batteries etc. These "solar hybrid power systems may be capable of providing a continuous source of power.[2]

Advantages[edit]

Installers have the right to feed solar electricity into the public grid and hence receive a reasonable premium tariff per generated kWh reflecting the benefits of solar electricity to compensate for the current extra costs of PV electricity.[2]

Disadvantages[edit]

An electrical power system containing a 10% contribution from PV stations would require a 2.5% increase in load frequency control (LFC) capacity over a conventional system["Jargon] - in issue which may be countered by using "synchronverters in the DC/AC-circuit of the PV system. The break-even cost for PV power generation was in 1996 found to be relatively high for contribution levels of less than 10%. Higher proportions of PV power generation gives lower "break-even costs, but economic and LFC considerations imposed an upper limit of about 10% on PV contributions to the overall power systems.[7]

Technical Challenges[edit]

There are many technical challenges to integrating large amounts of rooftop PV systems to the power grid. For example:

The electric power grid was not designed for two way power flow at the distribution level. Distribution feeders are usually designed as a radial system for one way power flow transmitted over long distances from large centralized generators to customer loads at the end of the distribution feeder. Now with localized and distributed solar PV generation on rooftops, reverse flow causes power to flow to the substation and transformer, causing significant challenges. This has adverse effects on protection coordination and voltage regulators.
Rapid fluctuations of generation from PV systems due to intermittent clouds cause undesirable levels of voltage variability in the distribution feeder. At high penetration of rooftop PV, this voltage variability reduces the stability of the grid due to transient imbalance in load and generation and causes voltage and frequency to exceed set limits if not countered by power controls. That is, the centralized generators cannot "ramp fast enough to match the variability of the PV systems causing frequency mismatch in the nearby system. This could lead to blackouts. This is an example of how a simple localized rooftop PV system can affect the larger power grid. The issue is partially mitigated by distributing solar panels over a wide area, and by adding "storage.

Cost[edit]

Residential PV system prices (2013)
Country Cost ($/W)
"Australia 1.8
"China 1.5
"France 4.1
"Germany 2.4
"Italy 2.8
"Japan 4.2
"United Kingdom 2.8
"United States 4.9
For residential PV systems in 2013[8]:15
Commercial PV system prices (2013)
Country Cost ($/W)
"Australia 1.7
"China 1.4
"France 2.7
"Germany 1.8
"Italy 1.9
"Japan 3.6
"United Kingdom 2.4
"United States 4.5
For commercial PV systems in 2013[8]:15

In the mid-2000s, solar companies used various financing plans for customers such as leases and power purchase agreements. Customers could pay for their solar panels over a span of years, and get help with payments from credits from net metering programs. As of May 2017, installation of a rooftop solar system costs an average of $20,000. In the past, it was more expensive.[9]

Utility Dive wrote, "For most people, adding a solar system on top of other bills and priorities is a luxury" and "rooftop solar companies by and large cater to the wealthier portions of the American population."[9]

Most households that get solar arrays are "upper middle-income". The average household salary for solar customers is around $100,000.[9]

However, "a surprising amount of low-income" customers appeared in a study of income and solar system purchases. "Based on the findings of the study, GTM researchers estimate that the four solar markets include more than 100,000 installations at low-income properties."[9]

Future prospects[edit]

The "Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission of the "Indian government is planning to install utility scale grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems including rooftop photovoltaic systems with the combined capacity of up to 100 gigawatts by 2022.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Armstrong, Robert (12 November 2014). "The Case for Solar Energy Parking Lots". Absolute Steel. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Photovoltaic power generation in the buildings. Building integrated photovoltaic–BIPV" (PDF). bef-de.org. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  3. ^ "Energy Resources and Resource Criteria". greenip.org. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  4. ^ Ha T. Nguyen, Joshua M. Pearce, Rob Harrap, and Gerald Barber, "The Application of LiDAR to Assessment of Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Deployment Potential on a Municipal District Unit", Sensors, 12, pp. 4534-4558 (2012).
  5. ^ L.K. Wiginton, H. T. Nguyen, J.M. Pearce, "Quantifying Solar Photovoltaic Potential on a Large Scale for Renewable Energy Regional Policy", Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 34, (2010) pp. 345-357. [1]Open access
  6. ^ Nguyen, Ha T.; Pearce, Joshua M. (2012). "Incorporating shading losses in solar photovoltaic potential assessment at the municipal scale". Solar Energy. 86 (5): 1245–1260. "doi:10.1016/j.solener.2012.01.017. 
  7. ^ Asano, H.; Yajima, K.; Kaya, Y. (Mar 1996). "Influence of photovoltaic power generation on required capacity for load frequency control". IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. IEEE Power & Energy Society. 11 (1): 188–193. "doi:10.1109/60.486595. "ISSN 0885-8969. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  8. ^ a b http://www.iea.org (2014). "Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy" (PDF). IEA. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c d Shallenberger, Krysti (2017-04-27). "Is rooftop solar just a toy for the wealthy?". Utility Dive. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  10. ^ "POWER TO THE PEOPLE-Investing in Clean Energy for the Base of the Pyramid in India" (PDF). pdf.wri.org. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
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